versión On-line ISSN 2413-3051
J. energy South. Afr. vol.21 no.2 Cape Town 2010
Christiaan César Bode; Thomas John Sheer
School of Mechanical, Industrial and Aeronautical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg
The technical and financial feasibility of small-scale distributed Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) systems for urban areas in Johannesburg, South Africa, is investigated. The University of the Witwatersrand (Wits), located in central Johannesburg, is used as the basis of a case study for the implementation of these systems. A number of proven CSP technologies were identified and a technology screening was performed to identify suitable technologies for possible implementation, for a reference output of 120 kW(e). From these, a number of systems were chosen for more detailed evaluation and the hourly energy production of these systems was analysed, using local weather data. The Compound Linear Fresnel Reflector system (CLFR) proved to be most suitable because of the space and cost benefits it offers. Systems that integrate organic Rankine cycles (ORC) as well as thermal storage and hybridisation were also investigated. The levelised cost of electricity (LEC) was predicted to be between R4.31 and R3.18 per kWh. Currently these technologies cannot compete financially with the price of local, fossil produced electricity, but with the increase in electricity tariffs and demand for clean reliable power CSP technologies, may become competitive in distributed generation systems in urban areas.
Keywords: concentrating solar power, distributed generation
Full text available only in pdf format.
The assistance and advice provided by Thomas Roos of the CSIR, Pretoria, is gratefully acknowledged. The financial assistance of the South African National Energy Research Institute (SANERI) towards this research is hereby acknowledged. Opinions expressed and conclusions arrived at, are those of the authors and are not necessarily to be attributed to SANERI.
Beerbauma S. and Weinrebeb G., (2000). Solar thermal power generation in India - a techno-economic analysis, Renewable Energy 21 pp.153-174. [ Links ]
Broesamle H. Mannstein H., Schillings C., and Trieb F, (2000). Assessment of Solar Electricity Potentials in North Africa Based On Satellite Data and a Geographic Information System. Prepared for DLR. [ Links ]
Eskom (2001). Research Report, CSP Pre-feasibility Study, Eskom Research RES/RR/01/15662. [ Links ]
Geyer M., (2007). Introducing Concentrated Solar Power on the International Markets Worldwide Incentives, Policies and Benefits, Solar Paces/Abengoa Solar. [ Links ]
Hassani V. and Price H., (2001). Modular Trough Power Plants, Proceedings of Solar Forum 2001 Solar Energy, Washington, DC, pp.1-7. [ Links ]
International Energy Agency (IEA) (1991). Guidelines for the Economic Analysis of Renewable Energy Applications, IEA, Quebec. [ Links ]
Kolb G. (1998). The Economic Evaluation of Solar-only and Hybrid power Towers using Molten Salt Technology, Solar Energy Vol. 62 No.1. [ Links ]
Mills D. and Morrison G., (2000). Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector Solar Thermal Power Plants, Solar Energy, Vol. 68 No3, pp.263-283. [ Links ]
National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) (1995). User's Manual for TMY2s Meteorological Years Derived from the 1961-1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base, CD-ROM. Golden, Colorado, NREL/SP-463-7668. [ Links ]
Peters M. and Timmerhaus E., (1991). Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineer, McGraw-Hill, pp.164-266. [ Links ]
Pitz-Paal R., Dersch J. and Milow B., (2005). European Concentrated Solar Thermal Road-Mapping (ECOSTAR), Road Map Document (WP 3 Deliverable N° 7). [ Links ]
Sargent and Lundy (S&L) (2003). Assessment of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology Cost and Performance Forecasts, Subcontractor Report, NREL/SR-550-34440. [ Links ]
Solar Thermal Industry Association (STI) (2005). Concentrating Solar Thermal Power - NOW!, Solar Paces, Estia, Greenpeace. [ Links ]
Received 14 July 2009
Revised 11 May 2010