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Old Testament Essays

On-line version ISSN 2312-3621
Print version ISSN 1010-9919

Old testam. essays vol.32 n.2 Pretoria  2019

http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2019/v32n2a3 

ARTICLES

 

Psalm 39 (LXX 38): A Retributive Psalm?1

 

 

Johann Cook

Stellenbosch University

 

 


ABSTRACT

This paper is a contribution to the Festschrift for Prof. Phil Botha. As a teacher in Semitic Languages, he specialised in two corpora: poetry (Hebrew) and more specifically the Psalms, and Syriac, a prominent Aramaic dialect. He also demonstrated an interest in the Septuagint. It is an honour to dedicate this contribution to my colleague of many years, who has also had an impact on the international stage. In a recent international contribution, he argues that Ps 39 is effectively a song of retribution. This paper focuses on this Hebrew Psalm from the perspective of the Greek Psalms, as a pilot study, in order to test Botha's assumption; in his own words the psalm is intended "to serve as a wisdom reflection on how to overcome theologicalfrustration caused by delayed retribution."

Keywords: Septuagint, textual criticism, hermeneutics, isomorphism, isosemantism, theology, translation technique, criteria, paradigm, interlinear, critical edition, exegesis, Descriptive Translation Studies (DTS).


 

 

A METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS

According to Gauthier, the psalms in the Greek Psalter are relatively uniform and bear a striking resemblance to those in the MT.2 Hence scholars have regarded the Old Greek (OG) translation as isomorphic. To be sure, isomorphism does not entail isosemantism. James Barr stated that there are in fact different ways of being literal and being free, so that a translation can at the same time be literal and free in different modes and on different levels.3 This applies to different books of the Septuagint.4 In a paper presented in Helsinki I defined the translation technique of LXX Proverbs along similar lines, as entailing unity and diversity.5 Gauthier6 also correctly warns against a narrow logocentric view of the translation technique of the Psalter. Hans Ausloos and Bénédicte Lemmelijn have opened new ways to address this issue by developing content- and context-related criteria in order to refine the process.7 In this regard John Ross Wagner makes use of Descriptive Translation Studies (DTS), since it takes into account more than just linguistic issues, but also the social conventions and the reception of the text that was produced in the larger target culture.8 There nevertheless seems to be a consensus that the Psalms were in general rendered faithfully.

Botha is of the opinion that Ps 39 is a perplexing text, situated at the end of the first Davidic collection, Pss 3-41.9 He, moreover, deems it a complicated psalm to interpret. Fortunately, we are in a favourable position in that numerous novel sources are available. The influence of the Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS) is a relative novelty, after the research by Emanuel Tov.10 As far as the Psalms are concerned, Jim Sanders did ground-breaking work on 11QPsa.11

 

B THE PSALMS

1 The Settlement of the Psalms

Regarding the settlement of Psalms, Randall Gauthier states:

Central to the present discussion is the question of whether the (proto)-M (MT Psalter 150 or merely MT 150) was compiled and settled before the 1st century B.C.E. (so Goshen-Gottstein, Talmon, Haran, Schiffman, Wachholder and Tov)12 and, more specifically, in the 4th century B.C.E. (so Skehan), or whether it was finally settled during the 1st century C.E. only after a gradual period of editorial development that may have had its roots in the 2nd B.C.E. (so Sanders, Ulrich, Flint, and Charlesworth).13

According to Gauthier,14 these views have polarised opinions in the literature and have become distilled as facts.

The views on this issue diverge widely. Schiffman15 refers to the fact that exaggerated claims have been made about the Qumran scrolls. Predominant among them is the view that Qumran had an open canon and that MT was one of only three text types in the 2nd century B.C.E. He also takes 11QPsa as a sectarian prayer book or liturgical text, but not as a literary text like the canonical text.16Charlesworth17 has his own view and sees the DSS collection as evidence that the canon had not yet been closed. The order of 11QPsa differs dramatically compared with other collections.18 Wilson19 argues that the Hebrew Mss from Qumran suggest gradual development from the Psalter when, in a two-stage process, Pss 2-89 were compiled early on (and translated into Greek thereafter), while Pss 90150 came only later (with the Greek following) in the 1st century CE. According to him, the LXX followed in the same two-stage process, with the second part following much later. It would seem the whole psalter had not necessarily been translated by the 2nd century C.E.20 Unfortunately he offers no convincing evidence in this regard. Sanders21 has argued extensively that the 11QPsa was a genuine Psalter edition that reflected a stage in the evolution of the 11QPsa in which the arrangement of the MT Psalter had not yet become standardized.

2 Hebrew Psalters in relation to a date of the Old Greek Psalter

There is a broad consensus that the Greek psalter22 was completed in toto23by the 2nd century BCE. However, Harl, Munnich and Dorival24 opt for a dating before the turn of the century.

The position holding to an early finalization of the Psalter supports the possibility that the Psalter was translated in the mould of MT Pss 1-150 by one person or a team25 whereas a post-1st century BCE. MT Psalter, on the other hand, would suggest that LXX* came into being over a lengthier period of time in piecemeal fashion or as competing editions, only to be sewn together by a Christian-era editor.26

Jim Sanders has argued "that the 11QPsa-Psalter was a genuine Psalter edition that reflected a stage27 in the Hebrew Psalter in which the arrangement of the Hebrew MT (Pss 1-150) had yet to become standardized. As such 11QPsarepresented a pre-standardised, pre-Masoretic phase of an existing development rather th an an aberration of MT Pss 1-150."28 To be sure, for Sanders 11QPsawas both canonical and open-ended.29 The collections of 11QPsa have contributed tremendously to the scholarly discussion. For one thing, the order of 11QPsa is different from other collections. Finally, Wilson argues that one should not necessarily accept that the whole of the Psalter was translated by the first century B.C.E. 30

Gauthier has contributed extensively to the interpretation of the Greek Psalms. In his words: "The present work assumes, however, that the ancient translator, as a member of Jewish scribal circles, was in the unique position to act both as composer and reader."31 Martin Rösel and Cook hold a similar view. 32

3 Psalm 39 (MT) / 38 (LXX): Text and Translation33

From a methodological perspective, I operate on the assumption that the Greek Psalter is based upon (a) parent text(s) that do not differ dramatically from the Masoretic text. However, it does have a different structure, since Greek is an Indo-European language. For this reason, I prefer to place the two texts together in order to compare the two texts34.

Botha has unpacked the structure of the Hebrew psalm brilliantly. The four stanzas are divided into eight smaller divisions, which according to Botha are aimed at, inter alia, retribution. Botha identifies the following elements:35

I A In a self-deliberation, the psalmist explains the reason for composing the psalm. He earlier wanted to keep silent so that he would not sin with his tongue.

B Initially he did keep silent, but his thoughts could not be suppressed; thus he began to address Yahweh in prayer.

II C He explains how he said to Yahweh that he had to know exactly how fleeting his life is. He told Yahweh that, in comparison to Yahweh, all humanity is a mere breath.

D Because of human frailty, all activity potentially becomes meaningless. Human existence is only shadowy and there is no control over who will inherit what people have gathered during their lives.

III E The psalmist now prays and tells Yahweh that, in view of the uncertainty of life, his only hope for meaning is located in Yahweh.

To give meaning to his life, he asks Yahweh to forgive his transgressions and to save him from the ridicule of fools.

F He acknowledges in his prayer that his fate is in the hands of Yahweh and promises to remain silent henceforth, but asks Yahweh to stop disciplining him.

G In a universalising conclusion of the stanza, the psalmist ascribes the transitoriness of possessions and human life to the abrasive effect of Yahweh's discipline for sin. Yahweh's discipline is portrayed as the reason why all mankind is a mere breath.

IV H The psalmist once more pleads with Yahweh to take note of his plight. Human feebleness implies that he only has the status of a guest in the presence of Yahweh. Consequently, he would like to have some respite before he dies.

4 Psalm 39 and the Septuagint

Even though there is consensus that the LXX Pss is a relatively faithful rendering of its Semitic parent text (which corresponds with MT to a large extent), it differs from the Hebrew in some respects. From a methodological perspective, two aspects are important. Firstly, one has to take into account that the essence of the Greek translation is translational literature.36 This literature requires a different methodology than compositional literature. The so-called interlinear paradigm which is best understood in a relation of dependence and subservience (Greek) to its parent text (Hebrew/Aramaic), is a useful paradigm37 for the analysis of texts, as long as it is not idealized. Secondly, the Septuagint is written in an Indo-European language that has a different language structure from Semitic languages.38 These aspects have an impact on the view one has, i.e., on the segmentation of the Psalms. Botha argues that the use of three forms of address of Yahweh, which in this psalm seem to serve as transition markers, appear in Ps 39:5 and 13 where the poet uses the divine name Yahweh, and in v. 8, where he addresses Yahweh as "Adonai." According to Botha, each of these introduces a new stanza (II, III, and IV). The Septuagint, however, consistently uses κύριος as equivalent. Within the context of this psalm, there are also other examples. The Hebrew text refers to the act of sinning (Ν0Π) in verse 2 and relates it to the yt£h "wicked." The LXX, however, uses the lexeme αμαρτωλός, in both instances. It seems that to the translator sinning and wickedness were related. The lexeme άμαρτάνειν, in turn, is used 11 times in the Psalms and in 7 instances the parent text is Ν0Π. The lexeme αμαρτωλός, to be sure, is used close to 100 times in the Psalms and in more than 80%, including the verse under discussion, is the rendering for yt£h. A final example is ανομία, that appears umpteen times in the Psalms. In the passage under discussion, verse 9, the parent text is y$9. At the least it is clear that the Greek translator is consistent.

Finally the LXX being translated in an Indo-European language has a different structure. This can be observed by comparing the two texts. The translator of Ps 39 clearly had a word for word intention in his translation. Seemingly he was not interested in its structure.

 

C CONCLUSION

As an answer to the question posed at the beginning of this paper - whether MT Ps 39 / LXX Ps 38 is a retributive Psalm - one should take into account the fact that the LXX version is of a different order. Firstly, from a methodological perspective, the essence of the LXX is translational literature. This literature requires a different methodology for analysis from that used for other literature. Hence the comparative method takes pride of place. Secondly, the interpreter has to work with two language structures - a Semitic and an Indo-European one. From this perspective, Botha has put forward more than enough arguments to convince us that Ps 39 is a retributive Psalm. The Greek Psalm, on the other hand, shows no special signs of retribution.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ausloos, Hans and Lemmelijn, Bénédicte. "Content-related Criteria in Characterising LXX Translation Technique." Pages 356-376 in Die Septuaginta - Texte, Theologien, Einflüsse: 2. Internationale Fachtagung von Septuaginta Deutsch (LXX.D), Wuppertal 23.-27. Juli 2008. Edited by Wolfgang Kraus, Martin Karrer and in cooperation with Martin Meiser. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 252; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2010.         [ Links ]

Ausloos, Hans, Lemmelijn, Bénédicte and Kabergs, Valerie. "The Study of Aetiological Wordplay as a Content-Related Criterion in the Characterisation of LXX Translation Technique." Pages 273-294 in Die Septuaginta - Entstehung, Sprache, Geschichte: 3. Internationale Fachtagung veranstaltet von Septuaginta Deutsch (LXX.D), Wuppertal 22.-25. Juli 2010. Edited by Siegfried Kreuzer, Martin Meiser and Marcus Sigismund. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 286; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2012.         [ Links ]

Barr, James. The Typology of Literalism in Ancient Biblical Translations. Mitteilungen des Septuaginta-Unternehmens 15 / Nachrichten der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen. I. Philosophisch-Historische Klasse, Jahrgang 1979, 11. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1979.         [ Links ]

Botha, Phil J. "Psalm 39 and its Place in the Development of a Doctrine of Retribution in the Hebrew Bible." Old Testament Essays 30/2 (2017): 240-264. https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2017/v30n2a4.         [ Links ]

Boyd-Taylor, Cameron. Read between the Lines: The Interlinear Paradigm for Septuagint Studies. Tools and Studies 8. Leuven: Peeters, 2011.         [ Links ]

Charlesworth, James A. "Writings Ostensibly Outside the Canon." Pages 57-87 in Exploring the Origins of the Bible: Canon Formation in Historical, Literary and Theological Perspective. Edited by Craig C. Evans and Emanuel Tov. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2008.         [ Links ]

Cook, Johann. "Were the persons responsible for the Septuagint translators and/or scribes and/or editors?" Journal of Northwest Semitic Languages 21 (1995): 4558.         [ Links ]

Cook, Johann. "Ideology and Translation Technique: Two Sides of the Same Coin?" Pages 195-210 in Helsinki Perspectives on the Translation Techniques of the Septuagint: Proceedings of the IOSCS congress held in Helsinki, July 1999. Edited by Raijo Sollamo and Seppo Sipilä. Publications of the Finnish Exegetical Society 82. Helsinki: The Finnish Exegetical Society and Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2001.         [ Links ]

Cook, Johann. "The Translation of a Translation: Some Methodological Considerations on the Translation of the Septuagint." Pages 29-40 in XII Congress of the International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies, Leiden, 2004. Edited by Melvin K. H. Peters. Society of Biblical Literature: Septuagint and Cognate Studies 54; Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature, 2006.         [ Links ]

Cook, Johann. "Interpreting the Septuagint." Pages 1-22 in Congress Volume Stellenbosch 2016. Edited by Louis Jonker, Gideon Kotzé and Christl Maier. Supplements to Vetus Testamentum 177. Leiden: Brill, 2017.         [ Links ]

Cook, Johann and van der Kooi, Arie. Law, Prophets, and Wisdom: On the Provenance of Translators and Their Books in the Septuagint Version. Contributions to Biblical Exegesis and Theology 68. Leuven: Peeters, 2012.         [ Links ]

Gauthier, Randall X. Psalms 38 and 145 of the Old Greek Version. Supplements to Vetus Testamentum 166. Leiden: Brill, 2014.         [ Links ]

Pietersma, Albert and Wright, Benjamin G. (eds.). A New English Translation of the Septuagint and the Other Greek Translations Traditionally Included under that Title. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2007.         [ Links ]

Rösel, Martin. "Schreiber, Übersetzer, Theologen. Die Septuaginta als Dokument der Schrift-, Lese- und Übersetzungskulturen des Judentums." Pages 83-102 in Die Septuaginta - Texte, Kontexte, Lebenswelten: Internationale Fachtagung veranstaltet von Septuaginta Deutsch (LXX.D), Wuppertal 20-23. Juli 2006. Edited by Martin Karrer and Wolfgang Kraus in cooperation with Martin Meiser. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 219. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2008.         [ Links ]

Sanders, James A. The Psalm Scroll of Qumran Cave 11 (11QPsa). Discoveries in the Judaean Desert IV. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965.         [ Links ]

Sanders, James A. "The Pre-Masoretic Psalter Texts." Catholic Biblical Quarterly 27 (1965): 114-123.         [ Links ]

Schiffman, Lawrence. Reclaiming the Dead Sea Scrolls: The History of Judaism, the Background of Christianity, the Lost Library of Qumran. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1994.         [ Links ]

Tov, Emanuel and Kraft, Robert A. Computer Assisted Tools for Septuagint Studies (Atlanta GA: Scholars Press, 1986).         [ Links ]

Tov, Emanuel. Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible. 2nd revised edition. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 2001.         [ Links ]

Tov, Emanuel. Hebrew Bible, Greek Bible, and Qumran: Collected Essays. Texts and Studies in Ancient Judaism 121. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1628/978-3-16-151454-8.         [ Links ]

Wagner, John Ross. Reading the Sealed Book: Old Greek Isaiah and the Problem of Septuagint Hermeneutics. Forschungen zum Alten Testament 88. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2013.         [ Links ]

Wilson, Gerald H. "The Qumran Psalms Manuscripts and the Consecutive Arrangement of Psalms in the Masoretic Psalter." Catholic Biblical Quarterly 45 (1983): 377-388.         [ Links ]

Wilson, Gerald H. "The Qumran Psalms Scroll Reconsidered: Analysis of the Debate." Catholic Biblical Quarterly 47 (1984): 624-642.         [ Links ]

Wilson, Gerald H. "Review of Peter W. Flint, The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Book of the Psalms," Jewish Quarterly Review 90 (2000): 515-521. https://doi.org/10.2307/1454780.         [ Links ]

 

 

Article submitted: 2019/03/04
Peer reviewed: 2019/06/13
Accepted: 2019/07/19

 

 

1 The financial and other assistance of the SANRF and the University of Stellenbosch are acknowledged. The views expressed in this article are solely those of the author.
2 See Randall X. Gauthier, Psalms 38 and 145 of the Old Greek Version (VTSup 166; Leiden: Brill, 2014), 5.
3 See James Barr, The Typology of Literalism in Ancient Biblical Translations (MSU 15/ NAWG.PH 11; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1979), 280.
4 See Gauthier, Psalms 38 and 145, 5.
5 See Johann Cook, "Ideology and Translation Technique: Two Sides of the Same Coin?" in Helsinki Perspectives on the Translation Techniques of the Septuagint: Proceedings of the IOSCS congress held in Helsinki, July 1999 (ed. by Raija Sollamo and Seppo Sipilä; PFES 82; Helsinki: The Finnish Exegetical Society; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2001), 195-210.
6 See Gauthier, Psalms 38 and 145, 5.
7 Hans Ausloos and Bénédicte Lemmelijn, "Content-related Criteria in Characterising LXX Translation Technique," in Die Septuaginta - Texte, Theologien, Einflüsse: 2. Internationale Fachtagung von Septuaginta Deutsch (LXX.D), Wuppertal 23.-27. Juli 2008 (ed. by Wolfgang Kraus, Martin Karrer and in cooperation with Martin Meiser; WUNT 252; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2010), 356-376. See also Hans Ausloos, Bénédicte Lemmelijn and Valérie Kabergs, "The Study of Aetiological Wordplay as a Content-Related Criterion in the Characterisation of LXX Translation Technique," in Die Septuaginta - Entstehung, Sprache, Geschichte: 3. Internationale Fachtagung veranstaltet von Septuaginta Deutsch (LXX.D), Wuppertal 22.-25. Juli 2010 (ed. by Siegfried Kreuzer, Martin Meiser and Marcus Sigismund; WUNT 286; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2012), 273-294.
8 John Ross Wagner, Reading the Sealed Book: Old Greek Isaiah and the Problem of Septuagint Hermeneutics (FAT 88; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck and Waco, TX: Baylor, 2013), 37.
9 Phil J. Botha, "Psalm 39 and its Place in the Development of a Doctrine of Retribution in the Hebrew Bible," OTE 30 (2017): 244.
10 Cf., for example, Emanuel Tov, Hebrew Bible, Greek Bible, and Qumran: Collected Essays (TSAJ 121; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2008), 121. See also Emanuel Tov, Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible (2nd rev. ed.; Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 2001), 177-178. I also mention the contribution by Peter Flint from Trinity Western University (TWU), who untimely died recently. At the turn of the 21 century these scholars were stressing the pluriform nature of the existing textual traditions.
11 For the current paper, cf. James A. Sanders, The Psalm Scroll of Qumran Cave 11 (11QPsa) (DJD IV; Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965); idem., "The Pre-Masoretic Psalter Texts," CBQ 27 (1965): 114-123. See also Peter W. Flint, "The Book of Psalms in the Light of the Dead Sea Scrolls," VT 48 (1988): 453-472.
12 See Gauthier, Psalms 38 and 145, 19.
13 See Gauthier, Psalms 38 and 145, 20.
14 See Gauthier, Psalms 38 and 145, 19.
15 Lawrence Schiffman, Reclaiming the Dead Sea Scrolls: The History of Judaism, the Background of Christianity, the Lost Library of Qumran (Philadelphia, PA: Jewish Publication Society, 1994), 161.
16 Ibid.
17 See James A. Charlesworth, "Writings Ostensibly Outside the Canon", in Exploring the Origins of the Bible. Canon Formation in Historical, Literary and Theological Perspective (ed. by Craig C. Evans and Emanuel Tov; Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2008), 57-85, here 62.
18 Gerald H. Wilson, "The Qumran Psalms Manuscripts and the Consecutive Arrangement of Psalms in the Masoretic Psalter," CBQ 45 (1983): 377-388 and ibid., "The Qumran Psalms Scroll Reconsidered: Analysis of the Debate," CBQ 47 (1984): 624-642.
19 Gerald H. Wilson, "Review of Peter W. Flint, The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Book of the Psalms," JQR 90 (2000): 515-521.
20 Wilson, "Review of Peter W. Flint."
21 Sanders, "The Pre-Masoretic Psalter Texts," 114-123.
22 There is a difference of opinion on the dating of the books in the LXX. See Johann Cook and Arie van der Kooij, Law, Prophets, and Wisdom: On the Provenance of Translators and Their Books in the Septuagint Version (CBET 68; Leuven: Peeters, 2012), 33. See also Wilson, "The Qumran Psalms Scroll Reconsidered: Analysis of the Debate." Catholic Biblical Quarterly 47 (1984): 624-642.
23 See Gauthier, Psalms 38 and 145, 19.
24 See Gauthier, Psalms 38 and 145, 21.
25 See Gauthier, Psalms 38 and 145, 21.
26 See Gauthier, Psalms 38 and 145, 21.
27 James A. Sanders, The Psalms Scroll of Qumran Cave 11 (11QPs^), 7. On recensionally deviating Hebrew texts see Johann Cook's Presidential address at IOSOT 2016, "Interpreting the Septuagint," in Congress Volume Stellenbosch 2016 (ed. by Louis Jonker, Gideon Kotzé and Christl Maier; VTSup 177; Leiden: Brill, 2017), 18. For a deviating view see Emanuel Tov, Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible (2 rev. ed.; Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 2001), 111.
28 Gauthier, Psalms 38 and 145, 21. Cf. also Sanders, "The Pre-Masoretic Psalter Texts," 114-123.
29 James A. Sanders, The Psalms Scroll of Qumran Cave 11 (11QPsa), 11.
30 Gauthier, Psalms 38 and 145, 107.
31 Gauthier, Psalms 38 and 145, 107.
32 Martin Rösel, "Schreiber, Übersetzer, Theologen. Die Septuaginta als Dokument der Schrift-, Lese- und Übersetzungskulturen des Judentums," in Die Septuaginta -Texte, Kontexte, Lebenswelten: Internationale Fachtagung veranstaltet von Septuaginta Deutsch (LXX.D), Wuppertal 20-23. Juli 2006 (ed. by Martin Karrer and Wolfgang Kraus in cooperation with Martin Meiser; WUNT 219; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2008), 83-102. See also Johann Cook, "Were the persons responsible for the Septuagint translators and/or scribes and/or editors?" JNSL 21 (1995): 45-58.
33 For the Hebrew I make use of Botha's excellent translation (Botha, "Psalm 39," 242-243). I also compare the Hebrew and the Greek versions of LOGOS and I use the Greek translation of NETS = Albert Pietersma and Benjamin G. Wright (eds.), A New English Translation of the Septuagint and the Other Greek Translations Traditionally Included under that Title (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2007).
34 See the various volumes in the project directed by E. Tov and R.A. Kraft, Computer Assisted Tools for Septuagint Studies (Atlanta GA: Scholars Press, 1986).
35 I quote the summary of the psalm's structure and content from Botha, "Psalm 39," 244-245.
36 See Cameron Boyd-Taylor, Read between the Lines: The Interlinear Paradigm for Septuagint Studies (Tools and Studies 8; Leuven: Peeters, 2011).
37 See Boyd-Taylor, Read between the Lines, VII).
38 Johann Cook, "The Translation of a Translation: Some Methodological Considerations on the Translation of the Septuagint," in XII Congress of the International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies, Leiden, 2004 (ed. by Melvin K. H. Peters; SBLSCS 54; Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature, 2006), 29-40.
Prof Johann Cook, Professor Emeritus, Department of Ancient Studies, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa. Email cook@sun.ac.za. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2429-435X.

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