SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.80 número3 índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
Home Pagelista alfabética de revistas  

Servicios Personalizados



Links relacionados

  • En proceso de indezaciónCitado por Google
  • En proceso de indezaciónSimilares en Google


Journal of the South African Veterinary Association

versión On-line ISSN 2224-9435
versión impresa ISSN 1019-9128

J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. vol.80 no.3 Pretoria  2009




A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe



S MukaratirwaI; T HoveII

ISchool of Biological and Conservation Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Durban, 4000 South Africa
IIDepartment of Paraclinical VeterinaryStudies, University of Zimbabwe, Box MP167 Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe




A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice), 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas), 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites) and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7 %) followed by Echidinophaga gallinacea (71.9 %). Chickens in the Mazowe district had the highest number of ectoparasites species (10 of 11) followed by Goromonzi district (9 of 11) both these districts are situated in the highveld of Zimbabwe. The most prevalent cestode species was Raillietina tetragona (84.4 %), followed by Raillletina echinobothrida (32.2 %). Chickens in the Goromonzi district had the highest number of cestode species (7 of 9), followed by Mazowe district (one subgenus and 5 of 9). In all the districts sampled the main purpose of keeping free-range chickens was for meat for the household, with few households using the birds as a source of income. The majority of households kept their birds extensively with barely any appropriate housing, and supplementary feeding was only occasionally practised.

Keywords: cestodes, ectoparasites, free-range chickens, husbandry, Zimbabwe



“Full text available only in PDF format”




1. Abebe W, Asfaw T, Genete B, Kassa B, Drchies P 1997 Comparative studies of external parasites and gastro-intestinal helminths of chickens kept under different management system in and around Addis Ababa (Ethiopia). Revue de Médecine Vétérinaire 148: 497-500        [ Links ]

2. Chhabra R C, Donora N 1994 Ectoparasites of poultry in Zimbabwe and their control. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal 25: 26-32        [ Links ]

3. Creevey L E 1991 Supporting small-scale enterprise for women farmers in the Sahel. Journal of lnternational Development 3: 355-386        [ Links ]

4. De Vaney J A 1976 Effects of the chicken body louse, Menacanthus stramineus, on caged layers. Poultry Science 55: 430-435        [ Links ]

5. Edgar H B, Leslie E C, Pomeroy B S 1958 Diseases andparasites of poultry (5th edn). Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia        [ Links ]

6. Fabiyi J P 1980 Arthropod parasites of the domestic fowl and guinea fowl of Jos plateau, northern Nigeria. Tropical Animal Health and Production 12: 193-194        [ Links ]

7. FAO 1982 Report on the expert consultation on rural poultry and rabbit production. Rome (Italy), 30 November 1981. Animal Production and Health Division.         [ Links ]

8. FAO 1987 Report on the expert consultation on rural poultry development in Asia, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 23-28 March 1987. Animal Production and Health Division Publ. No. 274415, Rome        [ Links ]

9. Gibbons L M, Jones A, Khalil L F 1996 Manual for the 8th international training course on identification ofhelminth parasites ofeconomic importance. CAB International, Wallingford        [ Links ]

10. Jansen J, Pandey V S 1989 Observations on helminth parasites of domestic fowls in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal 20: 15-17        [ Links ]

11. Kaufmann J 1996 Parasitic infections of domestic animals. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel        [ Links ]

12. Kitalyi A J 1998. Village chicken production systems in rural Africa. FAO Animal Health and Production Paper 142, Rome        [ Links ]

13. Kuit H G, Traore A, Wilson R T 1986 Livestock production in central Mali: ownership, management and productivity of oultry in the traditional sector. Tropical Animal Health and Production 18: 222-231        [ Links ]

14. Mukaratirwa S, Hove T, Esmann J B, Hoj C J, Permin A, Nansen P 2001 A survey of parasitic nematode infections of chickens in rural Zimbabwe. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 68: 183-186        [ Links ]

15. Negesse T 1993. Prevalence of diseases, predators and parasites of local chickens in Leku, Southern Ethiopia. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 41: 317-321        [ Links ]

16. Okaeme A N 1989 Lameness associated with ectoparasitic infestation in Numida meleagris galeata, Gallus domestica, Pavo multicus [sic]. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production 37: 189-90

17. Pandey V S, Demey F, Verhulst A 1992 Parasitic diseases: a neglected problem in village poultry in sub-Saharan Africa. In Pandey V S, Demey F (eds) Village poultry production in Africa. Rabat, Morocco: 136-141        [ Links ]

18. Permin A, Esmann J B, Hoj C H, Hove T, Mukaratirwa S 2002 Ecto-, endo- and haemoparasites in free range chickens in the Goromonzi District in Zimbabwe. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 54: 213-224        [ Links ]

19. Permin A, Hansen J 1998 The epidemiology, diagnosis and control of parasites in poultry. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome        [ Links ]

20. Permin, A, Magwisha H, Kassuku A A, Nansen P, Bisgaard M, Frandsen F, Gibbons L 1997 A cross-sectional study of helminths in rural scavenging poultry in Tanzania in relation to season and climate. Journal of Helminthology 71: 233-240        [ Links ]

21. Soulsby E J L 1982 Helminths, arthropods and protozoa of domestic animals. English Language Book Society and Baillière Tindall, London        [ Links ]

22. Ssenyonga G S Z 1982 Efficacy of fenbendazole against helminth parasites of poultry in Uganda. Tropical Animal Health and Production 14: 163-166        [ Links ]

23. Swai E S, Karimuribo E D, Kyakaisho P F, Mtui P F 2007 Free-range village chickens on the humid coastal belt of Tanga, Tanzania: their roles, husbandry and health status. Livestock Research and Rural Development 19: 104        [ Links ]

24. Veluw, K van 1987 Traditional poultry keeping in Ghana. Information on Low External Input and Sustainable Agriculture (ILEIA) 3: 12-13        [ Links ]

25. Walker A 1994 The arthropods of humans and domestic animals. A guide to preliminary identification. Chapman and Hall, London        [ Links ]



Received: June 2009
Accepted: August 2009



*Author for correspondence. E-mail:

Creative Commons License Todo el contenido de esta revista, excepto dónde está identificado, está bajo una Licencia Creative Commons