SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.79 número2The prevalence of serum antibodies to Ehrlichia ruminantium infection in ranch cattle in Tanzania: A cross-sectional studyNeurocysticercosis: A possible cause of epileptiform seizures in people residing in villages served by the Bethanie clinic in the North West Province of South Africa índice de autoresíndice de assuntospesquisa de artigos
Home Pagelista alfabética de periódicos  

Serviços Personalizados

Artigo

Indicadores

Links relacionados

  • Em processo de indexaçãoCitado por Google
  • Em processo de indexaçãoSimilares em Google

Compartilhar


Journal of the South African Veterinary Association

versão On-line ISSN 2224-9435

J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. vol.79 no.2 Cape Town  2008

 

ARTICLE

 

The scintigraphic evaluation of the pulmonary perfusion pattern of dogs hospitalised with babesiosis

 

 

L SweersI; R M KirbergerI; A L LeisewitzII; I C DormehlIII; E KillianIV; F NaudéV

IDepartment of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110 South Africa
IIDepartment of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110 South Africa
IIIAEC Institute for Life Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, PO Box 667, Pretoria, 0001 South Africa
IVBiomedical Research Centre, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110 South Africa
VDepartment of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, PO Box 667, Pretoria, 0001 South Africa

 

 


ABSTRACT

The possibility of coagulopathy in Babesia canis rossi infections in the canine patient has been suggested in the literature, but minimal work has been done to evaluate the clinicopathological nature of it in further detail. Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) has not yet been implicated in canine babesiosis (CB), but may also be one of the causes of the sudden dyspnoea and tachypnoea that are frequently seen in complicated CB patients. The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the scintigraphic pulmonary perfusion pattern in hospitalised dogs with babesiosis in an attempt to ascertain whether a scintigraphic pattern consistent with clinically relevant PTE does indeed occur in these patients. The study consisted of a normal control group of 9 mature healthy Beagle dogs (group 1) and a Babesia group with 14 dogs of a variety of breeds that were naturally infected with Babesia (group 2). Pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy was performed after making thoracic radiographs and performing a blood gas analysis in both groups. The scintigraphic images were visually inspected for changes suggestive of PTE, but not a single dog in group 2 had pleural-based, wedge-shaped perfusion defects which would have resulted in a high probability for clinically relevant PTE. The scintigraphic pulmonary perfusion pattern demonstrated was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P=1.00).

Keywords: canine babesiosis, pulmonary perfusion, pulmonary thromboembolism, scintigraphy


 

 

“Full text available only in PDF format”

 

 

REFERENCES

1. Alderson P O, Doppman J L, Diamond S S, Mendenhall K G, Barron E L, Girton M 1978 Ventilation-perfusion imaging and selective pulmonary angiography in dogs with experimental pulmonary embolism. Journal of Nuclear Medicine 9: 164-171        [ Links ]

2. Alderson P O, Martin E C 1987 Pulmonary embolism: diagnosis with multiple imaging modalities. Radiology 164: 297-312        [ Links ]

3. Amundsen T, Kvaerness J, Jones R A, Waage A, Bjermer L, Nilsen G, Haraldseth O 1997 Pulmonary embolism: detection with MR perfusion imaging of lung - a feasibility study. Radiology 203: 181-185        [ Links ]

4. Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa (Ltd) 1997 Package insert PULMOTEK        [ Links ]

5. Berry C R, Daniel G B 2006 Pulmonary and mucociliary scintigraphy. In Berry C R, Daniel G B (eds) Textbook of veterinary nuclear medicine (2nd edn). American College of Veterinary Medicine, Knoxville: 303-327        [ Links ]

6. Bick R L 1992 Disseminated intravascular coagulation. In Johnson K D (ed.) Disorders of thrombosis and hemostasis (1st edn). American Society of Clinical Pathologists Press, Chicago: 137-174        [ Links ]

7. Bick R L 1992 Hypercoagulability and thrombosis. In Johnson K D (ed.) Disorders of thrombosis and hemostasis (1st edn). American Society of Clinical Pathologists Press, Chicago: 261-289        [ Links ]

8. Clercx C, Van den Brom W E, Van den Ingh TSGAM, De Vries H W 1989 Scintigraphic analysis as a diagnostic tool in canine experimental lung embolism. Lung 167: 225-236        [ Links ]

9. Dalgliesh R J, Dimmock C K, Hill M W M, Mellors L T 1976 Babesia argentina: disseminated intravascular coagulation in acute infections in splenectomized calves. Experimental Parasitology 40: 124-131        [ Links ]

10. Dalgliesh R J, Dimmock C K, Hill M W, Mellors L T 1977 The protamine sulphate test as a screening test for intravascular coagulation in experimental Babesia bovis infections. Research in Veterinary Science 23: 105-108        [ Links ]

11. Dennis J S 1991 The pathophysiologic sequelae of pulmonary thromboembolism. The Compendium of Continuing Education for the PracticingVeterinarian 13: 1811-1818        [ Links ]

12. Dennis J S 1993 Clinical features of canine pulmonary thromboembolism. The Compendium of Continuing Education for the PracticingVeterinarian 15: 1595-1603        [ Links ]

13. Flückiger M A, Gomez J A 1984 Radiographic findings in dogs with spontaneous pulmonary thrombosis or embolism. Veterinary Radiology 25: 124-131        [ Links ]

14. Giordano A, Angiolillo D J 2001 Current role of lung scintigraphy in pulmonary embolism. The Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine 45: 294-301        [ Links ]

15. Hartman I J C, Wüst A F J, Mellisant C F, Stokkel M P M 2000 Normal perfusion scintigraphy in pulmonary embolism. Causes and diagnostic alternatives. The Netherlands Journal ofMedicine 57: 157-164        [ Links ]

16. Hood D M, Hightower D, Tatum M E 1977 Lung perfusion imaging in the dog. Journal of the American Veterinary Radiological Society 18: 124-127        [ Links ]

17. Hull R D, Raskob G E, Coates G, Panju A A 1990 Clinical validity of a normal perfusion lung scan in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. Chest 97: 23-26        [ Links ]

18. Jacobson L S, Clark I A 1994 The patho-physiology of canine babesiosis: new approaches to an old puzzle. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 65: 134-145        [ Links ]

19. Klein M K, Dow S W, Rosychuk RAW 1989 Pulmonary thromboembolism associated with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia in dogs: ten cases (1982-1987). Journal ofthe American Veterinary Medical Association 195: 246-250        [ Links ]

20. Koblik P D, Hornof W, Harnagel S H, Fisher P E 1989 A comparison of pulmonary angiography, digital subtraction angiography, and 99mTc-DTPA/MAA ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy for detection of experimental pulmonary emboli in the dog. Veterinary Radiology 30: 159-168        [ Links ]

21. LaRue M J, Murtaugh R J 1990 Pulmonary thromboembolism in dogs: 47 cases (1986-1987). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 10: 1368-1372        [ Links ]

22. Leisewitz A L, Jacobson L, De Morais H S A, Reyers F 2001 The mixed acid-base disturbances of severe canine babesiosis. Journal of Veterinar Internal Medicine 15: 445-452        [ Links ]

23. Lobetti R 1998 Canine babesiosis. The Compendium of Continuing Education for the PracticingVeterinarian 20: 418-430        [ Links ]

24. Máthé A, Vörös K, Papp L, Reiczigel J 2006 Clinical manifestations of canine babesiosis in Hungary (63 cases). Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 54: 367-385        [ Links ]

25. Mettler F A, Guiberteau M J 1991 Respiratory system. In Mettler F A, Guiberteau M J (eds) Essentials of nuclear medicine imaging (3rd edn). W B Saunders Company, Philadelphia: 141-176        [ Links ]

26. Miniati M, Pistolesi M 2001 Assessing the clinical probability of pulmonary embolism. The Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine 45: 287-293        [ Links ]

27. Moore D J, Williams M C 1979 Disseminated intravascular coagulation: a complication of Babesia canis infection in the dog. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 50: 265-275        [ Links ]

28. Moser K M, Harsanyi P, Rius-Garriga G, Guisan M, Landis G A, Miale A Jr 1969 Assessment of pulmonary photoscanning and angiography in experimental pulmonary embolism. Circulation 39: 663-674        [ Links ]

29. Nelson O L 2005 Use of D-dimer assay for diagnosing thromboembolic disease in the dog. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 41: 145-149        [ Links ]

30. Neumann R D, Sostman H D, Gottschalk A 1980 Current status of ventilation-perfusion imaging. Seminars in Nuclear Medicine 10: 198-217        [ Links ]

31. Pistolesi M, Pupi A 2001 Pulmonary embolism diagnosis: What role for nuclear medicine? The Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine 45: 277-280        [ Links ]

32. Schetters T P M, Kleuskens J, Scholtes N 1998 Parasite localization and dissemination in the Babesia-infected host. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 92: 513-519        [ Links ]

33. Schwarz L A, Tidwell A S 1999 Alternative imaging of the lung. Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice 14: 187-206        [ Links ]

34. Shaffran N 1998 Blood gas analysis. Veterinary Technician 19: 95-102        [ Links ]

35. Shaffran N 2003 Blood gas interpretation. Proceedings, 21st annual ACVIM Forum, Charlotte, North Carolina, 4-8 June 2003: 845-847        [ Links ]

36. Shakespeare A S 1995 The incidence of canine babesiosis amongst sick dogs presented to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 66: 247-250        [ Links ]

37. Stappendel R J 1988 Disseminated intravascular coagulation. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice 18: 169-184        [ Links ]

38. Suga K, Ogasawara N, Okada M, Matsu-naga N, Arai M 2002 Regional lung functional impairment in acute airway obstruction and pulmonary embolic dog models assessed with Gadolinium-based aerosol ventilation and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging. Investigative Radiology 37: 281-291        [ Links ]

39. Taboada J, Merchant S R 1991 Babesiosis of companion animals and man. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice 21: 103-123        [ Links ]

40. Welzl C, Leisewitz A, Jacobson L, Myburgh E, Vaughan-Scott T 1999 The systemic inflammatory response and multiple organ dysfunction syndromes in canine babesiosis. Proceedings of a Symposium on Canine Babesiosis and Ehrlichiosis, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 6 November 1999: 27-31        [ Links ]

41. Wright I G, Goodger B V 1988 Pathogenesis of babesiosis. In Ristic M (ed.) Babesiosis of domestic animals and man. CRC Press, Boca Raton: 99-118        [ Links ]

42. Yeruham I, Hadani A, Galker F 1998 Some epizootiological and clinical aspects of ovine babesiosis caused by Babesia ovis -a review. Veterinary Parasitology 74: 153-163mm        [ Links ]

43. Yeruham I, Hadani A, Galker F, Avidar Y, Bogin E 1998 Clinical, clinico-pathological and serological studies of Babesia ovis in experimentally infected sheep. Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin Reihe B 45: 385-394        [ Links ]

 

 

Received: November 2007
Accepted: May 2008

 

 

* Author for correspondence. E-mail: drsweers@gmail.com
Sweers L, Kirberger R M, Leisewitz A L, Dormehl I C, Killian E, Naudé F The scintigraphic evaluation of the pulmonary perfusion pattern of dogs hospitalised with babesiosis. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association (2008) 79(2): 76-83 (En.). Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110 South Africa.

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License