SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.20 número3Measurement and verification of a lighting load reduction project through energy efficiency índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
Home Pagelista alfabética de revistas  

Servicios Personalizados

Articulo

Indicadores

Links relacionados

  • En proceso de indezaciónCitado por Google
  • En proceso de indezaciónSimilares en Google

Compartir


Journal of Energy in Southern Africa

versión On-line ISSN 2413-3051
versión impresa ISSN 1021-447X

J. energy South. Afr. vol.20 no.3 Cape Town  2009

 

A review of electrical energy management techniques: Supply and consumer side (industries)

 

 

Afua Mohamed; Mohamed Tariq KhanI

Department of Electrical Engineering, Cape Peninsula University of Technology

 

 


ABSTRACT

A review of electrical energy management techniques on the supply side and demand side is presented. The paper suggests that direct load control, interruptible load control, and time of use (TOU) are the main load management techniques used on the supply side (SS). The supply side authorities normally design these techniques and implement them on demand side consumers. Load management (LM) initiated on the demand side leads to valley filling and peak clipping. Power factor correction (PFC) techniques have also been analysed and presented. It has been observed that many power utilities, especially in developing countries, have neither developed nor implemented DSM for their electrical energy management. This paper proposes that the existing PFC techniques should be re-evaluated especially when loads are nonlinear. It also recommends automatic demand control methods to be used on the demand side in order to acquire optimal energy consumption. This would lead to improved reliability of the supply side and thereby reducing environmental degradation.

Keywords: electrical energy management, demand-side management, maximum demand, power factor correction


 

 

Full text available only in PDF format.

 

 

References

Ahsan Q, 1990, 'Load management: impacts on the reliability and production costs of interconnected systems', Electrical Power and Energy System, Vol.12, No. 4, pp. 275-262.         [ Links ]

AL-Shakarchi M.R.G. and ABU-Zeid N.SH, 2002, 'A Study of Load Management by Direct Control for Jordan's Electrical Power System' Journal of Science & Technology, Vol.7 No. 2.         [ Links ]

Antonio Barreiro, Jose Ferreira, Carlos Abreu and Michael Blanks, 1991, 'Energy management for rational electricity use- Reducing cost and consumption at SECIL's Outao Cement Plant' IEEE transaction on industrial applications, Vol.27, No. 3, pp. 398-405.         [ Links ]

Ashok S, 2006, 'Peak- loads management in steel plants' Applied energy, Vol. 83, pp. 413-428.         [ Links ]

Ashok, S and Banerjee R, 2001, 'An optimization mode for industrial load management' IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 879-884.         [ Links ]

Babu Ram, 1995, 'Tariff and load Management: Post privatisation study of the U.k electricity supply industry' IEEE Transactions on Power System, Vol.10, No. 2, pp. 1111-1117.         [ Links ]

Backer D. L, 1986, 'load management direct control fact or simulation' IEEE transaction on Power system, Vol. PWRS-1, No. 1, pp.82-88.         [ Links ]

Benergee Ragan, 1998, 'Load management in the Indian power sector using US experience' Energy, Vol.23, No. 11, pp. 961-972.         [ Links ]

Bjorke C. O, 1985, 'Load Management Applications for Industrial Loads' IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-104, No. 8, pp. 2058-2062.         [ Links ]

Chamberlin J. H, Herman P. M. 1996, 'How much DSM is really there? A market perspective' Energy Policy, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 323-330.         [ Links ]

Channele D. 'U.S Electric utility Demand side management: Trends and analysis' [online].         [ Links ] www.eia.doe.gove/cneaf/pubs-html.dsm [26/04/2008].

Gellings, C. W& Chamberlin, J. H, 1993, 'Demand-Side Management: Concepts and Methods', Second Edition, the Fairmont Press.         [ Links ]

Kah-Hoe Ng, Gerald B. Sheble, 1998, 'Direct load control- A profit - based Load management using linear programming', IEEE Transaction on power systems, Vol.13, No. 2. pp. 688-695.         [ Links ]

Kissock J Kelly. and Carl Eger, 2008, 'Measuring industrial energy savings' Applied Energy Vol. 85, No. 5, pp. 347-361.         [ Links ]

Khosid S, 1998, 'A mathematical model of load-controlled consumer for an active loadmanagement' Electrotechnical Conference, MELECON 98, 9th Mediterranean Vol. 2, No. 18-20 pp. 1076 - 1079.         [ Links ]

Leif Isakson, Fred S. and Nelson W,1981, 'Bibliography on load management', IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus Vol. PAS-100, No. 5, pp. 2597- 2599.         [ Links ]

Manichaikul Y and Schwepper F C, 1979, 'Physical based industrial electric load modelling' IEEE transaction on power systems, Vol. PAS98 No. 4, pp 1439-1445.         [ Links ]

Mathews E. H, Kleingeld .M, Van der Bijl J and Jordaan N, 2008, 'Real-time energy management in the cement industry' EE Publisher , pp. 74-80.         [ Links ]

Mthombeni Tsakani Lotten, 2007, 'Energy efficient motor systems for ESKOM Demand Side Management' Proceedings of ICUE, Cape Town South Africa.         [ Links ]

Nadel Steven, 1992, 'Utility Demand-Side Management Experience and Potential- A Critical Review' Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, Vol. 17, pp 507-535.         [ Links ]

Nadel Steven & Geller Howard, 1999, 'Utility DSM-What have we learned? Where are we going?' Energy policy, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 289-302.         [ Links ]

Nancy E. Ryan, John T. Power, 1989, 'Generalizing direct load program analysis: Implementation of the duty cycle approach', IEEE transactions on power systems, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 293-299.         [ Links ]

National Electricity Regulator (NER), 2000, South Africa.         [ Links ]

 

 

Received 8 September 2008
Revised 10 June 2009