SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.80 número3A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural ZimbabweUrinary bladder botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma with widespread metastases in an 8-month-old Labrador cross dog índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
Home Pagelista alfabética de revistas  

Servicios Personalizados

Articulo

Indicadores

Links relacionados

  • En proceso de indezaciónCitado por Google
  • En proceso de indezaciónSimilares en Google

Compartir


Journal of the South African Veterinary Association

versión On-line ISSN 2224-9435

J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. vol.80 no.3 Cape Town  2009

 

ARTICLE

 

Causes of gastrointestinal colic at an equine referral hospital in South Africa (1998-2007)

 

 

A VoigtI; M N SaulezI; C M DonnellanI; B GummowII

ISection of Equine Medicine, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110 South Africa
IISchool of Veterinary and Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Health and Molecular Science, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia

 

 


ABSTRACT

The most common causes of gastrointestinal colic at an equine referral hospital in South Africa were determined following retrieval of the medical records of horses admitted during a 10-year study period. The study included 935 horses of which 28 % were admitted after hours. Most horses were Thoroughbreds (54 %), male (57 %), with a mean age of 8.2 years and originated from the Gauteng Province (81 %). Heart rate (98 %), mucous membrane colour (95 %) and auscultation of the abdomen (91 %) were the clinical data commonly obtained at admission. Packed cell volume, total serum protein and white cell count were recorded in 78 %, 75 % and 44 % of horses respectively. Transrectal palpation (93 %), nasogastric intubation (84 %), intravenous catheterisation (74 %) and abdominocentesis (53 %) were the most frequently performed procedures. Medical intervention was performed in 558 horses (60 %). The common causes of medical colic were impactions (39 %), tympany (7 %) and displacement of the large colon (6 %). An exploratory laparotomy was performed in 331 horses (36 %). The common causes of surgical colic were displacement (29 %), impaction (22 %) and small intestinal strangulating lesions (18 %). Death occurred in 3 % of horses, while euthanasia before medical intervention was performed in 4 %. Overall, medical intervention was successful in 93 % of horses and 67 % in horses managed surgically. In conclusion, 55 % of all the equine admissions responded to medical intervention and the recovery rate for horses receiving both medical and surgical intervention was comparable to that reported in other studies.

Keywords: abdominal pain, horse, medical and surgical intervention, survival


 

 

“Full text available only in PDF format”

 

 

REFERENCES

1. Abutarbush S M, Carmalt J L, Shoemaker R W 2005 Causes of gastrointestinal colic in horses in western Canada: 604 cases (1992 to 2002). Canadian Veterinary Journal 46: 800-805        [ Links ]

2. Abutarbush S M, Naylor J M 2005 Comparison of surgical versus medical treatment of nephrosplenic entrapment of the large colon in horses: 19 cases (1992-2002). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 227: 603-605        [ Links ]

3. Archer D C, Pinchbeck G L, Proudman C J, Clough H E 2006 Is equine colic seasonal? Novel application of a model based approach. BMC Veterinary Research 2: 27-37        [ Links ]

4. Archer D C, Proudman C J 2006 Epidemiological clues to preventing colic. Veterinary Journal 172: 29-39        [ Links ]

5. Brosnahan M M, Paradis M R 2003 Demographic and clinical characteristics of geriatric horses: 467 cases (1989-1999). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 223: 93-98        [ Links ]

6. Chaffin M K, Carmen Fuenteabla I, Schumacher J, Welch R D, Edwards J F 1992 Idiopathic muscular hypertrophy of the equine small intestine: 11 cases (1980-1991). Equine Veterinary Journal 24: 372-378        [ Links ]

7. Cohen N D 2003 The John Hickman memorial lecture: colic by numbers. Equine Veterinary Journal 35: 343-349        [ Links ]

8. Cohen N D, Vontur C A, Rakestraw P C 2000 Risk factors for enterolithiasis among horses in Texas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 216: 1787-1794        [ Links ]

9. Dabareiner R M, White N A 1995 Large colon impaction in horses: 147 cases (1985-1991). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 206: 679-685        [ Links ]

10. DEFRA 2006 Equine disease surveillance Liverpool university equine hospital colic data. Online at: www.defra.gov.uk/animalh/disease/vetsurveillance/species/horses/index.htm (accessed 1 October 2008)        [ Links ]

11. Edwards G B, Proudman C J 1994 An analysis of 75 cases of intestinal obstruction caused by pedunculated lipomas. Equine Veterinary Journal 26: 18-21        [ Links ]

12. Egenvall A, Penell J, Bonnett B N, Blix J, Pringle J 2008 Demographics and costs of colic in Swedish horses. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 22: 1029-1037        [ Links ]

13. Freden G O, Provost P J, Rand W M 1998 Reliability of using results of abdominal fluid analysis to determine treatment and predict lesion type and outcome for horses with colic: 218 cases (1991-1994). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 213: 1012-1015        [ Links ]

14. Freeman D E, Schaeffer D J 2005 Short-term survival after surgery for epiploic foramen entrapment compared with other strangulating diseases of the small intestine in horses. Equine Veterinary Journal 37: 292-295        [ Links ]

15. Garcia-Seco E, Wilson D A, Kramer J, Keegan K G, Branson K R, Johnson P J, Tyler J W 2005 Prevalence and risk factors associated with outcome of surgical removal of pedunculated lipomas in horses: 102 cases (1987-2002). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 226: 1529-1537        [ Links ]

16. Hassel D M, Langer D L, Snyder J R, Drake C M, Goodell M L, Wyle A 1999 Evaluation of enterolithiasis in equids: 900 cases (1973-1996). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 214: 233-237        [ Links ]

17. Henderson I S F,Mair T S, Keen J A, Shaw D J, McGorum B C 2008 Study of the shortand long-term outcomes of 65 horses with peritonitis. The Veterinary Record 163: 293-297        [ Links ]

18. Hillyer M H, Taylor F G R, French N P 2001 A cross-sectional study of colic in horses on Thoroughbred training premises in the British Isles in 1997. Equine Veterinary Journal 33: 380-385        [ Links ]

19. Hughes K J, Dowling B A, Matthews S A, Dart A J 2003 Results of surgical treatment of colic in miniature breed horses: 11 cases. Australian Veterinary Journal 81: 260-264        [ Links ]

20. Husted L, Andersen M S, Borggaard O K, Houe H, Olsen S N 2005 Risk factors for faecal sand excretion in Icelandic horses. Equine Veterinary Journal 37: 351-355        [ Links ]

21. Ihler C F, Larsen Venger J, Skjerve E 2004 Evaluation of clinical and laboratory variables as prognostic indicators in hospitalised gastrointestinal colic horses. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 45: 109-118        [ Links ]

22. Kaneene J B, Miller R, Ross W A, Gallagher K, Marteniuk J, Rook J 1997 Risk factors for colic in the Michigan (USA) equine population. Preventative Veterinary Medicine 30: 23-36        [ Links ]

23. Mair T S, Hillyer M H, TaylorFGR 1990 Peritonitis in adult horses: a review of 21 cases. Veterinary Record 126: 567-570        [ Links ]

24. Mair T S, Smith L J 2005 Survival and complication rates in 300 horses undergoing surgical treatment of colic. Part 1: Shortterm survival following a single laparotomy. Equine Veterinary Journal 37: 296-302        [ Links ]

25. Mair T S, Smith L J 2005 Survival and complication rates in 300 horses undergoing surgical treatment of colic. Part 4: Early (acute) relaparotomy. Equine Veterinary Journal 37: 315-318        [ Links ]

26. Matthews S, Dart A J, Reid S W J, Dowling B A, Hodgson D R 2002 Predictive values, sensitivity and specificity of abdominal fluid variables in determining the need for surgery in horses with an acute abdominal crisis. Australian Veterinary Journal 80: 132-136        [ Links ]

27. Morris D D, Crowe N, Johnson K, Moore J N 1992 Association of signalment and management factors with causes for colic in horses. Proceedings of the 38th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, Orlando, Florida, 30 November-2 December 1992: 441        [ Links ]

28. Morris D D, Moore J N, Ward S 1989 Comparison of age, sex, breed, history and management in 229 horses with colic. Equine Veterinary Journal Supplement 7: 129-132        [ Links ]

29. Penell J C, Egenvall A, Bonnett B N, Olson P Pringle J 2005 Specific causes of morbidity among Swedish horses insured for veterinary care between 1997 and 2000. Veterinary Record 157: 470-477        [ Links ]

30. Plummer A E, Rakestraw P C, Hardy J, Lee R M 2007 Outcome of medical and surgical treatment of cecal impaction in horses: 114 cases (1994-2004). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 231: 1378-1385        [ Links ]

31. Proudman C J, Dugdale A H A, Senior J M, Edwards G B, Smith J E, Leuwer M L, French N P 2006 Pre-operative and anaesthesia-related risk factors for mortality in equine colic cases. Veterinary Journal 171: 89-97        [ Links ]

32. Ragle C A, Meagher D M, Lacroix C A, Honnas C M 1989 Surgical treatment of sand colic results in 40 horses. Veterinary Surgery 18: 48-51        [ Links ]

33. Ragle C A, Snyder J R, Meagher D M, Honnas C M 1992 Surgical treatment of colic in American miniature horses: 15 cases (1980-1987). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 201: 329-331        [ Links ]

34. Rothenbuhler R, Hawkins J F, Adams S B, Lescun T B, Weil A B, Glickman L T, Fessler J F, Glickman N G 2006 Evaluation of surgical treatment for signs of acute abdominal pain in draft horses: 72 cases (1983-2002). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 228: 1546-1550        [ Links ]

35. Ruggles A J, Ross M W 1991 Medical and surgical management of small-colon impaction in horses: 28 cases (1984-1989). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 199: 1762-1766        [ Links ]

36. Smith B P, Magdesian K G 2002 Alterations in alimentary and hepatic function. In Smith B P (ed.) Large animal internal medicine (3rd edn). Mosby, St Louis: 102-122        [ Links ]

37. Thoefner M B, Ersboll A K, Hesselholt M 2000 Prognostic indicators in a Danish hospital-based population of colic horses. Equine Veterinary Journal Supplement 32: 11-18        [ Links ]

38. Tinker M K, White N A, Lessard P, Thatcher C D, Pelzer K D, Davis B, Carmel D K 1997 Prospective study of equine colic incidence and mortality. Equine Veterinary Journal 29: 448-453        [ Links ]

39. Tinker M K, White N A, Lessard P, Thatcher C D, Pelzer K D, Davis B, Carmel D K 1997 Prospective study of equine colic risk factors. Equine Veterinary Journal 29: 454-458        [ Links ]

40. Traub-Dargatz J L, Kopral C A, Hillberg Seitzinger A, Garber L P Forde K, White N A 2001 Estimate of the national incidence of and operation-level risk factors for colic among horses in the United States, spring 1998 to spring 1999. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219: 67-71        [ Links ]

41. Van der Linden M A, Laffont C M, Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan M M 2003 Prognosis in equine medical and surgical colic. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 17: 343-348        [ Links ]

 

 

Received: March 2009
Accepted: August 2009

 

 

*Author for correspondence. E-mail: montague.saulez@up.ac.za

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License