SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.12 número3Teaching phenomenology through highlighting experience índice de autoresíndice de assuntospesquisa de artigos
Home Pagelista alfabética de periódicos  

Serviços Personalizados

Artigo

Indicadores

Links relacionados

  • Em processo de indexaçãoCitado por Google
  • Em processo de indexaçãoSimilares em Google

Compartilhar


Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology

versão On-line ISSN 1445-7377
versão impressa ISSN 2079-7222

Indo-Pac. j. phenomenol. (Online) vol.12 no.3 Grahamstown Set. 2012

http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/ipjp.2012.12.1.6.1114 

Teaching phenomenology by way of "second-person perspectivity" (from my thirty years at the University of Dallas)

 

 

Scott D. Churchill

 

 


ABSTRACT

Phenomenology has remained a sheltering place for those who would seek to understand not only their own "first person" experiences but also the first person experiences of others. Recent publications by renowned scholars within the field have clarified and extended our possibilities of access to "first person" experience by means of perception (Lingis, 2007) and reflection (Zahavi, 2005). Teaching phenomenology remains a challenge, however, because one must find ways of communicating to the student how to embody it as a process rather than simply to learn about it as a content area. Another challenge issues from the fact that most writings on applied phenomenology emphasize individual subjectivity as the central focus, while offering only indirect access to the subjectivity of others (for example, by way of analyzing written descriptions provided by the individual under study). While one finds in the literature of psychotherapy plentiful elucidations of the "we-experience" within which therapists form impressions of their clients' experience, there is still need for a more thoughtful clarification of our rather special personal modes of access to the experience of others in everyday life. This paper will present "second person perspectivity" as a mode of resonating with the expressions of others and will describe class activities that can bring students closer to a lived understanding of what it means to be doing phenomenology in the face of the other.


 

 

“Full text available only in PDF format”

 

 

References

Abram, D. (1996). The spell of the sensuous: Perception and language in a more-than-human world. New York, NY: Random House.         [ Links ]

Acampora, R. R. (2006). Corporal compassion: Animal ethics and philosophy of body. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.         [ Links ]

Allport, G. W. (1937). Personality: A psychological interpretation. New York, NY: Henry Holt & Co.         [ Links ]

Behnke, E. A. (1999). From Merleau-Ponty's concept of nature to an interspecies practice of peace. In H. P. Steeves (Ed.), Animal others: On ethics, ontology, and animal life (pp. 93-116). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.         [ Links ]

Bekoff, M. (2002) Minding animals: Awareness, emotions, and heart. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.         [ Links ]

Binswanger, L. (1958). The existential analysis school of thought (E. Angel, Trans.). In R. May, E. Angel, & H. F. Ellenberger (Eds.), Existence: A new dimension in psychiatry and psychology (pp. 191 -213). New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. (Original work published 1946)        [ Links ]

Castaneda, C. (1972). Journey to Ixtlan: The lessons of Don Juan. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.         [ Links ]

Churchill, S. D. (1984). Forming clinical impressions: A phenomenological study of psychodiagnostic seeing. In C. M. Aanstoos (Ed.), Exploring the lived world: Readings in phenomenological psychology (Vol. XXIII of West Georgia College Studies in Social Sciences, pp. 67-84). Carrollton, GA: West Georgia College.         [ Links ]

Churchill, S. D. (1988, August). Imitation: A 'bodily reflective mode' for access to others' experience. In S. D. Churchill (Chair), Empathy as an investigatory posture: Theory, method, and praxis. Symposium presented at the 96th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Atlanta.         [ Links ]

Churchill, S. D. (1993). The lived meanings of date rape: Seeing through the eyes of the victim. Family Violence and Sexual Assault Bulletin, 9(1), 20-23.         [ Links ]

Churchill, S. D. (1995). Forbidden pleasure: Male desire for (and) identification with the female body. Contemporary Psychodynamics, 1995(July), 1-28.         [ Links ]

Churchill, S. D. (1997). The alchemy of male desire: Femininity as totem and taboo. In S. Marlan (Ed.), Fire in the stone: Alchemy and seduction (pp. 179-206). Wilmette, IL: Chiron Press.         [ Links ]

Churchill, S. D. (1998). The intentionality of psychodiagnostic seeing: A phenomenological investigation of clinical impression formation. In R. Valle (Ed.), Phenomenological inquiry: Existential and transpersonal perspectives (pp. 175-207). New York, NY: Plenum.         [ Links ]

Churchill, S. D. (2000-2001). Intercorporeality, gestural communication, and the voices of silence: Towards a phenomenological ethology - Part One. Somatics: Journal of the Bodily Arts and Sciences, 13(1), 28-32.         [ Links ]

Churchill, S. D. (2001). Intercorporeality, gestural communication, and the voices of silence: Towards a phenomenological ethology - Part Two. Somatics: Journal of the Bodily Arts and Sciences, 13(2), 40-45.         [ Links ]

Churchill, S. D. (2003). Gestural communication with a bonobo: Empathy, alterity, and carnal intersubjectivity. Constructivism and the Human Sciences, 8(1), 19-36.         [ Links ]

Churchill, S. D. (2006a). Encountering the animal other: Reflections on moments of empathic seeing. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology (Special Edition: Methodology), 6(August), 1-13.         [ Links ]

Churchill, S. D. (2006b). Phenomenological analysis: Impression formation during a clinical assessment interview. In C. T. Fischer (Ed.), Qualitative research methods for psychologists: Case demonstrations (pp. 79-110). New York, NY: Academic Press.         [ Links ]

Churchill, S. D. (2007). Experiencing the other within the we: Phenomenology with a bonobo. In L. E. Embree & T. J. Nenon (Eds.), Phenomenology 2005, Vol. 5(1): Selected Essays from North America (pp. 139-162). Bucharest, Romania: Zeta Books.         [ Links ]

Churchill, S. D. (2010, August). Resounding with meaning in the lives of others: Towards a phenomenology of "second person" perspectivity. Paper presented at the 29th Annual International Human Science Research Conference, Seattle University.         [ Links ]

Churchill, S. D. (2010a). Empathy, intercorporeality, and the call to compassion. Society and Animals, 18(2), 219-225.         [ Links ]

Churchill, S. D. (2010b). "Second person" perspectivity in observing and understanding emotional expression. In L. Embree, M. Barber, & T. J. Nenon (Eds.), Phenomenology 2010, Volume 5: Selected essays from North America, Part 2: Phenomenology beyond philosophy (pp. 81-106). Bucharest, Romania: Zeta Books.         [ Links ]

Churchill, S. D., Lowery, J. E., McNally, O., & Rao, A. (1998). The question of reliability in interpretive psychological research: A comparison of three phenomenologically based protocol analyses. In R. Valle (Ed.), Phenomenological inquiry in psychology: Existential and transpersonal dimensions (pp. 63-85). New York, NY: Plenum.         [ Links ]

Dalhberg, K., & Drew, N. (1997). A lifeworld paradigm for nursing research. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 15(3), 303-317.         [ Links ]

Davis, W. (1988). Passage of darkness: The ethnobiology of the Haitian zombie. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.         [ Links ]

Dilthey, W. (1977). Ideas concerning a descriptive and analytic psychology (R. M. Zaner, Trans.). In W. Dilthey (R. M. Zaner & K. L. Heiges, Trans.), Descriptive psychology and historical understanding (pp. 23-120). The Hague, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff. (Original work published 1894)        [ Links ]

Dilthey, W. (1977). The understanding of other persons and their expressions of life (K. L. Heiges, Trans.). In W. Dilthey, Descriptive psychology and historical understanding (pp. 121-144). The Hague, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff. (Original work published 1927)        [ Links ]

Galvin, K. T., & Todres, L. (2009). Embodying nursing openheartedness: An existential perspective. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 27(2), 141-149.         [ Links ]

Goodall, J. (1988). In the shadow of man (Rev. ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. (Original work published 1971)        [ Links ]

Goodall, J. (1990). Through a window: My thirty years with the chimpanzees of Gombe. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.         [ Links ]

Heidegger, M. (1962). Being and time (J. Macquarrie & E. Robinson, Trans.). New York, NY: Harper & Row. (Original work published 1927)        [ Links ]

Heidegger, M. (1972). Sein und Zeit (12th ed.). Tübingen, Germany: Max Niemeyer Verlag. (Original edition published 1927)        [ Links ]

Heidegger, M. (1995). Fundamental concepts of metaphysics: World, finitude, solitude (W. McNeill & N. Walker, Trans.). Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. (Original lecture course given 1929-1930 and published in German in 1983)        [ Links ]

Husserl, E. (1977). Phenomenological psychology: Lectures, summer semester, 1925 (J. Scanlon, Trans.). Boston, MA: Martinus Nijhoff.         [ Links ]

Husserl, E. (1989). Ideas pertaining to a pure phenomenology and to a phenomenological philosophy, Second Book: Studies in the phenomenology of constitution (R. Rojcewicz & A. Schuwer, Trans.). Boston: Kluwer. (Original work written 1928 and published posthumously in 1952)        [ Links ]

Husserl, E. (2006). The basic problems of phenomenology: From the lectures, Winter Semester, 1910-1911 (I. Farin & J. G. Hart, Trans.). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.         [ Links ]

Jaspers, K. (1963). General psychopathology (J. Hoenig & M. W. Hamilton, Trans.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. (Original work published 1913)        [ Links ]

Katz, D. (1937). Animals and men: Studies in comparative psychology. London, UK: Longmans, Green & Co.         [ Links ]

Köhler, W. (1971). Methods of psychological research with apes (M. Henle, Trans.). In M. Henle (Ed.), The selected papers of Wolfgang Köhler (pp. 197-233). New York, NY: Liveright. (Original work published 1921)        [ Links ]

Levinas, E. (1969). Totality and infinity: An essay on exteriority (A. Lingis, Trans.). Pittsburgh, PA: Duquesne University Press. (Original work published 1961)        [ Links ]

Lingis, A. (1994). The community of those who have nothing in common. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.         [ Links ]

Lingis, A. (2000). Dangerous emotions. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.         [ Links ]

Lingis, A. (2007). The first person singular. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.         [ Links ]

Lipps, T. (1903). Leitfaden der Psychologie [Textbook of psychology].         [ Links ] Leipzig, Germany: Engelmann.

Maril, V. L. (2002). Meaningful behaviour in animals: An investigation of zoologists' perceptions of chimpanzee life. Methods: A Journal for Human Science, Annual Edition, 48-72.         [ Links ]

Merleau-Ponty, M. (1962). Phenomenology of perception (C. Smith, Trans.). London, UK: Routledge & Kegan Paul. (Original work published 1945)        [ Links ]

Merleau-Ponty, M. (1964a). Eye and mind (C. Dallery, Trans.). In M. Merleau-Ponty, The primacy of perception: And other essays on phenomenological psychology, the philosophy of art, history and politics (J. M. Edie, Ed.) (pp. 159-190). Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press. (Original work published 1961)        [ Links ]

Merleau-Ponty, M. (1964b). The philosopher and his shadow (R. C. McCleary, Trans.). In M. Merleau-Ponty, Signs (pp. 159-181). Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press. (Original work published 1960)        [ Links ]

Merleau-Ponty, M. (1964c). The film and the new psychology (H. L. Dreyfus & P. A. Dreyfus, Trans.). In M. Merleau-Ponty, Sense and non-sense (pp. 48-59). Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press. (Original lecture given 1945)        [ Links ]

Merleau-Ponty, M. (1964d). The metaphysical in man (H. L. Dreyfus & P. A. Dreyfus, Trans.). In M. Merleau-Ponty, Sense and non-sense (pp. 83-98). Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press. (Original work published 1948)        [ Links ]

Merleau-Ponty, M. (1964e). The child's relations with others (W. Cobb, Trans.). In M. Merleau-Ponty, The primacy of perception: And other essays on phenomenological psychology, the philosophy of art, history and politics (J. M. Edie, Ed.) (pp. 96-155). Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press. (Original work published 1960)        [ Links ]

Merleau-Ponty, M. (1968). The visible and the invisible (A. Lingis, Trans.). Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press. (Original work published 1964)        [ Links ]

Merleau-Ponty, M. (1970). Themes from the lectures at the Collège de France 1952-1960 (J. O'Neill, Trans.). Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.         [ Links ]

Merleau-Ponty, M. (1973). The prose of the world (C. Lefort, Ed.; J. O'Neill, Trans.). Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press. (Original work written 1952; published posthumously in French in 1969)        [ Links ]

Merleau-Ponty, M. (2003). Nature: Course notes from the Collège de France (R. Vallier, Trans.). Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press. (Original lecture course delivered 1956-1957 and published in French in 1995)        [ Links ]

Plantinga, C. (1999). The scene of empathy and the human face on film. In C. R. Plantinga & G. M. Smith (Eds.), Passionate views: Film, cognition, and emotion (pp. 239-255). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.         [ Links ]

Quincey, C. de. (2000). Intersubjectivity: Exploring consciousness from the second-person perspective. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 32(2), 135-155.         [ Links ]

Rao, A. (1992). The experience of being perceived as beautiful: A phenomenological study informed by Sartre's ontology. Unpublished senior thesis, University of Dallas, Irving, TX.         [ Links ]

Rao, A., & Churchill, S. D. (2004). Experiencing oneself as being-beautiful: A phenomenological study informed by Sartre's ontology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 1(1), 55-68.         [ Links ]

Reel, M. (2010). The last of the tribe: The epic quest to save a lone man in the Amazon. New York, NY: Schribner.         [ Links ]

Reich, W. R. (1972). Character analysis (V. R. Carfagno, Trans.). New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. (Original work published 1933)        [ Links ]

Sartre, J.-P. (1956). Being and nothingness: A phenomenological essay on ontology (H. E. Barnes, Trans.). New York, NY: Washington Square Press. (Original work published 1943)        [ Links ]

Sartre, J.-P. (1971). L'idiot de la famille: Gustave Flaubert de 1821 a 1857 [The family idiot: Gustave Flaubert,         [ Links ] 1821-1857]. Paris, France: Gallimard.

Schutz, A. (1970). On phenomenology and social relations: Selected writings (H. R. Wagner, Ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.         [ Links ]

Shapiro, K. J. (1985). Bodily reflective modes: A phenomenological method for psychology. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.         [ Links ]

Sullivan, H. S. (1954). The psychiatric interview. New York, NY: Norton.         [ Links ]

Thompson, E. (Ed.). (2001). Between ourselves: Second-person issues in the study of consciousness. Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic.         [ Links ]

Todorov, T. (2001). Life in common: An essay in general anthropology (K. Golsan & L. Golsan, Trans.). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.         [ Links ]

von Uexküll, J. (1909). Umwelt und Innerwelt der Tiere [The lifeworld and the innerworld of animals].         [ Links ] Berlin, Germany: Springer.

von Uexküll, J. (1934). Streifzüge durch die Umwelten von Tieren und Menschen: Ein Bilderbuch unsichtbarer Welten [A stroll through the worlds of animals and humans: A picturebook of invisible worlds].         [ Links ] Berlin, Germany: Springer.

von Uexküll, J. (2001). An introduction to Umwelt. Semiotica, 134(1-4), 107-110.         [ Links ]

von Uexküll, T. (1992). Introduction: The sign theory of Jakob von Uexküll. Semiotica, 89(4), 279-315.         [ Links ]

Zahavi, D. (2003). Husserl's intersubjective transformation of transcendental philosophy. In D. Welton (Ed.), The new Husserl: A critical reader (pp. 233-251). Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.         [ Links ]

Zahavi, D. (2005). Subjectivity and selfhood: Investigating the first person perspective. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.         [ Links ]

 

About the Author

 

 

Scott D. Churchill earned his PhD in clinical phenomenological psychology at Duquesne University with an empirical-phenomenological dissertation on psychodiagnostic seeing. He is currently Professor and Graduate Programme Director in the Psychology Department at the University of Dallas, where he has been teaching for three decades. Professionally focused on the understanding of various forms of expression, both human and non-human, he is interested in the development of phenomenological and hermeneutic methodologies, and has taught a wide variety of courses ranging from primatology and projective techniques to film studies, existential phenomenology and Daseinsanalysis. In addition to developing the notion of "second person perspectivity" in relation to qualitative research, ethology, and health care, Professor Churchill is currently engaged in an ongoing experiential study of interspecies communication with the bonobos at the Fort Worth Zoo, and is a local co-ordinator for Jane Goodall's Roots & Shoots programme.

Professor Churchill's publications include entries in the APA's Encyclopedia of Psychology; chapters in the Handbook of Humanistic Psychology and in Ron Valle's Phenomenological Inquiry: Existential and Transpersonal Dimensions, as well as articles in The Humanistic Psychologist, Constructivism in the Human Sciences, Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, The Psychotherapy Patient, and Somatics. In 2006 he assumed the position of Editor-in-Chief for The Humanistic Psychologist after having served from 1989-2003 as Editor of Methods: A Journal for Human Science. He is also a Consulting Editor for the Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, Encyclopaideia: Journal of Phenomenology and Education, Qualitative Research in Psychology, Human Studies, The Janus Head, and The Psychotherapy Patient.

Professor Churchill is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association, a liaison to its Science Directorate, Past President of the Division of Humanistic Psychology, and an active member of the executive board of the Society for Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology. He has also served as a visiting professor at Duquesne University, Saybrook Graduate School, Pacifica Graduate Institute in Santa Barbara, and Macquarrie University in Sydney, as well as at Johannes Guttenberg University in Mainz, the University of Konstanz, and the University of Bari. In addition to his contribution in the professional sphere, he has served in Dallas as a film critic for local television, and been an invited juror at Dallas film and video festivals, for over 25 years. E-mail Address: bonobo@udallas.edu

Creative Commons License Todo o conteúdo deste periódico, exceto onde está identificado, está licenciado sob uma Licença Creative Commons