SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.19 número3Design analysis methods for Stirling enginesA system methodology for an energy planning model and renewable energy technologies for agriculture in Nigeria índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
Home Pagelista alfabética de revistas  

Servicios Personalizados



Links relacionados

  • En proceso de indezaciónCitado por Google
  • En proceso de indezaciónSimilares en Google


Journal of Energy in Southern Africa

versión On-line ISSN 2413-3051
versión impresa ISSN 1021-447X

J. energy South. Afr. vol.19 no.3 Cape Town  2008


Potential transportation measures to reduce South Africa's dependency on crude oil



M Vanderschuren; R Jobanputra; T Lane

Centre for Transport Studies, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Cape Town




Transportation, including the movement of people and freight, accounts for over 60% of all oil consumed globally, and the world's transportation systems are over 90%o dependent on oil and oil byproducts. Oil represents the single largest item on South Africa's import account. Gasoline and diesel fuels, which are almost exclusively used for transportation services, form a significant proportion of these imports.
Globally, transport systems have been built on an over-reliance on cheap oil, allowing towns, cities and the movement of people and goods to be designed around the automobile. People in most South African cities require the use of motorised transport in order to travel efficiently, as public transport systems either do not exist, are too sparse or are difficult to use in many areas.
The predicted depletion of oil and thus rising prices will significantly affect the choice of transportation systems and their use, as well as increase South Africa's vulnerability to 'oil shocks'. Transport planning policies must, therefore, prepare for the likelihood of such shocks and ameliorate them via policy options. A precautionary approach needs to be adopted to reduce our dependency on oil.
This paper addresses the global shift towards the reduction of transport's dependency on, or reduction in, oil consumption and describes potential ways in which South Africa can reduce its oil dependency along with an indication of a timeframe for implementation.

Keywords: transport, energy impacts, alternative fuels, fuel efficiency



Full text available only in pdf format.




Air Car Factories (2008), Ecological vehicles,         [ Links ]

ASPO (2008), ASPO International News,         [ Links ]

Ciferri, L. (2005), Diesel momentum to peak by 2010, Automotive News, 21 March 2005 (Online).         [ Links ]

Coskata (2008), biology-based renewable energy,         [ Links ]

Deffeyes, K. S. (2005), Beyond Oil, Hill and Wang, ISBN number: 9780809029563, New York.         [ Links ]

Department of Minerals and Energy (DME), Eskom, Energy Research Centre (ERC) of the University of Cape Town (2002), Energy Outlook for South Africa: 2002, May (SA).         [ Links ]

Department of Minerals and Energy (DME, 2005), South African National Energy Balance, Pretoria (SA).         [ Links ]

Department of Minerals and Energy (DME, 2006), Digest of South African Energy Statistics, Pretoria (SA).         [ Links ]

Department of Minerals and Energy (DME, 2007), Bio-fuels Industrial Strategy of the Republic of South Africa, Pretoria (SA).         [ Links ]

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, 2007), Fuel Economy Guide Model Year 2007, Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, (USA).         [ Links ]

Eskom (2008), How electricity is made,         [ Links ]

European Automobile Manufacturers' Association (EAMA, 2008), Fuels - Background,         [ Links ]

Gilbert, R. and A. Perl (2008), Transport revolutions: moving people and freight without oil, Earthscan, ISBN number: 9781844072484.         [ Links ]

Gue, E. H. (2006), The diesel dilemma, The Energy Letter, 15 September 2006 (Online).         [ Links ]

Hutton, B. (2008), Lies, Damn Lies and Statistics, Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport, Passenger Transport, May 2008 (UK).         [ Links ]

Immers, L., Th. Muller, P. Tanja and M. Vanderschuren (1994), Verkenning Energie-besparingsopties, personenvervoer, TNO Inro, Delft (NL, Dutch).         [ Links ]

International Energy Agency (IEA, 1996), Energy Policies of South Africa, 1996 Survey, OECD, Paris, France.         [ Links ]

International Energy Agency (IEA, 2001), Saving Oil and reducing Emissions in Transport, Policies and Strategy, OECD, Paris, France (Online).         [ Links ]

Jobanputra, R., M. Vanderschuren, T. Twine, F Beeton and K. Bowler (2004), Investigation into a Transport Fuel Efficiency and Conservation Strategy for South Africa, Cape Town (SA).         [ Links ]

Kraan, M.E. (1996), Time to travel? A model for the allocation of time and money, ISBN 9036508541, October 1996.         [ Links ]

National Association of Automobile Manufacturers of South Africa (NAAMSA, 2008), Annual Report 2007, Balgair Publications, KwaZulu Natal (SA).         [ Links ]

Parker, D. (2008), Looming diesel shortage could mean trouble, Mining Weekly, 9 May 2008 (Online).         [ Links ]

Strahan, D. (2007), The last oil shock, John Murray Publishers, ISBN number: 9780719564239.         [ Links ]

U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (USDEEE&RE, 2008), Alternative Fuels & Advanced Vehicle Data Center,         [ Links ]

U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency (USDEEE&RE and EPA, 2008), Find and compare cars,         [ Links ]

Vanderschuren, M.J.W.A. and R. Jobanputra (2005), Fuel efficiency measures for South Africa, Paper for the South African Transport Conference, Pretoria, July 2005.         [ Links ]

Vanderschuren, M.J.W.A (2006), Intelligent Transport Systems in South Africa, Impact assessment through microscopic simulation in the South African context, TRAIL Thesis Series T2006/4, ISBN number: 9055840777, August 2006.         [ Links ]

Van der Voort, M. C. (2001), Design and evaluation of a new fuel-efficiency support tool, University Twente (NL).         [ Links ]

Venter, I. (2008), Diesel demand nearly double that of 1994 - expected to grow further, Engineering News, 11 April 2008 (Online).         [ Links ]

Write L. and W. Hook (2007), Bus Rapid Transit Planning Guide, 3rd edition, Institute for Transportation and Development Policy, New York (US).         [ Links ]

Wurster R, (2003), Drivers towards Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Transportation, Presentation given in the USA in summer of 2003, L-B-Systemtechnik GmbH, Ottobrunn (Germany).         [ Links ]



Received 18 January 2008
Revised 28 July 2008

Creative Commons License Todo el contenido de esta revista, excepto dónde está identificado, está bajo una Licencia Creative Commons