SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.79 número2Care, husbandry and diseases of the African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus)The prevalence of serum antibodies to Ehrlichia ruminantium infection in ranch cattle in Tanzania: A cross-sectional study índice de autoresíndice de assuntospesquisa de artigos
Home Pagelista alfabética de periódicos  

Serviços Personalizados

Artigo

Indicadores

Links relacionados

  • Em processo de indexaçãoCitado por Google
  • Em processo de indexaçãoSimilares em Google

Compartilhar


Journal of the South African Veterinary Association

versão On-line ISSN 2224-9435
versão impressa ISSN 1019-9128

J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. vol.79 no.2 Cape Town  2008

 

ARTICLE

 

Normal intestinal flora of wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

 

 

C J LovelyI, II; A J LeslieII

IGobabis Veterinary Practice, PO Box 1424, Gobabis, Namibia
IIDepartment of Conservation Ecology and Entomology, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7600 South Africa

 

 


ABSTRACT

Bacterial and fungal cultures were performed from cloacal swabs collected from 29 wild Nile crocodiles, captured in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Sixteen species of bacteria and 6 fungal species were cultured. Individual crocodiles yielded bacterial species, and 0-2 fungal species. The most commonly isolated bacteria were Microbacterium, Enterococcus faecalis, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Escherichia coli. No salmonellae were cultured. The most commonly occurring fungus was Cladosporium. Several of the bacterial and fungal species isolated have been implicated in cases of septicaemia in crocodilians. Knowledge of the normal intestinal flora will contribute towards the development of a crocodile-specific probiotic for use in farmed crocodiles.

Keywords: Crocodylus niloticus, intestinal flora, Nile crocodile, Okavango Delta, Salmonella


 

 

“Full text available only in PDF format”

 

 

 

REFERENCES

1. Buenviaje G N, Ladds P W, Melville L, Manolis S C 1994 Disease-husbandry associations in farmed crocodiles in Queensland and the Northern Territory. Australian Veterinary Journal 71: 165-173        [ Links ]

2. Campbell M C, Stewart J L 1980 The medical mycology handbook. John Wiley, New York        [ Links ]

3. Cowan S T 1974 Cowan and Steel's manual for the identification of medical bacteria (2nd edn). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge        [ Links ]

4. Dogi C A, Perdigon G 2006 Importance of the host specificity in the selection of probiotic bacteria. Journal of Dairy Research 73: 357-366        [ Links ]

5. DuPont M W, Nakamura R M, Chang E M L 1978 Links Activation of latent Salmonella and Arizona organisms by dehydration of red-eared turtles, Pseudemys scripta-elegans. American Journal of Veterinary Research 39(3): 529-530        [ Links ]

6. Foggin C M 1992 Disease trends on crocodile farms in Zimbabwe. Proceedings of the 11th Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group of the Species Survival Commission. IUCN - The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland: Vol. 1, 107-110        [ Links ]

7. Foggin C M 1992 Diseases of farmed crocodiles. In Smith G A, Marais J (eds) Conservation and utilization of the Nile crocodile in South Africa. Handbook on crocodile farming. The Crocodile Study Group of Southern Africa, Pretoria: 107-140        [ Links ]

8. Foreyt W J, Leathers C W, Smith E N 1985 Trichoderma sp. infection in the alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Journal of Herpetology 19: 530-531        [ Links ]

9. Hibberd E M A, Pierce R J, Hill B D, Kelly M A 1996 Diseases of juvenile farmed estuarine crocodiles, Crocodylus porosus. Crocodiles. Proceedings of the 13th Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group. IUCN- The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland: 303-312        [ Links ]

10. Huchzermeyer F W 2003 Crocodiles: biology, husbandry and diseases. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxon, UK, and Cambridge, MA, USA        [ Links ]

11. Huchzermeyer F W, Henton M, Riley J, Agnagna M 2000 Aerobic intestinal flora of wild-caught African dwarf crocodiles Osteolaemus tetraspis. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 67: 201-205        [ Links ]

12. Krieg N R, Holt J G 1984 Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology, Vol. 1. Williams & Wilkens, London & Baltimore        [ Links ]

13. Ladds P W, Simms L D 1990 Diseases of young captive crocodiles in Papua New Guinea. Australian Veterinary Journal 67: 323-330        [ Links ]

14. Madsen M, Hangartner P, West K, Kelly P 1998 Recovery rates, serotypes, and anti-microbial susceptibility patterns from Salmonellae isolated from wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in Zimbabwe. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 29: 31-34        [ Links ]

15. Manolis S C, Webb G J W, Pinch D, Melville L, Hollis G 1991 Salmonella in captive crocodiles. Australian Veterinary Journal 68: 102-105        [ Links ]

16. Misra P R, Kumar D, Patnaik G M, Raman R P, Sinha A 1993 Bacterial isolates from apparently healthy and diseased crocodiles (Gavialis gangeticus). Indian Veterinary Journal 70: 375-376        [ Links ]

17. Nava G M, Bielke L R, Callaway T R, Castaneda M P 2005 Probiotic alternatives to reduce gastrointestinal infections: the poultry experience. Animal Health Research Reviews 6: 105-118        [ Links ]

18. Obwolo M J, Zwart P 1993 Prevalence of Salmonella in the intestinal tracts of farm-reared crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in Zimbabwe. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 25: 175-176        [ Links ]

19. Peucker SKJ, Davis B M, Van Barneveld R J 2005 Crocodile farming research: hatching to harvest: a report for the Australian Government Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation. Publication No. 05/152        [ Links ]

20. Rippon J W 1988 Medical mycology (3rd edn). W B Saunders, Philadelphia        [ Links ]

21. Scott T, Foster B G 1997 Salmonella spp. in free-ranging and farmed alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from Texas and Louisiana, U.S.A. Aquaculture 156: 179-181        [ Links ]

22. Sneath P H A, Mair N S, Sharpe M E, Holt J G 1986 Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology, Vol. 2. Williams & Wilkens. Baltimore        [ Links ]

23. Troiano J C, Roman L H 1996 Diseases encountered in genus Caiman intensive breeding. Crocodiles. Proceedings of the 13th Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group. IUCN - The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland: 328-341        [ Links ]

24. Van der Walt M L, Huchzermeyer F W, Steyn H C 1997 Salmonella isolated from crocodiles and other reptiles during the period 1985-1994 in South Africa. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 64: 277-283        [ Links ]

 

 

Received: February 2008
Accepted: April 2008

 

 

* Author for correspondence. E-mail: colinlovely@iway.na
Lovely C J, Leslie A J Normal intestinal flora of wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association (2008) 79(2): 67-70 (En.). Gobabis Veterinary Practice, PO Box 1424, Gobabis, Namibia.

Creative Commons License Todo o conteúdo deste periódico, exceto onde está identificado, está licenciado sob uma Licença Creative Commons