SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.21 número1The reasonable accommodation of employees with cancer and their right to privacy in the workplacePreserving the integrity of medical-related information - How "informed" is consent? índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
Home Pagelista alfabética de revistas  

Servicios Personalizados

Articulo

Indicadores

Links relacionados

  • En proceso de indezaciónCitado por Google
  • En proceso de indezaciónSimilares en Google

Compartir


PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad

versión On-line ISSN 1727-3781

PER vol.21 no.1 Potchefstroom  2018

http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/1727-3781/2018/v21i0a4308 

ARTICLES

 

African organic product standards for the African continent? Prospects and limitations

 

 

Odile Juliette Lim Tung*

University of the Witwatersrand South Africa. Email ojltmru@gmail.com

 

 


ABSTRACT

Organic agriculture is a sustainable agricultural system with high environmental protection and animal welfare. In 2015, the world organic agriculture covered 50.9 million hectares with Oceania as the biggest regional producer with 22.8 million hectares and Africa as the least regional producer (1.7 million hectares). While organic agriculture may not be the only solution for African farming, it aligns with sustainable economic development and does not involve chemical inputs. Whereas there are different private standards, not all African countries have national organic standards and there are no pan-African organic standards. This paper discusses the need to address the proliferation of organic standards as a trade barrier through pan-African organic standards and inspire the development of harmonised domestic standards. It examines the prospects for pan-African organic standards, their limitations and makes recommendations for the making, the contents and implementation of such standards domestically and national measures to support African organic agriculture.

Keywords: Organic agriculture; certification; pan-African organic product standards; private organic standards; national organic regulation.


 

 

1 Introduction

One of Africa's biggest challenges is to feed its 1.2 billion population with worsening effects of climate change, effects of globalisation and rising food prices.1 Feeding Africa's rapidly growing population will require sustainable agricultural systems which provide food as well as economic value.2Conventional and high-intensity agricultural systems while being highly productive have a price tag with non-renewable external inputs associated with greenhouse gas emissions that adversely impact on climate change, soil fertility and ecosystems.3 In contrast, green agricultural practices use sustainable agricultural techniques which potentially avoid additional costs that may arise as a consequence of unsustainable practices.4 Adopting a sustainable agricultural system is of utmost importance for Africa which is said to have more than 500 million hectares of degraded arable land.5

Organic production as a green agricultural practice, targets the development of a sustainable cultivation system based on environmental protection and high standards of animal protection.6 Organic agriculture is a relevant tool to advance the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) on sustainable agriculture, sustainable consumption and production, climate change and ecosystems adopted under the aegis of the United Nations (UN) in view of the "2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development".7 In 2015, the world organic agriculture covered 50.9 million hectares with Oceania as the biggest regional producer (22.8 million hectares) and Africa as the least regional producer (with an estimated 1.7 million hectares).8 Africa as the smallest world producer of organic products has certified organic farms for national and export markets albeit a more important share of informal organic farms for subsistence and local markets.9 Due to consumer preferences in developed countries, there is an increasing demand for organic products10 and there is potential for the growth of organic agriculture in Africa.11 Organic markets nonetheless demand high quality products and farmers need to meet certification requirements.

Whereas there is no international treaty to regulate organic agriculture, the following guidelines provide guidance for standards regarding the production and marketing of organically produced foods. The Codex Alimentarius Commission Guidelines for the Production, Processing, Labelling and Marketing of Organically Produced Foods12 (hereafter the "Codex Alimentarius Guidelines") were developed to facilitate the harmonisation of requirements for such products at the international level and assist in drafting national organic standards.13 The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)-United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Best Practices for Organic Policy14 and the Organic Equivalence Tools15 also serve as international guidelines. Apart from such voluntary international guidelines regarding organically produced foods, there are private organic standards drafted by private certification agencies16 worldwide as well as organic standards in more than 60 countries.17

The main regional organic standards are currently the European Union (EU) organic standards,18 the East African Organic Product Standards19 (EAOPS), the Pacific Organic Standard20 (POS) and the Asia Regional Organic Standard21 (AROS). The EAOPS represent the first multi-country organic standards in Africa harmonising existing organic standards and practices for five African States.22 An African Organic Agriculture Training manual developed by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movement (IFOAM) and African Organic Agriculture Movements23 aims at delivery of best farming practices to farmers and related workers. Pan-African organic standards are yet to be developed. Since not all African countries have national organic standards, there is inadequate regulation of organic products in the African continent.24

Available literature discusses potential routes of development for African agriculture,25 organic agriculture and its impacts on the environment26 and food security,27 and the development of African standards for biotechnological products28 but no literature is available on the development of pan-African organic standards. After a brief overview of organic agriculture in Africa, this paper discusses the need to address the proliferation of organic standards as a trade barrier through pan-African organic standards which may inspire the development of harmonised organic standards in African States. It examines the prospects of developing such organic standards drawing inspiration from the EAOPS and other regional organic standards as an African Union (AU)-led initiative in collaboration with international partners. It identifies the limitations of such organic standards and makes recommendations regarding the making, the contents and implementation of pan-African organic standards as well as national measures to support organic agriculture in African States.

 

2 Background on organic agriculture in Africa

Africa currently produces organic food and non-food organic products29focusing mainly on the cultivation of olives (Northern Africa), coffee, cotton, cocoa and palm oil (sub-Saharan Africa) with the EU as the main destination for certified organic products.30 Although Africa is the least regional producer of certified organic products, it has a more important share of informal or non-certified organic farms which are mainly for subsistence and local markets.31Due to the lack of an official organic agriculture data collection in many African countries, certified organic production in Africa can only be approximately estimated.32 In 2011, Africa's certified organic agricultural land area was estimated at over one million hectares while 16.4 million hectares of land were organic beekeeping, forest and wild collection areas.33 Africa had an estimated 1.7 million hectares34 under organic agriculture in 2015 with Tunisia (400,000 hectares), Tanzania (268,729 hectares), Uganda (241,150 hectares) and Ethiopia (186,155 hectares)35 as the biggest African organic producers.

Informal organic farms represent an important part of African farming. For instance, in South Africa, informal organic farming by small and subsistence producers is said to feed two-thirds of the population.36 In Nigeria, 60 to 70 per cent of farmers are traditional rural farmers producing uncertified organic foods without synthetic inputs.37 The following viewpoints regarding organic agriculture are prevalent in Africa. Much of African agricultural production is perceived as de facto organic since African farmers are often unable to purchase synthetic inputs.38 Organic product standards tend to be considered as designed for the developed world and may not necessarily be appropriate for the developing world.39 Applying foreign organic standards and certification to Africa's organic agriculture is considered by some as a form of "colonisation" of trade.40 Yet it is necessary for farmers from the developing world to comply with high-value market rules if they wish to access international organic markets with a price premium.41

Although the price premium on certified organic products may vary depending on the commodity or the market,42 there are opportunities for African farmers to produce organic fruits and vegetables that cannot be grown (or are out of season) in Europe or North America. In 2002 the world organic agricultural land area covered 24 million hectares with a total sale of US$23 billion, reaching 50.9 million hectares in 2015 with a total sale value of $81.6 billion.43The potential for Africa to invest in organic agriculture with better access to export markets can be illustrated by the Ugandan experience44 which transformed some of its conventional agricultural production into organic farming between 2002 and 2007. Empirical literature on the economic sustainability of certified export crops in Africa found that organic certification standards that enhance yields are important for improving farm revenues and household welfare.45 The export potential of African organic agriculture can also be illustrated by the increase of regional trade for organic products for the East African Community (EAC) through the East Africa Export Programme (EAEP) from $4.6 million in 2002/2003 to $35 million in 2009/2010.46 Export markets are currently regarded as the main destination of most certified African organic production.47

While organic agriculture may not be the only solution for African farming, it arguably brings potential environmental benefits,48 health benefits,49 improved food security50 and is closer to African traditional farming than intensive industrialised agricultural systems.51 Boosting organic agriculture in Africa together with better regulation of organic food production may arguably help Africa to confront its agricultural challenges and benefit farmers with better access to premium markets for certified organic products.52 Whereas there are different private standards,53 not all African countries have national organic standards and there are currently no pan-African organic standards. The certified organic product sector in Africa being currently driven by private standards,54 the following section discusses the need for pan-African organic standards to address the proliferation of different private standards and inspire national organic standards in African States with harmonised standards.

 

3 The need for African organic product standards

While the certification of organic products with a price premium is based on organic standards, not all African countries have national organic standards55and there are currently no regional organic standards56 at a pan-African level. In practice, most of the certified organic production in Africa is certified according to the EU regulatory framework for organic products whereas other producers are certified according to the United States (US) standards or the Japan Agriculture Standards (JAS).57 There are nonetheless different voluntary private standards for sustainable agricultural systems and it is mainly the private sector which undertakes the certification of organic claims in Africa.58Consequently African farmers wishing to start organic agriculture strive to comply with different requirements to access regional or international markets. Complying with one standard may lead to exclusion from other markets and this constrains the organic market development in Africa.

Given the existence of different private standards and current lack of regulation of organic products in Africa, would it suffice to only encourage the development of domestic organic regulation in African countries? Encouraging African States to enact organic standards may give rise to different standards across the continent.59 In contrast, developing pan-African organic standards and then encouraging national organic standards aligned with African standards appears to be a better solution for the current inadequate organic regulation. The need for pan-African organic standards seems justified considering the following. First, pan-African organic standards that are consistent with international standards would be useful in inspiring harmonised African national organic standards. Second, pan-African organic standards would allow African countries to define organic standards that are more relevant to specific climatic, agroecological and developing country conditions.60 Third, pan-African organic standards would allow Africa to have a unified negotiating position in regional and international organic markets.61

While organic agriculture may not be the only solution for African farming, it aligns with sustainable economic development and may be a trade corridor for African communities for better market access for certified organic products. Developing pan-African organic standards and then encouraging national organic standards aligned with African standards appears to be a better solution for the current inadequate organic regulation. It is necessary to examine the prospects for African organic standards.

 

4 Prospects for African organic product standards

This sub-section analyses the prospects of developing African organic standards drawing inspiration from the EAOPS in particular and other regional organic standards to some extent, to make recommendations for African organic standards. It argues for the development of pan-African organic standards as an AU-led initiative in collaboration with international partners.

4.1 Mirroring the East African organic product standards experience

The 2007 EAOPS as the first multi-country organic standards in Africa represents efforts to develop standards for five East African countries while harmonising existing organic standards and practices.62 When the initiative for East African organic standards was launched in 2005, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda already had different organic standards while several other private organic standards were applicable in the region.63 These different standards posed significant problems for local organic farmers having to meet different requirements to access regional or international markets.64 The EAOPS as harmonised organic standards for East African countries could inspire the development of pan-African organic standards in their making and their contents.65

Similar to the making of the EAOPS, African organic standards would need a multi-stakeholder process involving consultations with governments, the private sector and international partners.66 Like the EAOPS' development process, a comparison of existing national standards in Africa and an assessment of their main similarities and differences would be necessary for the African organic standards' development process.67 A pan-African public-private sector working group would also be required to work on technical aspects of the organic standards.68 While the EAOPS were developed for five East African States in two years (2005-2007), pan-African organic standards for 54 African States would take more time and more regional workshops as well as national consultations.69 Similar to the EAOPS needing the approval of the main regional authority (the EAC Council) to be applicable in the region, pan-African organic standards would need the approval of the main pan-African organisation (the AU) to be applicable in the African region.70 The African continent would also need to set up a regional working group or entity to ensure the implementation of pan-African organic standards in African States.71

Similar to the contents of the EAOPS, it is important for African organic standards to include organic rules of production regarding plants, animal husbandry, beekeeping, wild products collection but also aquaculture.72Conversion requirements for land,73 crops,74 animals75 and beekeeping76 are necessary so that the integrity of an organic farm is not compromised by nonorganic operations undertaken on the same farm. Like the EAOPS, pan-African organic standards would need to prescribe a duty of care for organic operators with respect to biodiversity throughout the farm holding.77 Culturally or legally protected primary ecosystems should not be cleared to establish agriculture including organic agriculture.78 As in the EAOPS, the regulation of wild harvested organic products should be included in pan-African organic standards considering that Africa has an important share of wild collection areas.79 Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) or their derivatives should not be used or introduced through negligence or oversight.80 Similar to the EAOPS, the setting up of buffer zones as a clearly defined and identifiable boundary area bordering an organic production site and adjacent areas need to be established to avoid contact with prohibited substances.81 It is important that pan-African organic standards such as the EAOPS require that animals be fed with 100 per cent organic feed and no use of synthetic growth promoters and antibiotics.82 Social justice provisions are also important in African organic standards similar to the EAOPS.83 Common labelling requirements for African organic products should be required with a common African organic label and a non-organic ingredients' threshold.84 Similar to the EAOPS, African organic standards should have duties for operators regarding relevant precautionary measures to avoid the contamination of organic sites and products.85 The integrity of organic products should be maintained throughout the phases of post-harvest handling, storage, processing and transport. Like the EAOPS, African organic standards should target the establishment of national and regional markets with standards suited for developing world conditions.86Together with the EAEP, the EAOPS has been pivotal in promoting organic agriculture in national trade strategies and raising regional organic exports.87African organic standards could mirror the EAOPS experience as discussed above with a wider African scope while drawing inspiration from other regional organic standards.

4.2 Inspiration from other regional organic product standards

At the regional level, the EU organic standards,88 the POS and the AROS89could also inspire African organic standards to some extent. The following subsections provide a summary of different aspects of the above regional organic standards which African organic standards could draw on.

4.2.1 The European Union organic food and farming standards

Organic food and farming in the EU is regulated mainly by the Council Regulation (EC) 834/2007 on organic production and labelling (thereafter the "EC Regulation 834/2007") which represents a simplified and improved version of the first European organic standards.90 Currently, Tunisia is the only African State which the EU recognises as having organic production rules and control systems as equivalent under EU respective rules.91 Other African States have individual control bodies or organic certifiers that are EU-listed,92provided such control bodies or certifiers demonstrate that their standards and control procedures are accredited as equivalent to the EU system.

African organic standards would gain by being aligned with the EU organic standards since the EU remains the leading export partner for African countries. In addition to the EAOPS rules of production,93 pan-African organic standards could cover EU rules of production for organic feed and processed organic feed,94 collection of seaweeds,95 aquaculture.96 Importantly, in order to maintain access to the EU organic market, African organic standards should prohibit the use of GMOs, products produced from or by GMOs97 as well as growth promoters.98 Pan-African organic standards could also adopt a common African logo for organic products similar to the EU99 while allowing established logos used by African countries.100 Moreover, the EU organic framework requires enforcement of its standards by its Member States including an inspection process supervised by national competent authorities.101 However pan-African organic standards would be expected to be voluntary in Africa with each African State setting up its own national competent authority with an inspection system for organic products.102 Even with African organic standards, African States would still have the choice to become an EU-listed equivalent third country for organic products or support the development of EU-listed individual control bodies or organic certifiers as indicated above. In the longer term with pan-African organic standards implemented domestically, African States would need to enable any certified organic product with documented evidence in line with the African organic standards to circulate freely within the AU as a certified organic product.103

4.2.2 The Pacific organic standard

Oceania as indicated earlier is the biggest regional organic producer with its regional organic standards (POS) adapted to the local conditions of Oceania and aligned with international guidelines on organic products.104 In 2008, such standards were developed for this region by a multi-stakeholder partnership with government agencies, the private sector and the IFOAM.105 Importantly the main regional organisation for this region, the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) had an active role in assisting the development of the Pacific standards with funds provided by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).106 The involvement of the main regional organisation of a region in the development process of regional organic standards arguably facilitates the adoption or endorsement of such standards in their final state. While the Pacific organic standards are similar to the EAOPS in their making and contents,107 their provisions on the protection on soil and water resources,108 as well as freshwater and seawater aquaculture109 could inspire African organic standards, particularly for African coastal States. Similar to the Pacific standards, African organic standards would be expected not to cover conformity assessment procedures with locally appropriate organic guarantee systems for national markets.110

4.2.3 The Asia regional organic standards

In Asia, the AROS represent more recent regional organic standards which could inspire African organic standards in their making and their purposes. Content-wise, the AROS may not be as inspiring as the EAOPS for African organic standards since they cover mainly plant production, collection of wild products and the processing and labelling of products derived therefrom.111Unlike Africa, the Asian region is home to ten per cent of the world organic agricultural land and hosts a range of organic sector development scenarios from early development to highly regulated.112 The AROS were birthed through a public-private partnership of stakeholders in East, South-East and South Asia under the auspices of the Global Organic Market Access project and international partners (FAO, UNCTAD and IFOAM).113 An International Task Force (ITF) on Harmonization and Equivalence in Organic Agriculture was set up by the FAO, IFOAM and UNCTAD drawing together 28 governments, intergovernmental organisations and the private sector from 2002 to 2008.114Likewise, Africa would need a regional task force with a highly inclusive public-private partnership of stakeholders to assess the situation and explore solutions regarding organic agriculture development in this region.115 Similar to the AROS, the main purpose of African organic standards would be to address barriers to organic trade arising from the proliferation of organic standards.116African organic standards would also not be expected to cover procedures for verification of products similar to the AROS.117 A follow-up of the implementation of African organic standards would be necessary as undertaken by the international partners (FAO, UNCTAD and IFOAM) for the AROS from 2009-2012 to continue the aims of harmonisation and equivalence.118 Like the AROS, African organic standards would gain by facilitating equivalence among organic standards in the region and certification programmes within and beyond the African region119 and being aligned with international guidelines.120

Both the EAOPS121 and the AROS122 were developed as voluntary regional standards by international partners whereas the EU organic standards were developed by the EU authorities as regulations with binding effect for States Members.123 The EAOPS were adopted at the regional level by the EAC Council124 however there is no regional organisation representing all the countries of the East, South and South-East of Asia.125 The development of the Pacific standards as voluntary regional standards with the assistance of the main regional organisation (the SPC) and international partners (IFOAM and IFAD) facilitated its adoption by the SPC in its final state.126 Involving the main regional organisation in the development of regional organic standards may facilitate the adoption or endorsement of such standards in their final state by such an organisation.127

4.3 An African Union-led initiative with international partners

Since pan-African organic standards will be required to be adopted or endorsed by the main regional organisation (the AU) to be applicable on the continent once they are developed, it is arguably better to involve the AU in the development of such standards since the beginning. Perhaps the AU as the main African regional organisation representing 54 African States in view of better regional cooperation128 could take the leadership for the development of African organic standards. The AU Department for Rural Economy and Agriculture (DREA) provides leadership to agriculture in Africa and has already taken the following major steps in promoting sustainable farming systems in Africa. The 2003 Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme129 (CAADP) has been Africa's major policy framework for agricultural transformation supporting sustainable agricultural systems as an AU initiative and the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD). African Heads of State also took several important decisions regarding agriculture under the "Maputo Declaration on Agriculture and Food Security" with the commitment to allocate at least ten per cent of national budgets to agricultural development.130 In 2010, the AU Agriculture Ministers decided to promote sustainable organic farming systems in their respective countries while the AU Executive Council endorsed the objective to promote organic agriculture in Africa in 2011.131 The AU Commission and its NEPAD Planning and Coordinating Agency were requested to initiate and provide guidance for an AU-led coalition of international partners on the development of an African organic farming platform and sustainable organic farming systems.132 The above decisions by African States supporting organic farming also led to the birthing of the Ecological Organic Agriculture (EOA) Action Plan 2011-2025 and EOA Initiative (2015-2025) under the aegis of the AU.133 The EOA Initiative (2015-2025) takes into account ongoing agroecological initiatives in Africa to address food insecurity and environmental issues complementing the continental efforts spearheaded by the DREA and the CAADP of the AU Commission.134 Four countries in Eastern Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania) and four in West Africa (Mali, Nigeria, Benin and Senegal) are currently implementing this initiative with the efforts of National Organic Agriculture Movements (NOAMs).135 African leaders committed themselves to promote agriculture including ecological organic agriculture which will bolster the AU Commission's targets for the next decade.136 Apart from the above AU-led initiatives for the promotion of organic agriculture, there are other such initiatives by private sector organisations and international organisations.137However the AU as the main pan-African organisation already engaged in providing leadership to sustainable agriculture in Africa could arguably lead the African continent to develop regional organic standards in collaboration with African sub-regional organisations and international partners.138

As discussed above, African organic standards could be inspired in their development process, their contents and their implementation by the EAOPS in particular and other regional organic standards (to some extent) in line with international guidelines.139 After having examined the prospects of developing African organic standards, the following sub-section analyses the potential limitations to such regional standards.

 

5 Limitations of African organic product standards

The regulation of organic agriculture in African States is necessary to harmonise national organic standards and ensure the credibility of organic products brought to the market. As discussed in the previous sections, African organic standards would be an important step for the African organic sector bringing harmonised standards across Africa while inspiring national organic standards. However there would likely be limitations to overcome, such as implementation issues regarding African organic standards, high certification costs and low domestic certification capacities.

5.1 Implementation issues regarding African organic product standards

African organic standards would set harmonised standards across Africa provided African States take necessary measures to implement such standards domestically. Main implementation issues that could be identified are political will by African Heads of State to engage with a timely implementation process, adequate financial resources to domesticate African organic standards and necessary institutional support.

The development of African organic standards targeting 54 African States140would require well over a decade to come into existence and its implementation in respective African States, another decade or so. The EU organic regulation dates back to 1991 with several amendments over the past four decades currently fully implemented in its 28 States whereas the AROS targeting 28 Asian States were developed within a decade.141 Not only would the political will and cooperation of African leaders to implement such standards domestically be needed but also the cooperation of national organic movements and the private sector. As stated earlier, organic agriculture is driven by the private sector and the drafting of national organic standards would require private sector cooperation.142 A close follow-up regarding the implementation of the African organic standards in African States would also be necessary.143 African leaders are resolved to revitalize the agricultural sector, however adequate financial resources are necessary to ensure such progress.144 Despite African leaders reaffirming their strong political commitment to promote agricultural development under the 2014 "Malabo Declaration", Africa faces major challenges in terms of investment and access to finance.145

5.2 High certification costs and low domestic certification capacity

Even if African organic standards should come into existence and harmonised domestic organic standards be implemented in African States, there would still be high certification costs for organic products. Third-party certification, considered as the most authentic and internationally recognized means of organic quality assurance is essential for export to the EU and the US.146Organic product certifications may require considerable transition costs, recordkeeping and traceability that may elicit a price premium.147 The transition to organic production may take time before costs can be recouped.148 The high costs involved in the certification of organic products by the private sector are a major barrier for the development of the African organic sector.149

Not only is it costly to certify organic products by foreign certification agencies, there are also insufficient domestic certification capacities for such products in Africa.150 The absence of local certification and inspection capacity is a critical bottleneck that needs to be overcome to develop the potential of African organic exports. The control of organic production will remain driven by the private sector unless African States provide State support in collaboration with the private sector to enable the development of domestic certification capacity.151

After having examined the prospects and limitations regarding African organic standards, the following sub-section makes recommendations for the making, the contents and implementation of pan-African organic standards. Recommendations also address limitations identified with respect to pan-African organic standards as well as the domestic regulation and support of organic agriculture in African States.

 

6 Recommendations

Pan-African organic standards are necessary to address barriers to organic trade arising from a proliferation of organic standards in the region152 and funding opportunities for the development of pan-African organic standards needs to be sought through international partners. Main recommendations in this paper target the development process, the contents and the implementation of pan-African organic standards as well as other steps to be taken by African States domestically to support organic agriculture.

Regarding the development process of pan-African organic standards, the AU as the main pan-African regional organisation could either initiate this process in collaboration with sub-regional organisations and international partners or could be involved in this process as discussed earlier.153 The setting up of a regional task force is necessary to take stock of existing regulation of organic agriculture and main issues regarding organic agriculture in the African region. A highly inclusive public-private consultation and participation is required for the development process of pan-African organic standards so that local practices aligned with organic agriculture may be included in such standards.154Existing standards such as the EAOPS and the national standards of the biggest African organic producers must be taken into consideration in drafting pan-African organic standards.155 Main issues identified and recommendations made by the regional task force need to be discussed at sub-regional workshops with a view to compiling a draft of the pan-African organic standards. This draft needs to be finalised at regional workshops with multi-stakeholder participation involved at the development process level.

Regarding the contents of African organic standards, the contents of the EAOPS could serve as a basis while additional aspects covered in other regional standards as discussed in this paper could be included.156 African organic standards need to cover main organic rules for crops, animal husbandry, beekeeping, the collection of wild products, freshwater and seawater aquaculture, processing and labelling of such products. Common requirements to employ long-term, ecological, systems-based organic management and ensure long-term biologically-based soil fertility are important for the African continent. In order to respect local biodiversity, the choice of crop species and varieties would need to be based on their adaptation to local conditions as well as pests and diseases. Common labelling requirements with a common organic label and a non-organic ingredients' threshold to regulate the use of organic labels are also necessary at a pan-African level.157 Organic stock farming should respect high animal welfare standards with specific behavioural needs and animal health management. Social justice provisions are also important in African organic standards.158 To ensure that the integrity of an organic farm unit is not compromised by the management of non-organic operations undertaken on the same farm, conversion requirements should be included in African organic standards.159Similar to the EAOPS, the POS and the AROS, African organic product standards would need to adapt to changing knowledge, production and market conditions.160 Pan-African organic standards need to be adapted to African local practices and be consistent with international guidelines on organic products.161 African organic products could also be marketed in combination with fair-trade labelling162 however fair-trade labelling would add costs to the certification of such African organic products.163

Pan-African organic standards would serve as a basis for the development of national organic standards and stimulate harmonisation where there are existing standards and practices.164 Regional cooperation among African States as well as national organic movements would also be required to facilitate equivalence of African certified organic products and promote regional organic trade. National organic agriculture movements should be encouraged to interact through regular annual meetings and sharing of information through multimedia. A regular inventory of certified and informal organic farms in Africa is also recommended with information provided by African States and the private sector.

The coming into existence of pan-African organic standards would be a major step for organic agriculture in the continent but other steps would also be required by African States. In addition to the AU and international partners assisting in the development of African organic standards, African governments would also need to implement such standards, provide adequate institutional support and coordination to promote organic agriculture. A pan-African working group is recommended to follow up on implementation issues in different African States. Not only domestic organic standards based on African organic standards are necessary but also national organic policies and a State-supported infrastructure to implement them.

African States need to set national benchmarks for organic rules of production based on African organic standards to bring official recognition to local organic production and credibility to African producers for the export market. National organic standards enacted as legislation are recommended to regulate the coexistence between non-organic agriculture and organic agriculture, the setting up of a non-organic threshold as well as the control of organic products.165 It is important that African States set up a domestic inspection system for organic production with sanctions in the case of an infringement, misrepresentation or misuse of the "organic" claim. It is highly recommended that African States regulate organic agriculture based on pan-African organic standards in collaboration with the private sector.166

To address the challenge of high certification costs for organic products and low domestic certification capacities, the following recommendations are important for African States. First, affordable types of guarantee systems (such as the network guarantee system167 and the participatory guarantee system168(PGS)) should be allowed for local markets in African States. However such alternative guarantee systems for organic products do not necessarily bring "organic certification" and the same price premiums as products certified by third-party certification. Second, African States need to strengthen domestic certification capacities for organic products. To that effect, a State accreditation system for local certification bodies in partnership with private certification bodies is recommended.169 East African States are considering accessible solutions for local organic markets, e.g. direct sales based on trust, local certification bodies and participatory systems.170

National organic policies for African countries in collaboration with the private sector will also be useful to grow domestic capacity for such farming and achieve long-term sustainability of organic production systems in Africa.171 With many smallholders in Africa, the typical supply chain is often made up by a private enterprise organising smallholders as outgrowers to secure sufficient quantities for export or farmers working together on one supply project.172Small farmers require long-term intensive support to succeed, organic farming training, business and managerial training, contract farming and institutionbuilding support.173 Smallholder participation could be facilitated by training producer groups174 organised according to commodity lines such as cocoa, cassava, fruits and so forth. State support could comprise export facilitation (eg trade fairs), State-backed loans, subsidies for the conversion of farmland and research grants.175 Organic agriculture could be promoted by small-scale intervention within village communities or large-scale intervention including model pilot projects organised in strategic locations in different African States.176 African States also need to find solutions to help the sourcing of appropriate inputs such as organic seeds, bio-fertilizers and bio-pesticides which represent a main challenge in the promotion of organic agriculture.177

 

7 Conclusion

Along with potential environmental, health and socio-economic benefits, better access to premium markets for the export of organic products are the main drivers for the development of organic agriculture in Africa.178 As discussed in this paper, there are different private organic standards and a lack of regulation at African States' level with no pan-African organic standards. African farmers wishing to start organic agriculture currently strive to comply with different requirements based on private standards to access regional or international markets. This paper discusses the need to address the proliferation of different standards through pan-African organic standards which may inspire national organic standards with harmonised standards.

African organic standards would constitute a major step to bring harmonised organic standards and inspire national organic standards in African States. Such pan-African standards could be developed through an AU-led initiative with international partners, inspired by other regional organic standards as discussed in this paper and in line with international standards. However even if African organic standards were to come into existence, there would likely be limitations such as a timely implementation of such standards in African States, high certification costs and low domestic certification capacities. African governments would not only need to implement such regional standards but also provide adequate institutional support to promote organic agriculture. Besides third-party certification for the export of organic products, other affordable guarantee systems such as the network guarantee system and the participatory guarantee system should be allowed for local markets. State regulation of organic agriculture in African States with a public-private partnership approach for certification practices in collaboration with international certification bodies is also highly recommended.179

Whereas organic farming may not be the only solution for African farming, it is recommended to give an edge to African farming without heavy industrialisation of agriculture and external inputs. Certified organic production is a trade corridor with better premium market access yet to be fully exploited by African communities. African organic standards would arguably address the proliferation of private standards as a trade barrier while bringing harmonised standards across Africa and provide a unified negotiating position in regional and international organic markets.

 

Bibliography

Literature

Alemanno A "Regulating Organic Farming in the EU. Balancing Consumer Preferences and Free Movement Imperatives" 2009 ECLJ 83-108        [ Links ]

Ayuya OI et al "Effect of Certified Organic Production Systems on Poverty among Smallholder Farmers: Empirical Evidence from Kenya" 2015 World Development 27-37        [ Links ]

Azadi H and Ho P "Genetically Modified and Organic Crops in Developing Countries: A Review of Options for Food Security" 2010 Biotechnology Advances 160-168        [ Links ]

Bakewell-Stone P, Lieblein G and Francis C "Potential for Organic Agriculture to Sustain Livelihoods in Tanzania" 2008 Int J Agr Sustain 22-36        [ Links ]

Bandanaa J, Egyir IS and Asante I "Cocoa Farming Households in Ghana Consider Organic Practices as Climate Smart and Livelihoods Enhancer" 2016        [ Links ]

Bolwig S, Gibbon P and Jones S "The Economics of Smallholder Organic Contract Farming in Tropical Africa" 2009 World Development 1094-1104        [ Links ]

Bouagnimbeck H "Organic Farming in Africa, Africa Overview" in Willer H and Kilcher L (eds) The World of Organic Agriculture. Statistics and Emerging Trends (FiBL Bonn 2011) 104-110        [ Links ]

Chambers JA Biosafety of GM Crops in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania: An Evolving Landscape of Regulatory Progress and Retreat (Center for Strategic and International Studies Washington DC 2013)        [ Links ]

Codex Alimentarius Commission Guidelines for the Production, Processing, Labelling and Marketing of Organically Produced Foods Codex - CAC/GL 32 - 1999 (Codex Alimentarius Commission Rome 1999)        [ Links ]

Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries National Policy on Organic Production, Confidential Discussion Paper, 10th Draft (DAFF Pretoria 2010)        [ Links ]

European Commission Organic Agriculture (EuropeAid Brussels 2012)        [ Links ]

Fließbach A et al "Soil Organic Matter and Biological Soil Quality Indicators after 21 Years of Organic and Convention Farming" 2007 Ecosystems and Environment 273-284        [ Links ]

Giovannucci D and Purcell T Standards and Agricultural Trade in Asia, Discussion Paper No 107 (Asian Development Bank Institute Tokyo 2008)        [ Links ]

Girma J and Gardebroek C "The Impact of Contracts on Organic Honey Producers' Incomes in South Western Ethiopia" 2015 Forest Policy and Economics 259-268        [ Links ]

Glin LC, Oosterveer P and Mol AP "Governing the Organic Cocoa Network from Ghana: Towards Hybrid Governance Arrangements?" 2015 Journal of Agrarian Change 43-64        [ Links ]

Hartmann M et al "Distinct Soil Microbial Diversity under Long-Term Organic and Conventional Farming" 2015 ISMEJ 1177-1194        [ Links ]

Hole DG et al "Does Organic Farming Benefit Biodiversity?" 2005 Biological Conservation 113-130        [ Links ]

Kelly C and Metelerkamp L Smallholder Farmers and Organic Agriculture in South Africa (Southern Africa Food Lab Stellenbosch 2015)        [ Links ]

Kleemann L and Abdula A "Organic Certification, Agro-Ecological Practices and Return on Investment: Evidence from Pineapple Producers in Ghana" 2013 Ecological Economics 330-341        [ Links ]

Kunene-Ngubane P, Chimonyo M and Kolanisi U "Potential for Organic Beef Production by Communal Farmers in Southern Africa: A Review" 2014 Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 153-163        [ Links ]

Lernoud J and Willer H Organic Agriculture Worldwide: Key Results from the FiBL Survey on Organic Agriculture Worldwide - Part 1: Global Data and Survey Background (Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL) Brussels 2017)        [ Links ]

Lernoud J and Willer H Organic Agriculture Worldwide: Key Results from the FiBL Survey on Organic Agriculture Worldwide - Part 3: Global Data and Survey Background (Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL) Brussels 2017)        [ Links ]

Lim Tung OJ "Organic Food Certification in South Africa: A Private Sector Mechanism in Need of State Regulation?" 2016 PELJ 1-48        [ Links ]

Lori M et al "Organic Farming Enhances Soil Microbial Abundance and Activity: A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression" 2017 PLoS One 1-25        [ Links ]

Mäder P et al "Soil Fertility and Biodiversity in Organic Farming" 2002 Science 1694-1697        [ Links ]

Munteanu A-R "The Third Party Certification System of Organic Products" 2015 Network Intelligence Studies 145-151        [ Links ]

Novy A et al "Balancing Agricultural Development Resources: Are GM and Organic Agriculture in Opposition in Africa?" 2011 AgBioForum 142-157        [ Links ]

Oladapo F and Opeoluwa O "Indigenous Nigerian Ethno-Veterinary Practices" in Auerbach R, Rundgren G and El-Hage Scialabba N (eds) Organic Agriculture: African Experiences in Resilience and Sustainability (FAO Rome 2013) 68-78        [ Links ]

Olusegun OO and Olubiyi IA "Implications of Genetically Modified Crops and Intellectual Property Rights on Agriculture in Developing Countries" 2017 J Afr L 253-271        [ Links ]

Parvathi P and Waibel H "Organic Agriculture and Fair Trade: A Happy Marriage? A Case Study of Certified Smallholder Black Pepper Farmers in India" 2016 World Development 206-220        [ Links ]

Pretty J "Can Sustainable Agriculture Feed Africa? New Evidence on Progress, Processes and Impacts" 1999 Environment, Development and Sustainability 253-274        [ Links ]

Taheri F, Azadi H and D'Haese M "A World without Hunger: Organic or GM Crops?" 2017 Sustainability 580-597        [ Links ]

Takahashi R and Todo Y "The Impact of a Shade Coffee Certification Program on Forest Conservation: A Case Study from a Wild Coffee Forest in Ethiopia" 2013 J Environ Manage 48-54        [ Links ]

Tanzania Organic Certification Association Organic Standards for Agriculture Production - Short Standards for Local Market (TanCert Arusha 2003)        [ Links ]

Thamaga-Chitja J and Hendriks SL "Emerging Issues in Smallholder Organic Production and Marketing in South Africa" 2008 Development Southern Africa 317-326        [ Links ]

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Financing Organic Agriculture in Africa - Mapping the Issues (UNCTAD Geneva 2016)        [ Links ]

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Organic Agriculture and Food Security in Africa (UNCTAD Geneva 2008)        [ Links ]

United Nations Environment Programme Building Inclusive Green Economies in Africa: Experience and Lessons Learned 2010-2015 (UNEP Nairobi 2015)        [ Links ]

Uganda Organic Certification Limited Uganda Organic Standard for Organic Production and Processing, Final Draft 008/UOS (UOCL Kampala 2004)        [ Links ]

Venkat K "Comparison of Twelve Organic and Conventional Farming Systems: A Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Perspective" 2012 J Sustain Agr 620649        [ Links ]

Willer H and Kilcher L (eds) The World of Organic Agriculture, Statistics and Emerging Trends 2010 (FiBL and IFOAM Frick 2010)        [ Links ]

Willer H and Lernoud J (eds) The World of Organic Agriculture, Statistics and Emerging Trends 2015 (FiBL and IFOAM Frick 2015)        [ Links ]

Willer H and Lernoud J (eds) The World of Organic Agriculture, Statistics and Emerging Trends 2017 (FiBL and IFOAM Frick 2017)        [ Links ]

Williams T An African Success Story: Ghana's Cocoa Marketing System, IDS Working Papers 318 (IDS Brighton 2009)        [ Links ]

Legislation

South Africa

Agricultural Products Standards Act 119 of 1990

European Union

EEC Regulation 2092/91 (24 June 1991) EC Regulation 882/2004 (29 April 2004) EC Regulation 834/2007 (28 June 2007)

EC Regulation 889/2008 (5 September 2008)

EU Regulation 1267/2011 (6 December 2011)

Morocco

Moroccan 2013 Law on Organic Agricultural and Aquatic Products (Loi 39-12 relative ä la production biologique des produits agricoles et aquatiques promulguée par le dahir n°1-12-66 du 4 rabii/1434 (16 janvier 2013) (Bulletin Officiel n° 6128 du 21 février 2013)

Tunisia

Tunisia's 1999 Law on Organic Agriculture and 2000 Decree on Organic Agriculture (Loi n°99-30 du 5 avril 1999 relative a l'agriculture biologique and décret n°2000-409 du 14 février 2000, fixant les conditions d'agréments des organismes de controle et de certification et les procédures de controle et de certification dans l'agriculture biologique)

Internet sources

Akinbamijo Y and Fay F 2012 African Organic Product and the EU: Status, Requirements, Opportunities and AU-EU opportunities, 2nd African Organic Conference, Lusaka, Zambia, 2-4 May 2012 http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/sites/agriculture/files/developing-countries/partners/au-organic/au-eu-joint-paper_en.pdf accessed 19 May 2017        [ Links ]

African Union 2017 AU in a Nutshell https://au.int/en/au-nutshell accessed 21 September 2017        [ Links ]

African Union 2017 List of States Parties https://au.int/en/memberstates accessed 21 July 2017        [ Links ]

African Union 2017 Technical Guidelines - Document for Preparing Country Biennial Review Report on Progress made for Achieving the Malabo Declaration Goals and Targets https://au.int/sites/default/files/documents/32377-doc-technical_guidelines_for_reporting_on_malabo_rev2_eng.pdf accessed 31 July 2017        [ Links ]

Biodynamic Association 2017 What is Biodynamics? https://www.biodynamics.com/what-is-biodynamics accessed 1 August 2017        [ Links ]

Biosuisse 2017 Bio Bud. People, Animals and Nature in Balance https://www.bio-suisse.ch/en/home.php accessed 1 August 2017        [ Links ]

Bryanston Organic and Natural Market 2017 Home Page http://www.bryanstonorganicmarket.co.za/ accessed 27 September 2017        [ Links ]

Bio Vision Africa Trust 2015 Ecological Organic Agriculture (EOA) Initiative 2015-2025 http://www.kilimohai.org/fileadmin/02_documents/EOATHE_EOA_STRATEGIC_PLAN_2015-2025.pdf accessed 19 May 2017        [ Links ]

East African Community 2007 East African Organic Product Standards - EAS 456:2007 https://www.organic-standards.info/en/documents/East-African-Organic-Product-standard accessed 16 May 2017        [ Links ]

European Commission 2017 Agriculture and Rural Development, Organic Farming https://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/organic/eu-policy/eu-rules-on-trade/non-eu-trading-partners_en accessed 19 September 2017        [ Links ]

Energies Vironnement 2016 L'agriculture bio en Afrique: Des enjeux d'une pratique aux impératifs d'une règlementation http://energienvironnement.com/lagriculture-bio-afrique-enjeux-dune-pratique-aux-imperatifs-de-reglementation/ accessed 20 July 2017        [ Links ]

European Union 2017 The EU in Brief https://europa.eu/european-union/about-eu/eu-in-brief_en accessed 21 July 2017        [ Links ]

Global Agricultural Information Network 2014 Organic Agriculture in Nigeria - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Foreign Agricultural Service https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Organic%20Agriculture %20in%20Nigeria_Lagos_Nigeria_6-5-2014.pdf accessed 20 July 2017        [ Links ]

Global Organic Market Access 2012 Asia Regional Organic Standard -FAO, UNCTAD and IFOAM http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/an765e/an765e00.pdf accessed 17 August 2017        [ Links ]

International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movement 2005 Basic Standards for Organic Production and Processing https://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/norms_eng_v4_20090113.pdf accessed 25 January 2018        [ Links ]

International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movement Organics International 2014 The IFOAM Norms for Organic Production and Processing http://www.ifoam.bio/en/ifoam-family-standards-0 accessed 7 June 2017        [ Links ]

International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movement Organics International 2017 IFOAM Standard http://www.ifoam.bio/en/ifoam-standard accessed 1 August 2017        [ Links ]

International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movement Organics International 2017 Participatory Guarantee Systems (PGS) http://www.ifoam.bio/en/organic-policy-guarantee/participatory-guarantee-systems-pgs accessed 17 August 2017        [ Links ]

International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movement Organics International 2017 ISAN (IFOAM South African Network) https://www.ifoam.bio/en/regional-bodies/isan-ifoam-southern-african-network accessed 7 June 2017        [ Links ]

Institute of Natural Resources 2008 Study to Develop a Value Chain Strategy for Sustainable Development and Growth of Organic Agriculture - Trade and Industry Chamber Fund for Research into Industrial Development, Growth and Equity (Final Report) http://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/study_to_develop_a_value_chain _strategy_for_sustainable _development_and_growth_of_organic_agriculture.pdf accessed 23 August 2016        [ Links ]

International Task Force on Harmonization and Equivalence in Organic Agriculture and the Global Organic Market Access Project 2012 Organic Equivalence Tools International Requirements for Organic Certification (IROC) and Guide for Assessing Equivalence of Organic Standards and Technical Regulations (EquiTool) Version 2 http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/an905e/an905e00.pdf accessed 25 July 2017        [ Links ]

Kenya Organic Agriculture Network 2017 Organic Marketing in Kenya http://www.koan.co.ke/services/index.php accessed 25 May 2017        [ Links ]

Naturland 2017 Steps to Naturland Certification http://www.naturland.de/en/producers/steps-to-naturland-certification.html accessed 1 August 2017        [ Links ]

New Partnership for Africa's Development 2017 Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) http://www.nepad.org/programme/comprehensive-africa-agriculture-development-programme-caadp accessed 20 July 2017        [ Links ]

New Partnership for Africa's Development and African Union 2003 Maputo Declaration on Agriculture and Food Security http://www.nepad.org/resource/au-2003-maputo-declaration-agriculture-and-food-security accessed 8 August 2017        [ Links ]

Organic Africa 2011 African Organic Agriculture Training Manual http://www.organic-africa.net/training-manual.html accessed 17 August 2017        [ Links ]

Organic Farms Group 2017 Home Page http://www.organicfarmsgroup.com/ accessed 27 September 2017        [ Links ]

Organic World 2011 African Union Adopts Decision on Organic Farming http://www.organic-world.net/index/news-organic-world/article/501.html accessed 25 July 2017        [ Links ]

Organic World 2014 Organic Agriculture Status in Asia in 2014 http://www.organic-world.net/country-info/asia/overviews/asia-2014.html accessed 18 September 2017        [ Links ]

Permacultureprinciples.com 2017 What is Permaculture? https://permacultureprinciples.com/ accessed 1 August 2017        [ Links ]

South African Organic Sector Organisation 2017 SAOSO Standard for Organic Production and Processing, Final Version 1.5 https://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/573628_936f443e556846ceab02c85084cc6a0f.pdf accessed 7 June 2018        [ Links ]

Simpson S 2015 Organic Agriculture could Help Africa Fight Poverty http://www.africanorganicconference.com/ accessed 31 July 2017        [ Links ]

Secretariat of the Pacific Community 2008 Pacific Organic Standard http://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/pacific_organic_standard.pdf accessed 21 September 2017        [ Links ]

Trade Law Centre 2015 SADC-EAC-COMESA Tripartite Free Trade Area Legal Texts and Policy Documents https://www.tralac.org/resources/by-region/comesa-eac-sadc-tripartite-fta.html accessed 26 September 2017        [ Links ]

United Nations Environment Programme 2010 Aid for Trade Case Story: The East African Organic Products Standard https://www.oecd.org/aidfortrade/47719232.pdf accessed 19 May 2017        [ Links ]

United Nations Environment Programme-United Nations Conference on Trade and Development 2008 Best Practices for Organic Policy http://unctad.org/en/Docs/ditcted20073_en.pdf accessed 31 July 2017        [ Links ]

United Nations Forum on Sustainability Standards 2013 Resources for the ASEAN Economic Community: Lessons Learnt from the Global Organic Market Access (GOMA) Project https://unfss.files.wordpress.com/2013/04/unfss_goma_philippines.pdf accessed 19 September 2017        [ Links ]

United Nations Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform 2017 Uganda Organic Agriculture Standards and Policies https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/index.php?page=view&type=99&nr=34&menu=1449 accessed 21 July 2017        [ Links ]

World Population Review 2017 Africa Population http://worldpopulationreview.com/continents/africa-population/ accessed 14 September 2017        [ Links ]

List of Abbreviations

AfroNet African Organic Network

AROS Asia Regional Organic Standard

ASEAN Association of South East Asian Nations

ASOA ASEAN Standard for Organic Agriculture

AU African Union

BVAT Bio Vision Africa Trust

BDOCA Biodynamic and Organic Certification Authority

BOAM Burundi Organic Agricultural Movement

CAADP Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme

COMESA Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa

DAFF Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (South Africa)

DRAMLB Draft Revised African Model Law on Biosafety

DREA Department for Rural Economy and Agriculture

EAC East African Community

EAEP East Africa Export Programme

EAOPS East African Organic Product Standards

EC European Commission

ECLJ European Consumer Law Journal

ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States

EEC European Economic Community

EOA Ecological Organic Agriculture

EPOPA Export Promotion of Organic Products from Africa

EquiTool Equivalence of Organic Standards and Technical Regulations

EU European Union

FENAB National Federation of Organic Producers of Senegal

FAO Food and Agriculture Organization

FiBL Research Institute of Organic Agriculture

GAIN Global Agricultural Information Network

GMOs Genetically Modified Organisms

GOAN Ghana Organic Agriculture Network

GOMA Global Organic Market Access

IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development

IFOAM International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movement

Int J Agr Sustain International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability

ISAN IFOAM South African Network

ITF International Task Force on Harmonization and Equivalence in Organic Agriculture

INR Institute of Natural Resources

ISMEJ International Society for Microbial Ecology Journal

J Afr L Journal of African Law

J Environ Manage Journal of Environmental Management

J Sustain Agr Journal of Sustainable Agriculture

JAS Japan Agriculture Standards

KOAN Kenya Organic Agricultural Network

NOAMs National Organic Agriculture Movements

NOARA Network for Organic Agriculture Research in Africa

NEPAD New Partnership for Africa's Development

NOAN Nigerian Organic Agriculture Network

OAPP Organic Agricultural Products and Processing

PELJ Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal

POS Pacific Organic Standards

PGS Participatory guarantee system

ROAM Rwanda Organic Agricultural Movement

SABS South African Bureau of Standards

SADC South African Development Community

SAOSO South African Organic Sector Organisation

SANS South African National Standards

SDGs Sustainable Development Goals

SPC Secretariat of the Pacific Community

TanCert Tanzania Organic Certification Association

Tralac Trade Law Centre

UOCL Uganda Organic Certification Limited

UN United Nations

UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

UNEP United Nations Environment Programme

UNFSS United Nations Forum on Sustainability Standards

UNSDKP United Nations Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform

US United States

 

 

Submission25 January 2018
Published28 August 2018

 

 

* Odile Juliette LIM TUNG. Licence en droit (Montpellier), MaÏtrise en droit (Montpellier), DEAendroit ( Montpellier ) , Doctor a t e n d r oit ( M o n t p ellie r). This paper was submitted for publication purposes during the postdoctoral research fellowship of the author at the Mandela Institute, School of Law, WITS, South Africa. E-mail: ojltmru@gmail.com.
1 BVAT 2015 http://www.kilimohai.org/fileadmin/02_documents/EOA/THE_EOA_STRATEGIC_PLAN_2015-2025.pdf i. Africa is the second-largest and second most populous continent on earth. World Population Review 2017 http://worldpopulationreview.com/continents/africa-population/.
2 UNCTAD Organic Agriculture and Food Security iii.
3 BVAT 2015 http://www.kilimohai.org/fileadmin/02_documents/EOA/THE_EOA_STRATEGIC_PLAN_2015-2025.pdf 1.
4 UNEP Building Inclusive Green Economies 18.
5 UNEP Building Inclusive Green Economies 2.
6 Lim Tung 2016 PELJ 2.
7 See UNCTAD Financing Organic Agriculture 1.
8 Lernoud and Willer Organic Agriculture Worldwide - Part 1 15.
9 For instance, in South Africa, informal organic farming by small and subsistence producers is said to feed two-thirds of the population (DAFF Draft National Policy on Organic Production 4) and in Nigeria, 60 to 70 per cent of farmers are traditional rural farmers producing uncertified organic foods without synthetic inputs (GAIN 2014 https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Organic%20Agriculture% 20in%20Nigeria_Lagos_Nigeria_6-5-2014.pdf 10).
10 Novy et al 2011 AgBioForum 142.
11 UNCTAD Financing Organic Agriculture 1, 3.
12 Plant production guidelines were approved in 1999 and animal production guidelines in 2001. See Codex Alimentarius Commission Guidelines for the production, processing, labelling and marketing of organically produced foods.
13 See Codex Alimentarius Commission Guidelines.
14 UNEP-UNCTAD 2008 http://unctad.org/en/Docs/ditcted20073_en.pdf.
15 The Organic Equivalence Tools include the International Requirements for Organic Certification (IROCB) and Guide for Assessing Equivalence of Organic Standards and Technical Regulations (EquiTool). See ITF and GOMA 2012 http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/an905e/an905e00.pdf.
16 Eg the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movement (IFOAM) has more than 800 affiliates in 100 countries. IFOAM Organics International 2014 http://www.ifoam.bio/en/ifoam-family-standards-0.
17 Willer and Lernoud 2015 World of Organic Agriculture 127-129.
18 See EC Regulation 834/2007 (28 June 2007) and EC Regulation 889/2008 (5 September 2008).
19 UNEP 2010 https://www.oecd.org/aidfortrade/47719232.pdf 3.
20 The Pacific standards were adopted by ten Pacific Island countries and territories, Australia and New Zealand in 2008. See SPC 2008 http://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/pacific_organic_standard.pdf.
21 GOMA 2012 http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/an765e/an765e00.pdf.
22 Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. UNEP 2010 https://www.oecd.org/aidfortrade/47719232.pdf 3.
23 See Organic Africa 2011 http://www.organic-africa.net/training-manual.html.
24 See the Moroccan 2013 Law on Organic Agricultural and Aquatic Products (Loi 39-12 relative ä la production biologique des produits agricoles et aquatiques promulguée par le dahir n°1-12-66 du 4 rabii/1434 (16 janvier 2013) (Bulletin Officiel n° 6128 du 21 février 2013). See Tunisia's legislation on organic agriculture (Loi n°99-30 du 5 avril 1999 relative ä l'agriculture biologique and décret n°2000-409 du 14 février 2000, fixant les conditions d'agréments des organismes de controle et de certification et les procédures de controle et de certification dans l'agriculture biologique). See the South African Agricultural Product Standards Act 119 of 1990 which provides for the Biodynamic and Organic Certification Authority (BDOCA) and draft SA Standards on Organic Agricultural Products and Processing (OAPP), South African National Standards (SANS) 1369 issued by the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS). Lim Tung 2016 PELJ 4. In 2017, the South African Organic Sector Organisation (SAOSO) Standard for Organic Production and Processing was finalised after long negotiations and was included in the IFOAM Family of Standards. SAOSO 2017 https://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/573628_936f443e556846ceab02c85084cc6a0f.pdf. See Uganda Organic Standards (UOCL Uganda Organic Standard); the Tanzanian Organic Standards (TanCert Organic Standards for Agriculture Production); Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, Nigeria, Mali, Senegal and Ghana do not have national organic standards but mainly national umbrella organisations (see the Rwanda Organic Agricultural Movement (ROAM), the Burundi Organic Agricultural Movement (BOAM), the Kenya Organic Agricultural Network (KOAN), the Nigerian Organic Agriculture Network (NOAN), the Organic Movement of Mali, the National Federation of Organic Producers of Senegal (FENAB), and the Ghana Organic Agriculture Network (GOAN)). In Central Africa (Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tomé et Principe, Chad), regulation on organic products is yet to improve (Energies, Environnement 2016 http://energienvironnement.com/lagriculture-bio-afrique-enjeux-dune-pratique-aux-imperatifs-de-reglementation/). In Burkina Faso, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe, national standards are in the process of being developed. Bouagnimbeck "Organic Farming in Africa" 108.
25 Olusegun and Olubiyi 2017 J Afr L 253-271; Kelly and Metelerkamp Smallholder Farmers 142; Bakewell-Stone, Lieblein and Francis 2008 Int J Agr Sustain 22-36; Thamaga-Chitja and Hendriks 2008 Development Southern Africa 317-326.
26 Bandanaa, Egyir and Asante 2016 Agriculture and Food Security 1-9; Glin, Oosterveer and Mol 2015 Journal of Agrarian Change 43-64; Takahashi and Todo 2013 J Environ Manage 48-54.
27 UNCTAD Organic Agriculture and Food Security; Pretty 1999 Environment, Development and Sustainability 253-274; Taheri, Azadi and D'Haese 2017 Sustainability 581-582; Kunene-Ngubane, Chimonyo and Kolanisi 2014 Indilinga 153163; Azadi and Ho 2010 Biotechnology Advances 160-168; Bouagnimbeck "Organic Farming in Africa" 104-105.
28 The first version of the Draft Revised African Model Law on Biosafety (DRAMLB) was based on the proposal of the African Group for a biosafety protocol. See Chambers Biosafety of GM Crops 10. The 2008 DRAMLB is no longer publicly available. A copy is available with the author. See AU 2017 https://au.int/en/memberstates.
29 Such as cotton and medicinal plants. Oladapo and Opeoluwa "Indigenous Nigerian Ethno-Veterinary Practices" 68-78.
30 Bouagnimbeck "Organic Farming in Africa" 106.
31 DAFF Draft National Policy on Organic Production 4; GAIN 2014 https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Organic%20Agriculture%20 in%20Nigeria_Lagos_Nigeria_6-5-2014.pdf 10.
32 Bouagnimbeck "Organic Farming in Africa" 105.
33 Bouagnimbeck "Organic Farming in Africa" 106.
34 Lernoud and Willer Organic Agriculture Worldwide - Part 1 15.
35 Lernoud and Willer Organic Agriculture Worldwide - Part 3 9. For Tunisia, see Energies Environnement 2016 http://energienvironnement.com/lagriculture-bio-afrique-enjeux-dune-pratique-aux-imperatifs-de-reglementation/.
36 DAFF Draft National Policy on Organic Production 4.
37 GAIN 2014 https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Organic%20Agriculture%2 0in%20Nigeria_Lagos_Nigeria_6-5-2014.pdf 10.
38 See INR 2008 http://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/study_to_develop_a_value_chain_ strategy_for_sustainable_ development_and_growth_of_organic_agriculture.pdf 62; GAIN 2014 https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Organic%20Agriculture%20in %20Nigeria_Lagos_Nigeria_6-5-2014.pdf;KOAN 2017 http://www.koan.co.ke/services/index.php.
39 See INR 2008 http://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/study_to_develop_a_value_chain_ strategy_for_sustainable_ development_and_growth_of_organic_agriculture.pdf 62.
40 See INR 2008 http://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/study_to_develop_a_value_c hain_strategy_for_sustainable_ development_and_growth_of_organic_agriculture.pdf 62.
41 See INR 2008 http://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/study_to_develop_a_value_ chain_strategy_for_sustainable_ development_and_growth_of_organic_agriculture.pdf 62.
42 Lim Tung 2016 PELJ 4.
43 Willer and Lernoud 2015 World of Organic Agriculture 13, 23-24; Willer and Lernoud 2017 World of Organic Agriculture 23.
44 The number of certified organic farmers increased by 359 per cent and acreage under organic agricultural production increased 60 per cent between 2002 and 2007. In 2006, the farm-gate prices of organic pineapple, ginger and vanilla were 300 per cent, 185 per cent and 150 per cent higher, respectively than conventional products. Certified organic exports increased from $3.7 million in 2003-2004 to $22.8 million in 2007-2008. See UNSDKP 2017 https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/index.php?page=view&type=99&nr=34&menu=1449. Technical and financial assistance under the project Export Promotion of Organic Products from Africa (EPOPA) was provided to 87,000 Ugandan smallholder farms to be certified as organic from 2004-2008 with an export value of organic products estimated at over $25 million in 2006-2007. Novy et al 2011 AgBioForum 143.
45 A study of the economics of smallholder organic contract farming in Uganda provides evidence of positive revenue effects arising from both participation in an organic coffee smallholder contract farming scheme and the application of recognised organic farming techniques. Bolwig, Gibbon and Jones 2009 World Development 1094-1104. Findings were that certified producers were less likely to be multidimensional poor compared to their counterfactual case of not participating in organic certification schemes. Ayuya et al 2015 World Development 27-37. Certification standards that enhance yields are important for improving farm revenues and household welfare. Kleemann and Abdula 2013 Ecological Economics 330-341.
46 UNCTAD Financing Organic Agriculture 4.
47 UNCTAD Financing Organic Agriculture 4.
48 Lower energy consumption (Fließbach et al 2007 Ecosystems and Environment 273284; Mäder et al 2002 Science 1694-1697), reduced greenhouse gas emissions (Venkat 2012 J Sustain Agr 620-649), improved soils (Lori et al 2017 PLoS One 1-25; Hartmann et al 2015 ISMEJ 1177-1194), higher levels of biodiversity (Hole et al 2005 Biological Conservation 113-130). Organic farming also promotes the well-being of farm animals with high welfare standards (such as free-range, open-air systems, organic feed) and no growth regulators and antibiotics. IFOAM Organics International 2014 http://www.ifoam.bio/en/ifoam-family-standards-0.
49 Organic agriculture potentially contributes to farmers' and consumers' health with no use of chemical fertilisers or pesticides but organic fertilizers and integrated pest management. Alemanno 2009 ECLJ 85.
50 Taheri, Azadi and D'Haese 2017 Sustainability 581-582; Azadi and Ho 2010 Biotechnology Advances 160-168; UNCTAD Organic Agriculture and Food Security 11; Bouagnimbeck "Organic Farming in Africa" 104-105.
51 See Pretty 1999 Environment, Development and Sustainability 253-274.
52 Novy et al 2011 AgBioForum 142; Girma and Gardebroek 2015 Forest Policy and Economics 259-268.
53 Private sector standards include the IFOAM Standard (see IFOAM Organics International 2017 http://www.ifoam.bio/en/ifoam-standard); Naturland (see Naturland 2017 http://www.naturland.de/en/producers/steps-to-naturland-certification.html); permaculture standards (see Permacultureprinciples.com 2017 https://permacultureprinciples.com/); Biodynamic standards (Biodynamic Association 2017 https://www.biodynamics.com/what-is-biodynamics); Bio Suisse standards (see Biosuisse 2017 https://www.bio-suisse.ch/en/home.php).
54 Eg in Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, South Africa. UNEP-UNCTAD 2008 http://unctad.org/en/Docs/ditcted20073_en.pdf 9.
55 See above note 24 organic standards and legislation in African countries.
56 The EAOPS are applicable only to the East African Community (EAC). EAC 2007 https://www.organic-standards.info/en/documents/East-African-Organic-Product-standard 25.
57 Bouagnimbeck "Organic Farming in Africa" 107.
58 For instance in the EAC (UNEP 2010 https://www.oecd.org/aidfortrade/47719232.pdf 4) and in South Africa (Lim Tung 2016 PELJ 3-4).
59 Kelly and Metelerkamp Smallholder Farmers 9; UNEP 2010 https://www.oecd.org/aidfortrade/47719232.pdf 2.
60 See INR 2008 http://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/study_to_develop_a_value_ chain_strategy_for_sustainable_ development_and_growth_of_organic_agriculture.pdf 63.
61 See INR 2008 http://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/study_to_develop_a_value_ chain_strategy_for_sustainable_ development_and_growth_of_organic_agriculture.pdf 63. A unified set of organic standards would also facilitate trade in free trade areas, for instance the Tripartite Free Trade Area bringing States from the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), EAC, Southern African Development Community (SADC), in these three economic blocks. See Tralac 2015 https://www.tralac.org/resources/by-region/comesa-eac-sadc-tripartite-fta.html.
62 Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda. UNEP 2010 https://www.oecd.org/aidfortrade/47719232.pdf 3.
63 UNEP 2010 https://www.oecd.org/aidfortrade/47719232.pdf 2.
64 UNEP 2010 https://www.oecd.org/aidfortrade/47719232.pdf 2.
65 UNEP 2010 https://www.oecd.org/aidfortrade/47719232.pdf 3.
66 UNEP 2010 https://www.oecd.org/aidfortrade/47719232.pdf 2.
67 UNEP 2010 https://www.oecd.org/aidfortrade/47719232.pdf 4. See above note 24 on organic standards and legislation in African countries.
68 Including national standards bureaus, national organic movements and organic certifying bodies. UNEP 2010 https://www.oecd.org/aidfortrade/47719232.pdf 4.
69 With six regional public-private sector working group meetings, two regional workshops and two national consultations. UNEP 2010 https://www.oecd.org/aidfortrade/47719232.pdf 4. See AU https://au.int/en/au-nutshell.
70 The EAOPS became the official standard (EAS 456) for the EAC. UNEP 2010 https://www.oecd.org/aidfortrade/47719232.pdf 4.
71 The EAOPS did not have any follow-up mechanism for implementation and are not yet fully reflected in the laws of the EAC Member States. The EAOPS are mainly carried out by various private certification companies and export outlets. UNEP 2010 https://www.oecd.org/aidfortrade/47719232.pdf 6.
72 Aquaculture is not covered under the EAOPS. EAC 2007 https://www.organic-standards.info/en/documents/East-African-Organic-Product-standard (hereafter EAOPS) 25; UNEP 2010 https://www.oecd.org/aidfortrade/47719232.pdf 3.
73 Section 5.1 EAOPS.
74 Section 5.1 EAOPS.
75 Section 6.1.1 EAOPS.
76 Section 7.1 EAOPS.
77 Section 5.3.1 EAOPS.
78 Section 5.3.2 EAOPS.
79 Wild harvested organic products shall originate from a stable and sustainable growing environment. Section 8.1 EAOPS.
80 Section 4.4.1 EAOPS. Ingredients, additives or processing aids derived from GMOs shall not be used in organic processing. Section 4.4.2 EAOPS.
81 Such substances would need to be listed out in the African organic standards. Section 3.3 EAOPS.
82 Where the quantity or quality of commercially available organic feed is inadequate, the daily maximum percentage of non-organic feed shall be 40 per cent, calculated on a dry-matter basis. Section 6.6.1 EAOPS.
83 Eg the respect of human rights. Sections 4.5.1 and 4.5.2 EAOPS.
84 See the common label (kilimohai) for the EAC and other labelling rules (a threshold of 95 per cent of organic ingredients). Section 10 EAOPS.
85 With appropriate actions to be taken where there is a reasonable suspicion of substantial contamination. Section 4.3.2 EAOPS.
86 See INR 2008 http://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/study_to_develop_a_value _chain_strategy_for_sustainable_ development_and_growth_of_organic_agriculture.pdf 64.
87 UNCTAD Financing Organic Agriculture 4.
88 See EC Regulation 834/2007 (28 June 2007); EC Regulation 889/2008 (5 September 2008); EU Regulation 1267/2011 (6 December 2011).
89 For the POS, see SPC 2008 http://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/pacific_organic_standard.pdf and for the AROS, see GOMA 2012 http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/an765e/an765e00.pdf.
90 EC Organic Agriculture 6. The first regulation by the European Economic Community (EEC) Regulation 2092/91 on organic production (EEC Regulation 2092/91 (24 June 1991)) was repealed by EC Regulation 834/2007 (28 June 2007). See other EU regulations above.
91 As an equivalent third country. See EC 2017 https://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/organic/eu-policy/eu-rules-on-trade/non-eu-trading-partners_en.
92 For instance, the "Uganda Organic Certification Limited" and the "Center of Organic Agriculture in Egypt" were listed as EU approved control bodies for organic certification until 30 June 2015. See the list of control bodies approved under EU Regulation 1267/2011 (6 December 2011).
93 See the sub-section on "Mirroring the EAOPS experience" above.
94 Articless 7 and 18 EC Regulation 834/2007 (28 June 2007).
95 Article 13 EC Regulation 834/2007 (28 June 2007).
96 Article 15 EC Regulation 834/2007 (28 June 2007).
97 Articles 4(a)(iii) and 9 EC Regulation 834/2007 (28 June 2007).
98 Article 14(1)(d)(v) EC Regulation 834/2007 (28 June 2007).
99 Only products with a threshold of 95 per cent of its ingredients of agricultural origin is organic can bear the "organic" label. Article 25 (on Organic Production logos) EC Regulation 834/2007 (28 June 2007).
100 For instance, the EAOPS logo for the EAC. See the sub-section on "Mirroring the EAOPS experience" above.
101 See the applicable control system (Title V Controls of EC Regulation 834/2007 (28 June 2007)). See EC Regulation 882/2004 (29 April 2004) on official controls performed to ensure the verification of compliance with feed and food law, animal health and animal welfare rules. INR 2008 http://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/study_to_develop_a_value_ chain_strategy_for_sustainable_ development_and_growth_of_organic_agriculture.pdf 63.
102 The EAOPS, the POS and the AROS are also voluntary regional standards without a verification and inspection system (see the sub-sections above on the EAOPS, the POS and the AROS respectively). Although pan-African organic standards would be expected to be voluntary in Africa, it is important that national standards in African countries be accredited according to ISO 17065 to ensure certifiers manage organic production and process correctly.
103 Or imported from a third country and produced in accordance with African organic standards with documented evidence. See INR 2008 http://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/study_to_develop_a_value _chain_strategy_for_sustainable_ development_and_growth_of_organic_agriculture.pdf 63-64. However, enabling free circulation of certified organic products with documented evidence would need strong domestic inspection systems in African States.
104 Lernoud and Willer Organic Agriculture Worldwide Part 1 15. The POS align with the Codex Alimentarius Guidelines (Codex Alimentarius Commission Guidelines) and IFOAM basic standards. See SPC 2008 http://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/pacific_organic_standard.pdf vii.
105 See SPC 2008 http://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/pacific_organic_standard.pdf vii.
106 SPC 2008 http://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/pacific_organic_standard.pdf vii.
107 The POS cover plant production, animal husbandry, beekeeping, collection of wild products and aquaculture, the processing and labelling of such products. They also include social justice provisions. These standards aim at increasing organic production and exports while countering standards proliferation. SPC 2008 http://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/pacific_organic_standard.pdf 3, 55.
108 SPC 2008 http://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/pacific_organic_standard.pdf 12-13.
109 SPC 2008 http://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/pacific_organic_standard.pdf 39-42.
110 SPC 2008 http://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/pacific_organic_standard.pdf 3.
111 In contrast the EAOPS cover a wider range of products, a common logo and labelling requirements and social justice provisions and may be more appropriate for African organic standards. See the sub-section above on "Mirroring the EAOPS experience".
112 GOMA 2012 http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/an765e/an765e00.pdf 3. Africa had 1.7 million hectares of organic agricultural land in 2015. Lernoud and Willer Organic Agriculture Worldwide - Part 1 15.
113 GOMA 2012 http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/an765e/an765e00.pdf.
114 GOMA 2012 http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/an765e/an765e00.pdf i. See ITF and GOMA 2012 http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/an905e/an905e00.pdf.
115 GOMA 2012 http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/an765e/an765e00.pdf i.
116 GOMA 2012 http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/an765e/an765e00.pdf i.
117 GOMA 2012 http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/an765e/an765e00.pdf 2.
118 GOMA 2012 http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/an765e/an765e00.pdf 2.
119 From 2009 to 2012, the GOMA project promoted equivalence and harmonisation or organic standards in Asia. GOMA 2012 http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/an765e/an765e00.pdf 1.
120 See the Codex Alimentarius Guidelines (Codex Alimentarius Commission Guidelines); IFOAM 2005 https://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/norms_eng_v4_20090113.pdf; ITF and GOMA 2012 http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/an905e/an905e00.pdf.
121 A joint UNEP and UNCTAD "Capacity Building Task Force on Trade, Environment and Development" (UNEP-UNCTAD CBTF) initiative. UNEP 2010 https://www.oecd.org/aidfortrade/47719232.pdf 1.
122 A joint initiative of the FAO, IFOAM and UNCTAD. GOMA 2012 http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/an765e/an765e00.pdf i.
123 See EC Regulation 834/2007 (28 June 2007) and EC Regulation 889/2008 (5 September 2008).
124 The EAOPS is not fully implemented in all EAC countries. UNEP 2010 https://www.oecd.org/aidfortrade/47719232.pdf 1.
125 The ITF drew together 28 countries in the Asian region. GOMA 2012 http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/an765e/an765e00.pdf i; The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) which represents ten Asian Member States developed the ASEAN Standard for Organic Agriculture (ASOA) which may possibly have been inspired by the AROS. See Organic World 2014 http://www.organic-world.net/country-info/asia/overviews/asia-2014.html. Information is not available on the implementation of AROS in all Asian countries, but nine Asian States from the ASEAN have fully implemented organic regulations. UNFSS 2013 https://unfss.files.wordpress.com/2013/04/unfss_goma_philippines.pdf.
126 See SPC 2008 http://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/pacific_organic_standard.pdf.
127 In contrast, not involving the main regional organisation or involving mainly sub-regional organisations in the development process of wider regional organic standards may arguably result in a lack of consensus on the adoption or endorsement of the final regional organic standards. For instance, the ASEAN Member States developed the ASOA instead of fully endorsing the AROS for the ASEAN. See Organic World 2014 http://www.organic-world.net/country-info/asia/overviews/asia-2014.html.
128 See AU 2017 https://au.int/en/au-nutshell.
129 See NEPAD 2017 http://www.nepad.org/programme/comprehensive-africa-agriculture-development-programme-caadp.
130 African Heads of State endorsed the "Maputo Declaration on Agriculture and Food Security in Africa" (Assembly/AU/Decl. 7(II)) at the AU Second Ordinary Assembly in 2003. See NEPAD and AU 2003 http://www.nepad.org/resource/au-2003-maputo-declaration-agriculture-and-food-security. This commitment was renewed by African States under the 2014 "Malabo Declaration on Accelerated Agricultural Growth and Transformation for Shared Prosperity and Improved Livelihoods in Africa" (hereafter the "Malabo Declaration"). BVAT 2015 http://www.kilimohai.org/fileadmin/02_documents/EOA/THE_EOA_STRATEGIC_PLAN_2015-2025. pdf 6.
131 See the AU Agriculture Ministers decision to promote sustainable organic farming systems in 2010 and the African Heads' of State Decision EX.CL/Dec.621(XVIII) on organic farming - Concept and Initiative on Organic Agriculture in Africa (Kenya, 2011). BVAT 2015 http://www.kilimohai.org/fileadmin/02_documents/EOA/THE_EOA_STRATEGIC_PLAN_20Z 15-2025.pdf 1.
132 Organic World 2011 http://www.organic-world.net/index/news-organic-world/article/501.html.
133 BVAT 2015 http://www.kilimohai.org/fileadmin/02_documents/EOA/THE_EOA_STRATEGIC_PLAN_2015-2025.pdf.
134 BVAT 2015 http://www.kilimohai.org/fileadmin/02_documents/EOA/THE_EOA_STRATEGIC_PLAN_2015-2025.pdf.
135 BVAT 2015 http://www.kilimohai.org/fileadmin/02_documents/EOA/THE_EOA_STRA-TEGIC_PLAN_2015-2025.pdf 7.
136 BVAT 2015 http://www.kilimohai.org/fileadmin/02_documents/EOA/THE_EOA_STRA-TEGIC_PLAN_2015-2025.pdf 7.
137 For instance, a specific platform for development and growth was set up for the IFOAM South African Network to improve coordination within the Southern African Organic Sector. IFOAM Organics International 2017 https://www.ifoam.bio/en/regional-bodies/isan-ifoam-southern-african-network. An African Organic Network (AfroNet) also came into existence as the umbrella organisation for African ecological/organic stakeholders as well as the Network for Organic Agriculture Research in Africa (NOARA). See Simpson 2015 http://www.africanorganicconference.com/.
138 For instance, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), COMESA, SADC and international partners such as UNEP, UNCTAD, FAO, IFOAM.
139 See the Codex Alimentarius Guidelines (Codex Alimentarius Commission Guidelines); UNEP-UNCTAD 2008 http://unctad.org/en/Docs/ditcted20073_en.pdf; the Organic Equivalence Tools (ITF and GOMA 2012 http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/an905e/an905e00.pdf).
140 See AU 2017 https://au.int/en/memberstates.
141 See EU 2017 https://europa.eu/european-union/about-eu/eu-in-brief_en. Nine Asian States from the ASEAN have fully implemented organic regulations. See UNFSS 2013 https://unfss.files.wordpress.com/2013/04/unfss_goma_philippines.pdf.
142 During the implementation of the EAOPS, there was some resistance by one of the national standards bodies to the private sector-led initiative. UNEP 2010 https://www.oecd.org/aidfortrade/47719232.pdf 5.
143 For the AROS, the three international partners (FAO, UNCTAD and IFOAM) followed up implementation from 2009-2012 to continue the aims of harmonisation and equivalence. GOMA 2012 http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/an765e/an765e00.pdf 2.
144 UNCTAD Financing Organic Agriculture 1.
145 UNCTAD Financing Organic Agriculture 1. See AU 2017 https://au.int/sites/default/files/documents/32377-doc-technical_guidelines_for_reporting_on_malabo_rev2_eng.pdf.
146 UNCTAD Organic Agriculture and Food Security 8.
147 Giovannucci and Purcell Standards and Agricultural Trade 20.
148 Giovannucci and Purcell Standards and Agricultural Trade 20.
149 Munteanu 2015 Network Intelligence Studies 147.
150 UNEP 2010 https://www.oecd.org/aidfortrade/47719232.pdf 4; Willer and Kilcher 2010 World of Organic Agriculture 82; Willer and Lernoud 2017 World of Organic Agriculture 164.
151 See the section on recommendations.
152 As discussed in this paper, the EAOPS, the POS and the AROS all had these aims for their respective regions.
153 For instance, ECOWAS, COMESA, SADC and international partners such as UNEP, UNCTAD, FAO, IFOAM.
154 See the sub-sections above on the EAOPS, the POS and the AROS.
155 See above note 24 on organic standards and legislation in African countries.
156 See the sub-sections above on the EAOPS, the POS and the AROS.
157 A non-organic ingredients' threshold of 95 per cent to align with EU organic standards. See article 25 EC Regulation 834/2007 (28 June 2007).
158 See sections 4.5.1 and 4.5.2. EAOPS.
159 See sections 5 and 6; GOMA 2012 http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/an765e/an765e00.pdf 9-10.
160 GOMA 2012 http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/an765e/an765e00.pdf 2.
161 See the Codex Alimentarius Guidelines (Codex Alimentarius Commission Guidelines); IFOAM 2005 https://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/norms_eng_v4_20090113.pdf; ITF and GOMA 2012 http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/an905e/an905e00.pdf.
162 Akinbamijo and Fay 2012 http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/sites/agricul-ture/files/developing-countries/partners/au-organic/au-eu-joint-paper_en.pdf.
163 Parvathi and Waibel 2016 World Development 206-220.
164 See the sub-sections above on the EAOPS and other regional organic standards.
165 Lim Tung 2016 PELJ 20.
166 Energies Environnement 2016 http://energienvironnement.com/lagriculture-bio-afrique-enjeux-dune-pratique-aux-imperatifs-de-reglementation/.
167 Eg In South Africa, local farmers, suppliers and retailers may group together as a network and use a network label as a form of group certification for products with high environmental standards or health claims at affordable costs. Lim Tung 2016 PELJ 5, 9. See Organic Farms Group 2017 http://www.organicfarmsgroup.com/.
168 It is a quality assurance system catering for small-scale production based on an agreed set of standards monitored by the respective farmers which is supported by the IFOAM. IFOAM Organics International 2017 http://www.ifoam.bio/en/organic-policy-guarantee/participatory-guarantee-systems-pgs; for instance see the South African Bryanston Organic and Natural Market 2017 http://www.bryanstonorganicmarket.co.za/.
169 State accreditation for local certification bodies refers to the setting up of national accreditation bodies recognised by the respective government which may accredit local certification bodies. Lim Tung 2016 PELJ 33.
170 UNCTAD Organic Agriculture and Food Security 8.
171 Bouagnimbeck "Organic Farming in Africa" 107. See the Ecological Organic Agriculture (EOA) Action Plan 2011-2025 and EOA Initiative (2015-2025) under the aegis of the AU. BVAT 2015 http://www.kilimohai.org/fileadmin/02_documents/EOA/THE_EOA_STRATEGIC_PLAN_2015-2025.pdf; Williams African Success Story 1-47.
172 Bouagnimbeck "Organic Farming in Africa" 106.
173 Kelly and Metelerkamp Smallholder Farmers 1; Bolwig, Gibbon and Jones 2009 World Development 1094-1104.
174 Akinbamijo and Fay 2012 http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/sites/agriculture/files/developing-countries/partners/au-organic/au-eu-joint-paper_en.pdf 5.
175 UNCTAD Financing Organic Agriculture 2.
176 Novy et al 2011 AgBioForum 154.
177 BVAT 2015 http://www.kilimohai.org/fileadmin/02_documents/EOA/THE_EOA_STRATEGIC_PLAN_2015-2025.pdf 5.
178 UNCTAD Financing Organic Agriculture 3-4.
179 Lim Tung 2016 PELJ 19.

Creative Commons License Todo el contenido de esta revista, excepto dónde está identificado, está bajo una Licencia Creative Commons