versão On-line ISSN 2412-4265
versão impressa ISSN 1017-0499
Studia Hist. Ecc. vol.34 no.2 Pretoria Dez. 2008
The crisis of the Church of Sweden Mission among the Zulus during the 1880s
Department of English, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa
After the destruction of its original station at Oscarsberg near Rorke's Drift in the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879, the Church of Sweden Mission gradually developed its programme of evangelism and social ministry under the leadership of Otto Witt during the 1880s. However, Witt underwent a spiritual crisis and gradually became disillusioned with the missionary strategy of his Lutheran agency. His criticism of its emphasis on establishing mission stations and their schools went hand-in-hand with his increasing focus on itinerant evangelism, the imminent Second Advent of Jesus Christ, and a de-emphasis of educational work that ran counter to the Lutheran confessionalism of the Church of Sweden Mission. This brought Witt into conflict with its leadership, causing an internal crisis and eventually leading to his departure from this Lutheran organisation. Despite this setback, it weathered the storm and emerged from it with new initiatives leading to inter alia an emphasis on ministry to urbanised Zulus in Natal and, eventually, on the Witwatersrand.
“Full text available only in PDF format”
Blue Book for the Colony of Natal. 1885 . Pietermaritzburg: Davis & Sons, Government Printers.
Blue Book for the Colony of Natal. 1886 . Pietermaritzburg: Davis & Sons, Government Printers.
Furberg, Tore 1962. Kyrka och mission i Sverige 1868-1901. Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksells Boktryckeri AB. [ Links ]
Hale, Frederick 1987. British and American millenarianism in Norway during the breakthrough of modernity. Fides et Historia, XIX(1), February, 35-50. [ Links ]
Hale, Frederick 1998. Launching Scandinavian urban evangelisation in Southern Africa: The Free East Africa Mission in Durban, 1889-1899. Svensk Missionstidskrift, LXXXVI(2), 227-250. [ Links ]
Hale, Frederick 2004. Swedish Lutheran missionary endeavours on the Witwatersrand, 1890-1960. Doctor of Philosophy dissertation. Pretoria: University of Pretoria. [ Links ]
Hale, Frederick 2006. The "Battle of Rorke's Drift" from a Swedish missionary perspective. Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae, XXXII(2), September, 47-68. [ Links ]
Karlgren, Anton 1909. Svenska Kyrkans mission i Sydafrika. Uppsala: Norblads Bokhandel. [ Links ]
Lear, M F (ed.) 1980. The St. Olav Lutheran Church 1880-1890. Durban: Unity. [ Links ]
Lindén, Ingemar 1971. Biblicism, apokalyptik, utopi. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. [ Links ]
Norenius, J E 1924 . Bland zuluer och karanger. Femtio års missionshistoria på Svenska Kyrkans fält i Sydafrika. 2 vols. Stockholm: Svenska Kyrkans Diakonistyrelses Bokförlag.
Sarja, Karin 2002. "Ännu en syster till Afrika ". Trettiosex kvinnliga missionärer i Natal och Zululand 1876-1902. Uppsala: Svensk Institutet för Missionsforskning. [ Links ]
Witt, Otto 1887. Kristus i hedningarne, härlighetens hopp. Stockholm: Carlson. [ Links ]
Witt, Otto 1895. Kristi âterkomst och Tusenâriga riket. Stockholm: privately published. [ Links ]
Witt, Otto 1922. Märkliga livserfarenheter. Minnen ur det flydda. Stockholm: privately published. [ Links ]