SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.79 número3Sex-based comparison of limb segmentation in ostriches aged 14 months with and without tibiotarsal rotationAn outbreak of toxoplasmosis in an aviary collection of Nicobar pigeons (Caloenas nicobaria) índice de autoresíndice de assuntospesquisa de artigos
Home Pagelista alfabética de periódicos  

Serviços Personalizados



Links relacionados

  • Em processo de indexaçãoCitado por Google
  • Em processo de indexaçãoSimilares em Google


Journal of the South African Veterinary Association

versão On-line ISSN 2224-9435
versão impressa ISSN 1019-9128

J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. vol.79 no.3 Pretoria  2008




Limb fracture during recovery from general anaesthesia: An often tragic complication of equine anaesthesia



T B Dzikiti; L Bester; I Cilliers; A Carstens; G F Stegmann; J Hubert

Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Ondesterpoort, 0110 South Africa




A 10-year-old Thoroughbred mare was presented for lameness of the left hindlimb as a result of an apical fracture of the lateral proximal sesamoid bone. The mare was ultimately euthanased after suffering catastrophic fractures of the 3rd and 4th metatarsal bones of the contra-lateral hindlimb during an uncoordinated attempt to rise during recovery from general anaesthesia after undergoing arthroscopic surgery. The case report focuses mostly on horse anaesthesia-related mortality, anaesthetic procedure in the horse, possible causes of fractures in horses during recovery and ways in which rate of occurrence of these fractures can be minimised.

Key words: equine, anaesthetic mortality, recovery



“Full text available only in PDF format”




1. Baller L S, Hendrickson D A 2002 Management of equine orthopaedic pain. Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice 18: 117-131        [ Links ]

2. Bidwell L A, Bramlage L R, Rood W A 2007 Equine perioperative fatalities associated with general anaesthesia at a private practice - A restrospective case series. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 34: 23-30        [ Links ]

3. Brodbelt D C 2006 The confidential enquiry into perioperative small animal fatalities. PhD thesis, University of London        [ Links ]

4. Driessen B 2005 Assisted recovery in horses awakening from anaesthesia. In Steffey E P (eds) Recent advances in anaesthetic management oflarge domestic animals. International Veterinary Information Services, Ithaca. Online at:        [ Links ]

5. Driessen B 2006 Assisted recovery. In Doherty T J, Valverde A (eds) Manual of equine anesthesia and analgesia (1st edn). Blackwell Publishing, Iowa: 338-351        [ Links ]

6. Duke T 2006 Preoperative evaluation. The risk of equine anesthesia. In Doherty T J, Valverde A (eds) Manual ofequine anesthesia and analgesia (1st edn). Blackwell Publishing, Iowa: 1-2        [ Links ]

7. Edner A 2005 Effects of anaesthesia on haemodynamics and metabolism inhorses: evaluated by laser Doppler flowmetry, microdialysis and muscle biopsy techniques. PhD thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala        [ Links ]

8. Forsyth S 2007 Disaster avoidance: how to minimise adverse anaesthetic outcomes. Proceedings of the 32nd World Small Animal Veterinary Association Congress, Sydney, Australia, 19-23 August, 2007. Online at:        [ Links ]

9. Glade M J 1993 Effects of gestation, lactation an calcium intake on mechanical strength of equine bone. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 12: 372-377        [ Links ]

10. Hall L W, Clarke K W, Trim C M 2001 Veterinary anaesthesia (10th edn). W B Saunders. Harcourt Publishers, London        [ Links ]

11. Harkins J D, Tobin T 1999 Lack of local anaesthetic efficacy of fentanyl in the abaxial sesamoid block model. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 22: 52-55        [ Links ]

12. Hiney K M, Nielsen B D, Rosenstein D 2004 Short-duration exercise and confinement alters bone mineral content and shape in weanling horses. Journal of Animal Science 82: 2313-2320        [ Links ]

13. Hubbell J A E 2007 Horses. In Tranquilli W J, Thurmon J C, Grimm K A (eds) Lumb and Jones' veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia (4th edn). Blackwell Publishing, Iowa: 717-729        [ Links ]

14. Johnston G H, Eastment J K, Wood J L N, Taylor P M 2002 The confidential enquiry into perioperative equine fatalities (CEPEF): mortality results of phases 1 and 2. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 29: 159-170        [ Links ]

15. Jones R S 2001 Editorial: Comparative mortality in anaesthesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia 87: 813-815        [ Links ]

16. Joubert K E, Duncan N, Murray N E 2005 Post-anaesthetic myelomalacia in a horse. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 76: 36-39        [ Links ]

17.Ko J C H 2002 Anaesthesia case of the month. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 221: 790-792        [ Links ]

18. Moens Y P S 2007 Anaesthesia of the foal. Proceedings of 40th European Veterinary Conference (Voorjarsdagen), Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 27-29 April 2007: 231-232        [ Links ]

19. Murrell J C 2007 Evidence-based decision making in anaesthesia. Proceedings of 40th European Veterinary Conference (Voorjarsdagen), Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 27-29 April 2007: 232-233        [ Links ]

20. Ray-Miller W M, Hodgson D S, McMurphy R M, Chapman P L 2006 Comparison of recoveries from anaesthesia of horses placed on a rapidly inflating-deflating air pillow or flow of apadded stall. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 229: 711-716        [ Links ]

21. Ringer S K, Kalchofner K, Bollar J, Furst A, Bettschart-Wolfensberger R 2007 A clinical comparison of two anaesthetic protocols using lidocaine or medetomidine in horses. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 34: 257-268        [ Links ]

22. Schaer T P, Bramage L R, Embertson R M, Hance S 2001 Proximal interphalangeal arthrodesis in 22 horses. Equine Veterinary Journal 33: 360-365        [ Links ]

23. Sullivan E K, Klein L V, Richardson D W, Ross M W, Orsini J A, Nunamaker D M 2002 Use of a pool-raft system for recovery of horses from general anaesthesia: 393 horses (1984-2000). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 221: 1014-1018        [ Links ]

24. Taylor P M, Clarke K W 2006 Handbook of equine anaesthesia (2nd edn). W B Saunders Publishers, London        [ Links ]

25. Valverde A, Gunkel C, Doherty T J, Pollak A S 2005 Effect of a constant rate infusion of lidocaine on quality of recovery from sevo-flurane or isoflurane general anaesthesia in horses. Equine Veterinary Journal 37: 559-564        [ Links ]

26. Zert Z, Mezerova J, Kabes R, Krisova S 2007 Sagittal fracture of the proximal phalanx in a horse complicated during induction of anaesthesia by complete fragmentation of the bone: a case report. Veterinarni Medicina 52: 79-82        [ Links ]



Received: January 2008
Accepted: August 2008



* Author for correspondence. E-mail:

Creative Commons License Todo o conteúdo deste periódico, exceto onde está identificado, está licenciado sob uma Licença Creative Commons