versión On-line ISSN 2413-3051
J. energy South. Afr. vol.20 no.2 Cape Town 2009
Raj Kumar Kapooria
National Institute of Technology Kurukshetra (NIT), Deemed University Kurukshetra-136119, Haryana, India; and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Brcm C.E.T. Affiliated M. D. Uni. Rohtak (Haryana), India
Liquid metal magneto-hydrodynamic-energy-con-version (LMMHDEC) systems have been a matter of great interest and research & development since 1960. The various states of design and development of such systems go through a step-by-step progress with time. This paper highlights the phenomenon of direct thermal energy conversion systems using liquid metal as an electrodynamics fluid and gas/vapour as a thermodynamic fluid. An analysis of the technological drawbacks responsible for low efficiency of these LMMHDEC systems along with possible R & D solutions have been discussed in this technical research paper. The separation of electrodynamics fluid from thermodynamic fluid at various stages of MHD conversion remained an efficiency challenge of the various types of systems. To meet this challenge, a Dual-cycle MHD system has been designed in this paper. Both the fluids viz. thermodynamic and electrodynamics go through a phase change in this cycle. The thermal efficiency is optimized when one fluid goes into a phase change during a cycle and another fluid does not experience any phase change. The information covered in this paper enables an overview of concepts and the background to choose a cycle for a given temperature range.
Keywords: density difference, energy-conversion, liquid metal, magnetohydrodynamic, pressure-gradient, solar collector
Full text available only in PDF format.
Amend W.E. et al., The effects of geometry and loss mechanisms on the performance of two-phase liquid metal MIlD generators. Proc. 14th SEAM, Tennessee, 8 -10 April, 1974, pp. VI.2.1.-VI.2.7. [ Links ]
Blumenau, L., H. Branover, A. El-Boher, E. Spero, S. Sukoriansky, G. Talmadge, and E. Greenspan, 'Liquid Metal MHD Power Conversion Systems with Conventional and Nuclear Heat Sources,' Proc. 24th Symposium on Engineering Aspects of Magnetohydrodynamics, Butte Montana, 1986. [ Links ]
Branover, H. et al., Solar powered LMMHD generators and some peculiarities of the performance of two-phase generators. Proc. 7th Int. Con/: on MHD Electrical Power Generation, Boston, 16 20 June 1980, pp. 165 169. [ Links ]
Branover, H. et al., Testing of a complete closed-cycle two-phase liquid metal MHD power system. Pro (. l') th SEA M, Tennessee, 15 17 June 1981, pp. 7.7.1 7.7.7. [ Links ]
Branover, H.; El-Boher, A.; Lesin, S.; Unger, Y.; Petrick, M.: Testing of OMACON-Type MHD Power Systems. [ Links ] Liquid Metal Flows: Magnetohydro-dynamics and Applications, Prog. in Astronautics and Aeronautics. 111, AIAA, NY, (1988) 209-229. [ Links ]
Elliott, D.G., Direct current liquid metal magnetohydro-dynamic power generation. AIAA J. 4, 6274534 (1966). [ Links ]
Elliott, D. G., Two-Fluid Magnetohydrodynamic Cycle for Nuclear-Electric Power Conversion. ARS Journal. (1962) 924-928. [ Links ]
Elliott, D.G., Two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic cycle for nuclear-electric power conversion. ARJ J., 924-928 (1962). [ Links ]
Elliot, D.G., et al., Theoretical and experimental investigation of liquid metal MHD power generation. Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on MHD Electrical Power Generation, Vol. 1 and 2, pp. 995-1018 (1966). [ Links ]
Fabris, G., E. S. Pierson, I. Pollack, P Dauzvardis, and W. Ellis, 'High-Power-Density Liquid-Metal MHD Generator Results,' Proc. 18th Symposium on Engineering Aspects of Magnetohydrodynamics, Butte Montana, 1979. [ Links ]
Geyer H.K. and E S. Pierson, Solar liquid-metal performance predictions. Proc. 20th SEAM, lrvinc 1982. pp. 6.1.I 6.1.5. [ Links ]
Grolmes, M. A.; Petrick, M.; Jerger, E. W.: Condensing Injector Experiments and Analysis of Performance with Supersonic Inlet Vapor. Proc. Intl .Symposium on Electricity from MHD, 2 Salzburg (1966). [ Links ]
Hammitt, A.G., Magnetohydrodynamic liquid metal power conversion systems. Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on MHD Electrical Power Generation, Vol. 1 and 2, pp. 1111-1126 (1966). [ Links ]
Internet website: www-htgl.stanford.edu/PIG/C4_S9.pdf.
Internet website: www.lascruces.com/~mrpbar/REMHD.pdf.
Jackson, W. D.; Pierson, E. S.: Operating Characteristics of MHD Induction Generators. I.E.E. Conference Report, Series No. 4. , (1962) 38-42. [ Links ]
Kaushik, S.C., S. S. Verma and A. Chandra, Solar-assisted Liquid Metal MHD power generation: A state of the Art Study, Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 012, India. [ Links ]
Liquid Metal Magnetohydrodynamics Technology Transfer Study, Vol. II. Rept. 1200 59, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena (1973). [ Links ]
Morse, F.H., 'Survey of Liquid Metal Magneto-hydrody-namic Energy Conversion Cycles,' Energy Conversion, Vol. 10, Pergammon Press, pp. 155-176, 1970. [ Links ]
Petrick, M, MHD generators operating with two-phase liquid metal flows. Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on MHD Electrical Power Generation, Vol. I and 2, pp. 889-902 (1966). [ Links ]
Petrick, M. et al. , 'Experimental Two-Phase Liquid Metal Magnetohydrodynamic Generator Program, Final Report,' ANL report MHD-79-1, 1978. [ Links ]
Petrick, M. and H. Branover, 'Liquid Metal MHD Power Generation - its Evolution and Status,' Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, American Institute of Astronautics and Aeronautics, Vol. 100, pp. 371-400, 1985. [ Links ]
Petrick, M. and Branover, H., Liquid Metal MHD Power Generation - Its Evolution and Status. Single-and Multi-Phase Flows in an Electromagnetic Field, Prog. in Astronautics and Aeronautics. 100, AIAA, NY (1985) 37l-400. [ Links ]
Petrick, M. and Lee, K. Y, Performance Characteristics of a Liquid Metal MHD Generator. Proc. Intl. Symposium on Magnetohydrodynamic Electrical Power Generation, Paris, Vol. 4 (1964). [ Links ]
Petrick, M., MHD operating with two-phase liquid metal [ Links ]