SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.80 número2Potential plant poisonings in dogs and cats in Southern Africa índice de autoresíndice de assuntospesquisa de artigos
Home Pagelista alfabética de periódicos  

Serviços Personalizados

Artigo

Indicadores

Links relacionados

  • Em processo de indexaçãoCitado por Google
  • Em processo de indexaçãoSimilares em Google

Compartilhar


Journal of the South African Veterinary Association

versão On-line ISSN 2224-9435

J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. vol.80 no.2 Cape Town  2009

 

REVIEW ARTICLE OORSIGARTIKEL

 

Review of African swine fever: Transmission, spread and control

 

 

M-L PenrithI, II,; W VoslooI, III

ITAD Scientific, 40 Thomson Street, Colbyn, 0083 South Africa
IIDepartment of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110 South Africa
IIITransboundary Animal Diseases Programme, Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Private Bag X05, Onderstepoort, 0110 South Africa

 

 


ABSTRACT

African swine fever is one of the most important and serious diseases of domestic pigs. Its highly contagious nature and ability to spread over long distances make it one of the most feared diseases, since its devastating effects on pig production have been experienced not only in most of sub-Saharan Africa but also in western Europe, the Caribbean, Brazil and, most recently, the Caucasus. Unlike most diseases of livestock, there is no vaccine, and therefore prevention relies entirely upon preventing contact between the virus and the susceptible host. In order to do so it is necessary to understand the way in which the virus is transmitted and spreads. By implementing strict biosecurity measures that place barriers between the source of virus and the pigs it is possible to prevent infection. However, this has implications for free-ranging pig husbandry systems that are widespread in developing countries. Attempts to produce a vaccine are ongoing and new technology offers some hope for the future, but this will not remove the necessity for implementing adequate biosecurity on pig farms.

Keywords: African swine fever, biosecurity, control, prevention, transmission


 

 

“Full text available only in PDF format”

 

 

REFERENCES

1. Abreu E F de, Valadão F G, Limpo Serra J J B, Ornelas Mário R, Sousa Montenegro. 196. Peste suína africana em Moçambique. Anais dos Serviços Veterinárias de Moçambique 8: 105-123        [ Links ]

2. Anderson E C, Hutchings G H, Mukarati N, Wilkinson P J 1998 African swine fever virus infection of the bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) and its significance in the epidemiology of the disease. Veterinary Microbiology 62: 1-15        [ Links ]

3. Barderas M G, Rodriguez F, Gomez-Puertas P Aviles M, Beitia F, Alonso C. Escribano J M 2001 Antigenic and immunogenic properties of a chimera of two immunodominant African swine fever virus proteins. Archives of Virology 146: 1681-1691        [ Links ]

4. BastosADS,Penrith M-L, Crucière C, Edrich J L, Hutchings G, Roger F, Couacy-Hymann E, Thomson G R 2003 Genotyping field strains of African swine fever virus by partial p72 gene characterisation. Archives of Virology 148: 693-706        [ Links ]

5. BastosA D S, Penrith M-L, Macome F, Pinto F, Thomson G R 2004 Co-circulation of two genetically distinct viruses in an outbreak of African swine fever in Mozambique: no evidence for individual infection. Veterinary Microbiology 103: 169-182        [ Links ]

6. F S, Hutchings G H, Dixon L K, Wilkinson P J 2004 Characterisation of pathogenic and non-pathogenic African swine fever virus isolates from Ornithodoros erraticus inhabiting pig premises in Portugal. Journal of General Virology 85: 2177-2187        [ Links ]

7. Boshoff C I, BastosADS, Gerber L J, Vosloo W 2007 Genetic characterisation of African swine fever viruses from outbreaks in southern Africa (1973-1999). Veterinary Microbiology 121: 45-55        [ Links ]

8. ChangA C Y, Zsak L, Feng Y, Mosseri R, Lu Q, Kowalski P Zsak A, Burrage T G, Neilan J G, Kutish G F, Lu Z, Laegreid W, Rock D L, Cohen S N 2006 Phenotype-based identification of host genes required for replication of African swine fever virus. Journal of Virology 80: 8705-8717        [ Links ]

9. Conceição J M 1949 Estudo das zoonoses porcinas de Angola. Pecuária: Anais dos Serviços Pecuários da Colónia de Angola 1: 217-245        [ Links ]

10. De Kock G, Robinson E M, Keppel J J G 1940 Swine fever in South Africa. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Industry 14: 31-93        [ Links ]

11. Dixon L K, Abrams C C, Bowick G, Goatley L C, Kay-Jackson P C, Chapman D, Liverani E, Nix R, Silk R, Zhang F 2004 African swine fever virus proteins involved in evading host defence systems. Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology 100: 117-134        [ Links ]

12. Ekue N F, Wilkinson P J 1990 Absence of Ornithodoros moubata, the vector of African swine fever virus, from the main pig producing area of Cameroon. Tropical Animal Health and Production 22: 127-131        [ Links ]

13. Ekue N F, Wilkinson P J 2000 Comparison of genomes of African swine fever virus isolates from Cameroon, other African countries and Europe. Revue d'Élevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux 53: 229-236        [ Links ]

14. El-Hicheri K, Gómez-Tejedor C, Penrith M-L, Davies G, Douati A, Edoukou G D, Wojciechowski K 1998 L'epizootie de peste porcine africaine de 1996 en Côte d Ivoire. Revue Scientifique et Technique, Office International des Epizooties 17: 660-673        [ Links ]

15. Gago da Câmara N J 1932 História da peste suína em Angola. Pecuária 1: 25-40        [ Links ]

16. Gomez-Puertas P, Rodriguez F, Oviedo J M, Brun A, Alonso C, Escribano J M 1998 The African swine fever virus proteins p54 and p30 are involved in two distinct steps of virus attachment and both contribute to the antibody-mediated protective immune response. Virology 243: 461-471        [ Links ]

17. Gomez-Puertas P, Rodriguez F, Oviedo J M, Ramiro-Ibanez F, Ruiz-Gonzalvo F, Alonso C, Escribano J M 1996 Neutralizing antibodies to different proteins of African swine fever virus inhibit both virus attachment and internalization. Journal of Virology 70: 5689-5694        [ Links ]

18. Gonzague M, Roger F, Bastos A, Burger C, Randriampanary T, Smondack S, Crucière C 2001 Isolation of a non-haemadsorbing, non-cytopathic strain of African swine fever virus in Madagascar. Epidemiology & Infection 126: 453-459        [ Links ]

19. Haresnape J M 1984 African swine fever in Malawi. Tropical Animal Health and Production 16: 123-125        [ Links ]

20. Haresnape J M, Lungu S A M, Mamu F D 1985 A four-year survey of African swine fever in Malawi. Journal of Hygiene, Cambridge 95: 309-323        [ Links ]

21. Haresnape J M, Lungu S A M, Mamu F D 1987 An updated survey of African swine fever in Malawi. Epidemiology and Infection 99: 723-732        [ Links ]

22. Haresnape J M, Mamu F D 1986 The distribution of ticks of the Ornithodoros moubata complex (Ixodoidea: Argasidae) in Malawi and its relation to African swine fever epizootiology. Journal of Hygiene, Cambridge 96, 535-544        [ Links ]

23. Haresnape J M, Wilkinson P J 1988 A study of African swine fever virus infected ticks (Ornithodoros moubata) collected from three villages in the ASF enzootic area of Malawi following an outbreak of the disease in domestic pigs. Epidemiology and Infection 102: 507-522        [ Links ]

24. Haresnape J M, Wilkinson P J, Mellor P S 1988 Isolation of African swine fever virus from ticks of the Ornithodoros moubata complex (Ixodoidea: Argasidae) collected within the African swine fever enzootic area of Malawi. Epidemiology and Infection 101: 173-185        [ Links ]

25. Hess W R 1971 African swine fever. Virology Monographs 9: 1-33        [ Links ]

26. Hoogstraal H 1956 African Ixodoidea. I. Ticks of the Sudan. U.S. Department of the Navy, Research Report NM 005050.29.07        [ Links ]

27. Leeson H S 1953 Some notes on the recorded distribution of old world species of Ornithodoros (Acarina). Bulletin of Entomological Research 44: 517-526        [ Links ]

28. Leitao A, Cartaxeiro C, Coelho R, Cruz B, Parkhouse R M, Portugal F, Vigario J D, Martins C L 2001 The non-haemadsorbing African swine fever virus isolate ASFV/ NH/P68 provides a model for defining the protective anti-virus immune response. Journal of General Virology 82: 513-523        [ Links ]

29. Lewis T, Zsak L, Burrage T G, Lu Z, Kutish G F, Neilan J G, Rock D L 2000 An African swine fever virus ERV1-ALR homologue, 9GL, affects virion mutation and viral growth in macrophages and viral virulence in swine. Journal of Virology 74:1275-1285        [ Links ]

30. Lubisi B A, BastosA D S,Dwarka R M, Vosloo W 2005 Molecular epidemiology of African swine fever in East Africa. Archives of Virology 150: 2439-2452        [ Links ]

31. Lubisi B A, BastosA D S,Dwarka R M, Vosloo W 2007 Intra-genotypic resolution of African swine fever viruses from an East African domestic pig cycle: a combined p72-CVRapproach. Virus Genes 35: 729-735        [ Links ]

32. Lyra T M P 2006 La erradicación de la peste porcina africana en el Brasil, 1978-1984. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Épizooties 25: 93-103        [ Links ]

33. Malmquist W A 1963 Serologic and immunologic studies with African swine fever virus. American Journal of Veterinary Research 24: 450-459        [ Links ]

34. Martins C L V, Leitào A C 1994 Porcine immune response to African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 43: 99-106        [ Links ]

35. McKercher P D, Hess W R, Hamdy F 1978 Residual viruses in pork products. Applied Environmental Microbiology 35: 142-145        [ Links ]

36. Mebus C, Arias M, Pineda J M, Taiador J, House C, Sanchez-Vizcaino J M 1997 Survival of several porcine viruses in different Spanish dry-cured meat products. Mediterranean aspects of meat quality as related to muscle biochemistry. Food Chemistry 59: 555-559        [ Links ]

37. Mellor P S, Kitching R P, Wilkinson P J 1987 Mechanical transmission of capripox virus and African swine fever virus by Stomoxys calcitrans. Research in Veterinary Science 43: 109-112        [ Links ]

38. Mendes A M 1962 The lapinization of the virus of African swine fever. Bulletin de l'Office International des Épizooties 58: 699-705        [ Links ]

39. Mendes A M 1971 Algumas doenças dos animais em Angola e Moçambique e sua importância na higiene das carnes. Revista Portuguesa das Ciencias Veterinarias 66: 271-286        [ Links ]

40. Mendes A M 1994 A história de peste suína africana em Angola. Revista Portuguesa das Ciencias Veterinarias 89: 110-120        [ Links ]

41. Mendes A M, Daskalos A M 1955 Studies on the lapinization of African swine fever virus in Angola. Bulletin of Epizootic Diseases of Africa 3: 9-14        [ Links ]

42. Montgomery R E 1921 On a form of swine fever occurringin British East Africa (Kenya Colony). Journal of Comparative Pathology 34: 159-191, 243-262        [ Links ]

43. Neilan J G, Zsak L, Lu Z, Burrage T G, Kutish G F, Rock D L 2004 Neutralizing antibodies to African swine fever virus proteins p30, p54, and p72 are not sufficient for antibody-mediated protection. Virology 319: 337-342        [ Links ]

44. Nix R J, Gallardo C, Hutchings G, Blanco E, Dixon L K 2006 Molecular epidemiology of African swine fever virus studied by analysis of four variable genome regions. Archives of Virology 151: 2475-2494        [ Links ]

45. Onisk D V, Borca M V, Kutish G, Kramer E, Irusta P RockD L 1994 Passively transferred African swine fever virus antibodies protect swine against lethal infection. Virology 198: 350-354        [ Links ]

46. Otesile E B, Ajuwape A T P, Odemuyiwa S O, Akpavie S O, Olaifa A K, Odaibo G N, Olaleye O D, Adetosoye A I 2005 Field and experimental investigations of an outbreak of African swine fever in Nigeria. Revue d'Élevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux 58: 21-26        [ Links ]

47. Penrith M-L, Lopes Pereira C, Lopes da Silva, M M R, Quembo C, Nhamusso A, Banze J 2007 African swine fever in Mozambique: review, risk factors and considerations for control. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 74: 149-160        [ Links ]

48. Penrith M-L, Thomson G R, Bastos A D S 2004 African swine fever. In Coetzer J A W, Tustin R C (eds) Infectious diseases of livestock (2nd edn) Vol. 2. Oxford University Press, Cape Town: 1087-1119.         [ Links ]

49. Penrith M-L, Thomson G R, BastosA D S, Phiri O C, Lubisi B A, Botha B, Esterhuysen J, du Plessis E C, Macome F, Pinto F 2004 An investigation into natural resistance to African swine fever in domestic pigs from an endemic area in southern Africa. Revue Scientifique et Technique, Office International des Épizooties 23: 665-677        [ Links ]

50. Phologane S B, BastosADS,Penrith M-L 2005 Intra- and inter-genotypic size variation in the central variable region of the 9RL open reading frame of diverse African swine fever viruses. Virus Genes 31:357-360        [ Links ]

51. Plowright W 1977 Vector transmission of African swine fever. In Liess B (chairman) Seminar on Hog Cholera/Classical Swine Fever and African Swine Fever. EUR 5904 EN. Commission of the European Communities        [ Links ]

52. Plowright W 1986 African swine fever. A retrospective view. Revue Scientifique et Technique de l'Office International des Épizooties 5: 455-468        [ Links ]

53. Plowright W, Parker J, Peirce MA 1969 African swine fever in ticks (Ornithodoros moubata) collected from animal burrows in Tanzania. Nature 221: 1071-1073        [ Links ]

54. Plowright W, Parker J, Peirce M A 1969 The epizootiology of African swine fever in Africa. Veterinary Record 85: 668-674        [ Links ]

55. Plowright W, Perry C T, Greig A 1974 Sexual transmission of African swine fever virus in the tick, Ornithodoros moubata porcinus Walton. Research in Veterinary Science 17: 106-113        [ Links ]

56. Plowright W, Perry C T, Peirce M A 1970 Transovarial infection with African swine fever virus in the argasid tick, Ornithodoros moubata porcinus Walton. Research in Veterinary Science 11: 82-584        [ Links ]

57. Plowright W, Perry C T, Peirce M A, Parker J 1970 Experimental infection of the argasid tick, Ornithodoros moubata porcinus, with African swine fever virus. Archiv für die gesamte Virusforschung 31: 33-50        [ Links ]

58. Plowright W, Thomson G R, Neser J A 1994 African swine fever. In Coetzer J A W, Thomson, G R, Tustin R C (eds) Infectious diseases of livestock, with special reference to southern Africa Vol. 1. Oxford University Press, Cape Town: 568-599.         [ Links ]

59. Rowlands R J, Michaud V, Heath L, Hutchings G, Oura C, Vosloo W, Dwarka R, Onashvili T, Albina E, Dixon L K 2008 The African swine fever virus isolate introduced to Georgia 2007 is closely related to isolates from genotype II circulating in Mozambique, Madagascar and Zambia. Emerging Infectious Diseases 14 http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/14/12/1870.htm#cit (accessed 4 December 2008)        [ Links ]

60. Sanchez-Botija A C 1963 Reservorios del virus de la peste porcina africana. Investigación del virus de la P.P.A. en los artrópodos mediante la prueba de la hemoadsorción. Bulletin de la Office International des Épizooties 60: 895-899        [ Links ]

61. Sarr J 1990 Etude de la peste porcine africaine au Sénégal. Rapport final. Programme de recherche financé par le Commision des Communautés Européennes, Direction Générale de la Science, de la Recherche et de la Développement. Unpublished report, Laboratoire de l'Elevage et de Recherches Véterinaires, DakarHann, Sénégal        [ Links ]

62. Scott G R 1965 Prevention, control and eradication of African swine fever. Bulletin de l'Office International des Epizooties 63: 751-764        [ Links ]

63. Steyn D G 1928 Preliminary report on a South African virus disease amongst pigs. 13th and 14th Reports of the Director of Veterinary Education and Research, Union of South Africa: 415-428        [ Links ]

64. Steyn D G 1932 East African virus disease in pigs. 18th Report of the Director of Veterinary Services and Animal Industry, Union of South Africa 1: 99-109        [ Links ]

65. Stone S S, Hess W R 1967 Antibody response to inactivated preparations of African swine fever virus in pigs. American Journal of Veterinary Research 28: 475-481        [ Links ]

66. Thomson G R 1985 The epidemiology of African swine fever: the role of free-living hosts in Africa. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 52: 201-209        [ Links ]

67. Thomson G R, Gainaru M, Lewis A, Biggs H, Nevill E, van der Pypekamp H, Gerber L, Esterhuysen J, Bengis R, Bezuidenhout D, Condy J 1983 The relationship between African swine fever virus, the warthog and Ornithodoros species in southern Africa. In Wilkinson P J (ed.) African swine fever. EUR 8466 EN. Commission of the European Communities        [ Links ]

68. Thomson G R, Gainaru M D, Van Dellen A F 1980 Experimental infection of warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) with African swine fever virus. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 47: 19-22        [ Links ]

69. Valadão F G 1969 Notas sobre alguns ensaios realizados em porcos sobreviventes de peste suína africana. Anais dos Serviços Veterinárias de Moçambique No 12/14, 1964-1966 (1969): 95-100        [ Links ]

70. Walton G A 1964 The Ornithodoros 'moubata' group of ticks in Africa. Control problems and indications. Journal of Medical Entomology 1: 53-64        [ Links ]

71. Wambura P N, Masambu J, Msami H 2006 Molecular epidemiology and diagnosis of African swine fever outbreaks in Tanzania. Veterinary Research Communications 30: 667-672        [ Links ]

72. Wesley R D, Tuthill A E 1984 Genome relatedness among African swine fever virus isolates by restriction endonuclease analysis Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2: 53-62        [ Links ]

73. Wilkinson P J 1989 African swine fever virus, in Pensaert M C (ed.) Virus infections of porcines. Elsevier, Amsterdam: 17-32        [ Links ]

74. Wilkinson P J, Donaldson A I, Greig A, Bruce W 1977 Transmission studies with African swine fever virus. Infection of pigs by airborne virus. Journal of Comparative Pathology 87: 487-495        [ Links ]

75. Wilkinson P J, Pegram R G, Berry B D, Lemche J, Schels H F 1988 The distribution of African swine fever virus isolated from Ornithodoros moubata in Zambia. Epidemiology and Infection 101: 547-564        [ Links ]

 

 

Received: January 2009
Accepted: June 2009

 

 

* Author for correspondence. E-mail: marylouise@sentechsa.com

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License