SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.80 número2Comparison of Babesia rossi and Babesia canis isolates with emphasis on effects of vaccination with soluble parasite antigens: A reviewA retrospective investigation of canine adenovirus (CAV) infection in adult dogs in Turkey índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
Home Pagelista alfabética de revistas  

Servicios Personalizados

Articulo

Indicadores

Links relacionados

  • En proceso de indezaciónCitado por Google
  • En proceso de indezaciónSimilares en Google

Compartir


Journal of the South African Veterinary Association

versión On-line ISSN 2224-9435

J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. vol.80 no.2 Cape Town  2009

 

ARTICLE ARTIKEL

 

Effects of lumbosacral epidural ketamine and lidocaine in xylazine-sedated cats

 

 

R DeRossiI; A P BenitesII; J Z FerreiraII; J M N NetoII; L C HermetoII

IDepartment of Veterinary Medicine, Surgery and Anaesthesiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
IIDepartment of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

 

 


ABSTRACT

In order to determine the analgesic and cardiovascular effects of the combination of epidural ketamine and lidocaine, 6 sedated cats were studied. Six healthy, young cats were used in a prospective randomised study. Each cat underwent 3 treatments, at least 1 week apart, via epidural injection: (1) ketamine (2.5 mg/kg), (2) lidocaine (4.0 mg/kg), and (3) ketamine (2.5 mg/kg) plus lidocaine (4.0 mg/kg). Epidural injections were administered through the lumbosacral space. Analgesia, motor block, sedation, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, respiratory rate and arterial oxygen saturation were measured. Rectal temperature was compared before and after sedation as well as after epidural administration of the drugs. Epidural administration of the ketamine/lidocaine combination induced prolonged analgesia extending from the coccygeal to the T13-L1 dermatomes, leading to severe ataxia. Cardiovascular effects were significant in all treatments: heart rate decreased,but there was a minimal reduction in arterial pressure. It was concluded that addinga dose of ketamine to epidural lidocaine in cats is feasible and effective.

Keywords: analgesia, cats, epidural, ketamine, lidocaine, xylazine


 

 

“Full text available only in PDF format”

 

 

REFERENCES

1. Adetunji A, Adewoye C O, Ajadi R A 2002 Comparison of epidural anaesthesia with lignocaine or xylazine in cats. Veterinary Journal 163: 335-336        [ Links ]

2. Akerman B, Arwestrom E, Post C 1988 Local anesthetics potentiate spinal morphine antinociception. Anesthesia and Analgesia 67: 943-948        [ Links ]

3. Ansah, O B, Raekallio M, Vainio O 1998 Comparison of three doses of dexmedeto-midine with medetomidine in cats following intramuscular administration. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 21: 380-387        [ Links ]

4. Appel E, Dudziak R, Palm D, Wnuk A 1979 Sympathoneuronal and sympathoadrenal activation during ketamine anaesthesia. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 16: 91-95        [ Links ]

5. BionD L 1984 Intrathecal ketamine forwar surgery: a preliminary study under field conditions. Anaesthesia 39: 1023-1028        [ Links ]

6. Borgbjerg F M, Svensson B A, Frigast C, Gordh T Jr 1994 Histopathology after repeated intrathecal injections of preservative-free ketamine in the rabbit: a light and electron microscopic examination. Anesthesia and Analgesia 79: 105-111        [ Links ]

7. Bourke D L, Malit L A, Smith T C 1987 Respiratory interactions of ketamine and morphine. Anesthesiology 66: 153-156        [ Links ]

8. Butterworth J F IV, Strichartz G R 1990 Molecular mechanisms of local anesthesia: a review. Anesthesiology 72: 711-734        [ Links ]

9. DeRossi R 1996 Acción de la ketamina epidural en el caballo-estudio experimental. PhD thesis, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain        [ Links ]

10. DeRossi R, Junqueira A L, Beretta M P 2003 Analgesic and systemic effects of ketamine, xylazine, and lidocaine after subarachnoid administration in goats. American Journal of Veterinary Research 64: 51-56        [ Links ]

11. DeRossi R, Junqueira A L, Lopes R A, Beretta M P 2005 Use of ketamine or lidocaine or in combination for subarachnoid analgesia in goats. Small Ruminant Research 59: 95-101        [ Links ]

12. Duce B R, Zelechowski K, Camougis G, Smith E R 1969 Experimental epidural anaesthesia in the cat with lignocaine and amethocaine. British Journal of Anaesthesia 41: 579-587        [ Links ]

13. Flacke J W 1992 Alpha2-adrenergic agonists in cardiovascular anaesthesia. Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 6: 344-359        [ Links ]

14. Gómez de Segura I A, DeRossi R, Santos M, San-Roman J, Tendillo F J, San-Roman F 1998 Epidural injection of ketamine for perineal analgesia in the horse. Veterinary Surgery 27: 384-391        [ Links ]

15. Gómez de Segura I A, Vasquez I, De Miguel E 2000 Antinociceptive and motor-blocking action of epidurally administered IQB-9302 and bupivacaine in the dog. Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine 25: 522-528        [ Links ]

16. Granholm M, McKusick B, Westerholm F C, Aspegren J C 2006 Evaluation of the clinical efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine or medetomidine in cats and their reversal with atipamezole. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 33: 214-223        [ Links ]

17. Grubb T L, Riebold T W, Huber M J 1992 Comparison of lidocaine, xylazine, and xylazine/lidocaine for caudal epidural analgesia in horses. Journal of the American Veterinary MedicalAssociation 201: 1187-1190        [ Links ]

18. Hirota K, Lambert D G 1996 Ketamine: its mechanism(s) of action and unusual clinical uses. British Journal of Anaesthesia 77: 441-444        [ Links ]

19. Hodgson P S, Neal J M, Pollock J E, Liu S S 1999 The neurotoxicity of drugs given intrathecally (spinal). Anesthesia and Analgesia 88: 797-809        [ Links ]

20. Jones R S 2001 Epidural analgesia in the dog and cat: a review. Veterinary Journal 161: 123-131        [ Links ]

21. Lamont L A 2002 Feline perioperative pain management. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice 32: 747-763        [ Links ]

22. Lin M T, Chen C F, Pang I H 1978 Effect of ketamine on thermoregulation in rats. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 56: 963-967        [ Links ]

23. Lumb W V, Jones E W 1984 Spinal anesthesia. In Lumb and Jones' Veterinary anesthesia (2nd edn). Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia: 408-415        [ Links ]

24. MacDonald E, Scheinin H, Scheinin M 1988 Behavioural and neurochemical effects of medetomidine, a novel veterinary sedative. European Journal of Pharmacology 158: 119-127        [ Links ]

25. Malinovsky J M, Pinaud M 1996 Neurotoxicité des agents administrés par voie intrathécale. Annales françaises d'anesthésie et de réanimation 15: 647-658        [ Links ]

26. Mayer M L, Miller R J 1990 Excitatory amino acid receptors, second messengers and regulation of intracellular Ca2+ in mammalian neurons. Trends in Pharmacological Science 11: 254-260        [ Links ]

27. Miaskowski I C 1992 Comments on the evaluation of drug interactions using isobolographic analysis and analysis of variance. Pain 51: 381-388        [ Links ]

28. Moens Y, Fregetton X 1990 A comparative study of medetomidine/ketamine and xylazine/ketamine anaesthesia in dogs. Veterinary Record 127: 567-571        [ Links ]

29. Nolte I, Watney G C G 1983 Cardiovascular effects of epidural block in dogs. Journal of Small Animal Practice 24: 17-21        [ Links ]

30. Reich D L, Silvay G 1989 Ketamine: An update on the first 25 years of clinical experience. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 36: 186-197        [ Links ]

31. Robertson S A, Taylor P M 2004 Pain management in cats - past, present and future. Part 2. Treatment of pain - clinical pharmacology. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 6: 321-333        [ Links ]

32. Sakura S, Sumi M, Yamada Y, Saito Y, Kosaka Y 1998 Quantitative and selective assessment of sensory block during lumbar epidural anaesthesia with 1% or 2% lidocaine. British Journal of Anaesthesia 81: 718-722        [ Links ]

33. Selmi A L, Mendes G M, Lins B T, Figueiredo J P, Barbudo-Selmi G R 2003 Evaluation of the sedative and cardiorespiratory effects of dexmedetomidine, dexmedetomidine-butorphanol, and dexmedetomidine-ketamine in cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 222: 37-41        [ Links ]

34. Skarda R T 1996 Local and regional anesthetic and analgesic techniques: dogs. In Thurmon, J.C., Tranquilli, W.J., Benson, G.J. eds. Lumb & Jones' veterinary anesthesia (3rd edn). Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore: 434-447        [ Links ]

35. Slingsby L S, Lane, E C, Mears E R, Shanson M C, Waterman-Pearson A E 1998 Postoperative pain after ovariohysterectomy in the cat: a comparison of two anaesthetic regimens. Veterinary Record 143: 589-590        [ Links ]

36. Tung A S, Yaksh T L 1982 The antino-ciceptive effects of epidural opiates in the cat: studies of the pharmacology and the effects of lipophilicity in spinal analgesia. Pain 12: 343-356        [ Links ]

37. White P F, Way W L, Trevor A J 1982 Ketamine-its pharmacology and therapeutic uses. Anesthesiology 56: 119-136        [ Links ]

38. Zeilhofer H U, Swandulla D, Geisslinger G, Brune K 1992 Differential effects of ketamine enantiomers on NMDA receptor currents in cultured neurons. European Journal of Pharmacology 213: 155-158        [ Links ]

 

 

Received: August 2008
Accepted: March 2009

 

 

* Author for correspondence.E-mail:derossi@nin.ufms.br

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License