SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.80 número4Detection of the bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD) virus in tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses using immunohistochemistryAn investigation of the quality of meat sold in Lesotho índice de autoresíndice de assuntospesquisa de artigos
Home Pagelista alfabética de periódicos  

Serviços Personalizados

Artigo

Indicadores

Links relacionados

  • Em processo de indexaçãoCitado por Google
  • Em processo de indexaçãoSimilares em Google

Compartilhar


Journal of the South African Veterinary Association

versão On-line ISSN 2224-9435

J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. vol.80 no.4 Cape Town  2009

 

ARTICLE ARTIKEL

 

Partial intravenous anaesthesia in 5 horses using ketamine, lidocaine, medetomidine and halothane

 

 

K Kruger; G F Stegmann

Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110 South Africa.

 

 


ABSTRACT

A partial intravenous protocol was used successfully to maintain anaesthesia in 5 healthy horses. Horses were premedicated with acepromazine, romifidine and butorphanol, induced with guaifenesin and ketamine and maintained on a constant rate infusion of lidocaine, ketamine and medetomidine together with halothane inhalation anaesthesia. Mean end-tidal halothane concentration to maintain a surgical plane of anaesthesia was 0.8 ± 0.2 %. Mean dobutamine requirement to maintain mean arterial pressure above 9.31 kPa was 0.42 ± 0.3 µg/kg/min The administration of relatively low doses of lidocaine, ketamine and medetomidine together with halothane resulted in haemodynamically stable anaesthesia, followed by smooth recovery.

Keywords: anaesthesia, halothane, horse, ketamine, lidocaine, medetomidine


 

 

“Full text available only in PDF format”

 

 

REFERENCES

1. Bettschart-Wolfensberger R, Bowen I M, Freeman S L, Weller R, Clarke K W 2003 Medetomidine-ketamine anaesthesia induction followed by medetomidine-propofol in ponies: infusion rates and cardiopulmonary side effects. Equine Veterinary Journal 35: 308-313        [ Links ]

2. Bettschart-Wolfensberger R, Clarke K W, Vainio O, Aliabadi F, Demuth D 1999 Pharmacokinetics of medetomidine in ponies and elaboration of a medetomidine infusion regime which provides a constant level of sedation. Research in Veterinary Science 67: 41-46        [ Links ]

3. Bettschart-Wolfensberger R , Larenza M P 2007 Balanced anesthesia in the equine. Clinical Techniques in Equine Practice 6: 104-110        [ Links ]

4. Bienert A, Bartmann C P, von Oppen T, Poppe C, Schiemann W, Deegen E 2003 Standing behavior in horses after inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane (Isoflo) and postanesthetic sedation with romifidine (Sedivet) or xylazine (Rompun). Deutsche Tierärztliche Wochenschrift 110: 244-248        [ Links ]

5. de Jong R H , Eger E I, 2nd 1975 MAC expanded: AD50 and AD95 values of common inhalation anesthetics in man. Anesthesiology 42: 384-389        [ Links ]

6. DohertyT J, Frazier D L 1998 Effect of intravenous lidocaine on halothane minimum alveolar concentration in ponies. Equine Veterinary Journal 30: 300-303        [ Links ]

7. Doherty T J , Valverde A 2006 Manual of equine anaesthesia and analgesia Blackwell Publishing, Oxford; Ames, Iowa        [ Links ]

8. Dzikiti T B, Hellebrekers L J, Van Dijk P 2003 Effects of intravenous lidocaine on iso-flurane concentration, physiological parameters, metabolic parameters and stress-related hormones in horses undergoing surgery. Journal of Veterinary Medicine.Series A 50: 190-195        [ Links ]

9. Eger E I, Saidman L J, Brandstater B 1965 Minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration: a standard of anesthetic potency. Anesthesiology 26: 756-763        [ Links ]

10. Enderle A K, Levionnois O L, Kuhn M, Schatzmann U 2008 Clinical evaluation of ketamine and lidocaine intravenous infusions to reduce isoflurane requirements in horses under general anaesthesia. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 35: 297-305        [ Links ]

11. England G C, Clarke K W 1996 Alpha 2 adrenoceptor agonists in the horse - a review. British Veterinary Journal 152: 641-657        [ Links ]

12. Johnston G M, Eastment J K, Wood J L N, Taylor P M 2002 The confidential enquiry into perioperative equine fatalities (CEPEF): mortality results of phases 1 and 2. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 29: 159-170        [ Links ]

13. Knobloch M, Portier C J, Levionnois O L, Theurillat R, Thormann W, Spadavecchia C, Mevissen M 2006 Antinociceptive effects, metabolism and disposition of ketamine in ponies under target-controlled drug infusion. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 216: 373-386        [ Links ]

14. Kushiro T, Yamashita K, Umar M A, Maehara S, Wakaiki S, Abe R, Seno T, Tsuzuki K, Izumisawa Y, Muir W W 2005 Anesthetic and cardiovascular effects of balanced anesthesia using constant rate infusion of midazolam-ketamine-medeto-midine with inhalation of oxygen-sevoflu-rane (MKM-OS anesthesia) in horses. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 67: 379- 384        [ Links ]

15. Lankveld D P, Driessen B, Soma L R, Moate P J, Rudy J, Uboh C E, van Dijk P, Hellebrekers L J 2006 Pharmacodynamic effects and pharmacokinetic profile of a long-term continuous rate infusion of racemic ketamine in healthy conscious horses. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 29: 477-488        [ Links ]

16.LeesP,Tavernor W D 1970 Influence of lialothane catecholamines on heart rate and rhythm in the horse. British Journal of Pharmacology 39: 149-159        [ Links ]

17.LunaSPL,Taylor P M, Wheeler M J 1996 Cardiorespiratory, endocrine and metabolic changes in ponies undergoing intravenous or inhalation anaesthesia. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 19: 251-258        [ Links ]

18. McMurphy R M, Young L E, Marlin D J, Walsh K 2002 Comparison of the cardiopulmonary effects of anesthesia maintained by continuous infusion of romifidine, guaifenesin, and ketamine with anesthesia maintained by inhalation of halothane in horses. American Journal of Veterinary Research 63: 1655-1661        [ Links ]

19. MuirWW, Sams R 1992 Effects of ketamine infusion on halothane minimal alveolar concentration in horses. American Journal of Veterinary Research 53: 1802-1806        [ Links ]

20. Murrell J C, White K L, Johnson C B, Taylor P M, Doherty T J, Waterman-Pearson A E 2005 Investigation of the EEG effects of intravenous lidocaine during halothane anaesthesia in ponies. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 32: 212-221        [ Links ]

21. Neges K, Bettschart-Wolfensberger R, Müller J, Fürst A, Kästner S 2003 The isoflurane sparing effect of a medetomidine constant rate infusion in horses. Veterinary Anaesthesia & Analgesia 30: 92-93        [ Links ]

22. Sadove M S, Shulman M, Hatano S, Fevold N 1971 Analgesic effects of ketamine administered in subdissociative doses. Anesthesia & Analgesia 50: 452-457        [ Links ]

23. Spadavecchia C, Stucki F, Moens Y, Schatzmann U 2002 Anaesthesia in horses using halothane and intravenous ketamine-guaiphenesin: a clinical study. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 29: 20-28        [ Links ]

24. Steffey E P, Mama K R 2007 Inhalation anesthetics. In Tranquilli W J, Thurmon J C, Grimm K A (eds) Lumb & Jones' veterinary anesthesia and analgesia. Blackwell Publishing, Iowa: 355-393        [ Links ]

25. Steffey E P, Howland D, J 1978 Cardiovascular effects of halothane in the horse. American Journal of Veterinary Research 39: 611-615        [ Links ]

26. Steffey E P Howland D., Giri S, Eger EI 1977 Enflurane, halothane, and isoflurane potency in horses. American Journal of Veterinary Research 38: 1037-1039        [ Links ]

27. Talke P, Stapelfeldt C 2006 Effect of peripheral vasoconstriction on pulse oximetry. Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing 20: 305-309        [ Links ]

28. Trim C M 2005 Anesthesia for the colic patient. AAEP 3rd Annual Focus Meeting, Quebec, QC, Canada, July 2005: 129-134        [ Links ]

29. Valverde A, Gunkel C, Doherty T J, Giguère S, Pollak A S 2005 Effect of a constant rate infusion of lidocaine on the quality of recovery from sevoflurane or isoflurane general anaesthesia in horses. Equine Veterinary Journal 37: 559-564        [ Links ]

30. Vasko K A 1962 Preliminary report on the effects of halothane on cardiac action and blood pressure in the horse. American Journal ofVeterinary Research 23: 248-249        [ Links ]

31. White P F, Way W L, Trevor A J 1982 Ketamine - its pharmacology and therapeutic uses. Anesthesiology 56: 119-136        [ Links ]

32. Yamashita K, Muir W W, Tsubakishita S, Abrahamsen E, Lerch P, Izumisawa Y, Kotani T 2002 Infusion of guaifenesin, ketamine, and medetomidine in combination with inhalation of sevoflurane versus inhalation of sevoflurane alone for anesthesia of horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 221: 1150-1155        [ Links ]

33. Yamashita K, Satoh M, Umikawa A, Tsuda A, Yajima Y, Tsubakishita S, Seno T, Katoh S, Izumisawa Y, Kotani T 2000 Combination of continuous intravenous infusion using a mixture of guaifenesin-ketamine-medeto-midine and sevoflurane anesthesia in horses. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 62: 229-235        [ Links ]

34. Yamashita K, Tsubakishita S, Futaok S, Ueda I, Hamaguchi H, Seno T, Katoh S, Izumisawa Y, Kotani T, Muir W W 2000 Cardiovascular effects of medetomidine, detomidine and xylazine in horses. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 62: 1025-1032        [ Links ]

35. Young L E, Blissitt K J, Clutton R E, Molony V 1998 Haemodynamic effects of a sixty minute infusion of dopamine hydrochloride in horses anaesthetised with halothane. Equine Veterinary Journal 30: 310-316        [ Links ]

 

 

Received: June 2009
Accepted: November 2009

 

 

* Author for correspondence. E-mail: frik.stegmann@up.ac.za

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License