SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.22 issue2Enhancing consumers' voluntary use of small-scale wind turbines to generate their own electricity in South AfricaWhat contribution does the installation of solar water heaters make towards the alleviation of energy poverty in South Africa? author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand



Related links

  • On index processCited by Google
  • On index processSimilars in Google


Journal of Energy in Southern Africa

On-line version ISSN 2413-3051
Print version ISSN 1021-447X

J. energy South. Afr. vol.22 n.2 Cape Town  2011


Analysis of the performance profile of the NCERD thermosyphon solar water heater



Solomon Agbo

National Centre for Energy Research and Development, University of Nigeria, Nsukka




The work reported here is the performance profile of a thermosyphon solar water heater developed by the National Centre for Energy Research and Development (NCERD), University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The performance evaluation was based on the mathematical models that describe the test system and some measured experimental data. The effect of some of the design and operating parameters that have been shown to affect the system's performance was investigated. The parameters considered included the number of glazing covers, glazing cover thickness, tube spacing and the nature of absorber plate material. The performance results indicate that the test system has a maximum average daily collector efficiency of 0.658 and a mean system temperature of 81°C. The efficiency of the collector drops to an average seasonal value of 0.54 with a negligible variation across the three climatic seasons was covered in the study. With a tube spacing not exceeding 10 cm, the performance of the system is optimized irrespective of the nature of the absorber plate material. We found that the number of glazing covers affects the top-loss coefficient of the system depending on the type of absorber plate used. Multiple glazing shows a negligible contribution especially for low temperature application. The glazing cover thickness does not affect the performance of the system significantly.

Keywords: thermosyphon solar water heater, collector efficiency, performance models, simulation



Full text available only in pdf format.




Agbo, S.N. and Unachukwu, G.O. (2007). Design and Performance features of a thermosyphon solar water heater for an average size family in Nsukka Urban. Trend in Applied Science Research, 2 (3): 224-230.         [ Links ]

Bello, M.B., Danshehu, B.G. and Sambo, A.S. (1990). Experimental Studies with a Mains-connected Solar Water Heater. Nig. J. Solar Energy, 9: 68-77.         [ Links ]

Buckles, W.E. and Klein, S.A. (1980). Analysis of Solar Domestic Hot Water Heaters. Solar Energy, 25: 417-424.         [ Links ]

Close, D.J. (1962). The Performance of Solar Water heaters with Natural Circulation. Solar Energy, 6: 33-40.         [ Links ]

Danshehu, B.G., Asere, A.A. and Sambo, A.S. (1998). Community-Based Solar Water Heating Systems: Design, Development and Performance Evaluation. Paper presented at the 1998 National Solar Energy Forum (NASEF 1998) organized by Solar Energy Society of Nigeria, 15 - 19 Sept. 1998, Port Harcourt.         [ Links ]

Duffie, J.A. and Beckman W.A. (1974). Solar Energy Thermal Processes; John Wiley Inc., New York.         [ Links ]

Enibe, S.O. (2002). Recent Advances in Renewable Energy Applications in Nigeria and their policy implications. Proc. First Workshop of the Renewable Energy Sub-National of the African Network of Scientific and Technological Institutions (ANSTI), Kumasi, Ghana.         [ Links ]

Faiman, D. et al. (1979). Optimization of a Solar Water Heating System for a Nagev Kibbutz. Israel J. Technology, 17: 19-28.         [ Links ]

Farber, E.A. (1959). Solar Water Heating. Air cond. Heat Vent, 56(7): 53-55.         [ Links ]

Garg, H.P (1987). Advances in Solar Energy Technology. D. Reidel Pub. Co., Holland.         [ Links ]

Gupta, C. L and Garg, H.P. (1968). System design in Solar Water heaters with Natural Circulation. Solar Energy, 12: 163-182.         [ Links ]

Klein, S.A., Beckman, W.A. et al. (1976). A Design Procedure for Solar Heating Systems. Solar Energy, 18: 113-127.         [ Links ]

Kreider, J.F (1982). The Solar Heating Design Process. McGraw Hill Book Co., New York.         [ Links ]

Morrison, G.L. and Tran, H.N. (1992). Energy Rating of Domestic Water Heaters. ANZSES Annual Conference, Darwin.         [ Links ]

Sodha, M.S. and Tiwari, G.N. (1981). Analysis of Natural Circulation Solar Water Heating Systems. Energy Conversion and Management, 21: 283-288.         [ Links ]

Takeo, S.S. and Hamdy, H.E. (2002). A Pilot Solar Water disinfecting System: Performance analysis and testing. Solar Energy 72(3): 261-269.         [ Links ]

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (2000). DOE/GO-10096-05.2000.         [ Links ]

Wang Shing-An (1979). An Experimental Study of corrugated Steel Sheet Solar Water Heater. Solar Energy, 23: 333-341.         [ Links ]



Received 23 March 2010
Revised 21 September 2010

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License