SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.21 número2Hoe Bruikbaar is Levitikus 18 en 20 in die homoseksualiteitsdebat?A narratological analysis of time in 2 Samuel 11:27a índice de autoresíndice de assuntospesquisa de artigos
Home Pagelista alfabética de periódicos  

Serviços Personalizados

Artigo

Indicadores

Links relacionados

  • Em processo de indexaçãoCitado por Google
  • Em processo de indexaçãoSimilares em Google

Compartilhar


Old Testament Essays

versão On-line ISSN 2312-3621
versão impressa ISSN 1010-9919

Old testam. essays vol.21 no.2 Pretoria  2008

 

The theme of the Babylonian exile as imprisonment in Isaiah 42:22 and other texts in Isaiah 40-55

 

 

Marius D. Terblanche

University Of The Free State

Correspondence

 

 


ABSTRACT

Although some scholars argue that Isaiah 42:22 has the people remaining in Judah rather than the exiles in mind, this paper asserts that the description of the exile as imprisonment is an exaggeration. Some Judean exiles were in all likelihood forced to work on royal building projects. Their imprisonment would at most be temporary. By depicting the exile as imprisonment 42:22 accentuates Yahweh's announcement in 42:14-44:23 that he would restore his relationship with Israel. The end of the punishment was in sight despite the fact that Israel's precarious situation could be interpreted as an indication that Yahweh's relationship with them has ended. In the present form of the text of Isaiah 40-55, 42:22 reveals that the one who would deliver the prisoners (42:7), himself needed deliverance. 42:22 thus sets the stage for the re-commissioning of the servant in 49:1-6. Although 49:24-26 does not give the servant a role in the return of Zion's sons, the statement in verse 25 that Yahweh himself would take up the prisoners' cause forms a strong contrast to the reproach reflected in 42:22.


 

 

“Full text available only in PDF format”

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ackroyd, P. R. 1968. Exile and restoration. A study of Hebrew thought of the sixth century BC. London: SCM.         [ Links ]

Albertz, R. 2003. Israel in exile. The history and literature of the Sixth Century BCE, translated by D. Green. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature.         [ Links ]

Baldauf, B. 1991. Jes 42,18-25. Gottes tauber und blinder Knecht, in Reiterer, F. V. (Hrsg.), Ein Gott. Eine Offenbarung. Beitrage zur biblischen Exegese, Theologie und Spiritualitat. Festschriftfür Notker Füglister, OSB zum 60. Geburtstag, 13-36. Würzburg: Echter.         [ Links ]

Barstad, H. M. 2003. After the 'Myth of the Empty Land': Major challenges in the study of Neo-Babylonian Judah, in Lipschits, O. & Blenkinsopp, J. (eds), Judah and the Judeans in the Neo-Babylonian Period, 3-20. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns.         [ Links ]

Becking, B. 2006. 'We all returned as one!': Critical notes on the myth of mass return, in Lipschits, O. & Oeming, M. (eds), Judah and the Judeans in the Persian Period, 3-18. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns.         [ Links ]

Begrich, J. 1963. Studien zu Deuterojesaja. München: Chr. Kaiser Verlag.         [ Links ]

Beuken, W. A. M. 1972. MISPÂT. The first servant song and its context. VT 22, 1-20.         [ Links ]

_____ 1978. De vergeefse moeite van de knecht. Gedachten over de plaats van Jesaja 49:1-6 in de context, in Grosheide, H. H. et al. (eds), De knecht. Studies rondom Deutero-Jesaja door collega 's en oud-leerlingen aangebode aan prof. dr. J. L. Koole, 23-40. Kampen: J.H. Kok.         [ Links ]

_____ 1983. Jesaja. Deel IIB. Nijkerk: Callenbach. (De Prediking van het Oude Testament.         [ Links ])

_____ 1986. Jesaja. Deel IIA. Tweede druk. Nijkerk: Callenbach. (De Prediking van het Oude Testament.) Blenkinsopp, J. 1988. Second Isaiah - prophet of universalism. JSOT 42, 83-103.         [ Links ]

_____ 2000. Isaiah 40-55. New York: Doubleday. (Anchor Bible.         [ Links ])

_____ 2002. The age of the exile, in Barton, J. (ed.), The Biblical world. Volume One, 416-439. London: Routledge.         [ Links ]

Carr, D. M. 2003. Moving beyond unity. Synchronic and diachronic perspectives on Prophetic Literature, in Ficher, I. et al. (Hrsg.), Prophétie in Israel. Beiträge des Symposiums 'Das Alte Testament und die Kultur die Moderne' anlässich des 100. Geburtstags Gerhard von Rads (1901-1971) Heidelberg 18.-21 Oktober 2001, 59-93. Münster / Hamburg / London: LIT Verlag. (Altes Testament und Moderne 11.         [ Links ])

Carroll, R. P. 1978. Second Isaiah and the failure of prophecy. Studia Theologica 32, 119-131.         [ Links ]

_____ 1997. Blindsight and the vision thing: Blindness an insight in the book of Isaiah, in Broyles, C. C. & Evans, C. A. (eds.), Writing and reading the scroll of Isaiah. Studies of an interpretive tradition. Volume One, 79-93. Leiden / New York / Köln: Brill. (SVT 70,1.         [ Links ])

Carter, C. E. 2003. Ideology and archaeology in the Neo-Babylonian Period: Excavating text and tell, in Lipschits, O. & Blenkinsopp, J. (eds.), Judah and the Judeans in the Neo-Babylonian Period, 301-322. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns.         [ Links ]

Conroy, C. 2004. The 'Four Servant Poems' in Deutero-Isaiah in light of recent redactional-historical studies, in McCarthy, C. & Healey, J. F. (eds.), Biblical and Near Eastern Essays. Studies in honour of Kevin J. Cathcart, 80-94. London / New York: T & T Clark. (JSOT Supplement Series 375.         [ Links ])

Dille, S. J. 2004. Mixing metaphors. God as Mother and Father in Deutero-Isaiah. London / New York: T & T Clark. (JSOTSS 398.         [ Links ])

Elliger, K. 1978. Deuterojesaja. 1. Teilband. Jesaja 40,1-45,7. Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag. (Biblischer Kommentar Altes Testament XI/1.         [ Links ])

Eph'al, I. 2003. Nebuchadnezzar the warrior: remarks on his military achievements. Israel Exploration Journal 53, 178-191.         [ Links ]

Gelb I. J. 1973. Prisoners of war in early Mesopotamia. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 32, 70-98.         [ Links ]

Goldingay, J. 1995. Isaiah 42:18-25. JSOT 67, 43-65.         [ Links ]

Hanson, P. D. 1995. Isaiah 40-66. Louisville: John Knox. (Interpretation.         [ Links ])

Hermisson, H.-J. 1989. Einheit und Komplexität Deuterojesaja. Probleme der Redaktionsgeschichte von Jes 40-55, in Vermeylen, J. (ed.), The Book of Isaiah. Le Livre d'Isaïe. Les oracles et leurs relectures. Unité et complexité de l'ouvrage, 287-312. Leuven: University Press. (BETL 81.         [ Links ])

Holladay, W. L. 1997. Was Trito-Isaiah Deutero-Isaiah after all?, in Broyles, C. C. & Evans, C. A. (eds.), Writing and reading the scroll of Isaiah. Studies of an interpretive tradition. Volume One, 193-217. Leiden / New York / Köln: Brill. (SVT 70,1.         [ Links ])

Joachimsen, K. 2007. Steck's five stories of the Servant in Isaiah lii 13-liii 12, and beyond. VT 57, 208-228.         [ Links ]

Klein, R. W. 1979. Israel in exile. A theological interpretation. Philadelphia: Fortress Press.         [ Links ]

Koole, J. L. 1985. Jesaja II. Deel I. Kampen: Kok. (Commentaar op het Oude Testament.         [ Links ])

Korpel, M. C. A. & De Moor, J. C. 1998. The structure of classical Hebrew poetry: Isaiah 40-55. Leiden / Boston / Köln: Brill. (OTS 41.         [ Links ])

Korpel, M. C. A. 1999. Second Isaiah's coping with the religious crisis: reading Isaiah 40 and 55, in Becking, B. & Korpel, M. C. A. (eds.), The crisis of Israelite religion. Transformation of religious tradition in exilic and post-exilic times, 90-113. Leiden / Boston / Köln: Brill. (OTS 62.         [ Links ])

Kratz, R. G. 1991. Kyros im Deuterojesaja-Buch. Redaktionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen zu Entstehung und Theologie von Jes 40-55. Tübingen: J.C.B Mohr (Paul Siebeck). (Forschungen zum Alten Testament 1.         [ Links ])

Kraus, H.-J. 1990. Das Evangelium der unbekannten Propheten. Jesaja 40-66. Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag.         [ Links ]

Kuhrt, A. 1997. The Ancient Near East c.3000-330 BC. Volume Two. London: Routledge.         [ Links ]

Laato, A. 1990. The composition of Isaiah 40-55. JBL 109, 207-228.         [ Links ]

Labahn, A. 1999a. The delay of salvation within Deutero-Isaiah. JSOT 85, 71-84.         [ Links ]

_____ 1999b. Wort Gottes und Schuld Israels. Untersuchungen zu Motiven deuteronomistische Theologie im Deuterojesajabuch mit einem Ausblick auf das Verhältnis von Jes 40-55 zum Deuteronomismus. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer. (Beiträge zur Wissenschaft vom Alten und Neuen Testament 143.         [ Links ])

Lee, S. 1995. Creation and redemption in Isaiah 40-55. Hong Kong: Alliance Bible Seminary.         [ Links ]

Leene, H. 1987. De vroegere en de nieuwe dingen bij Deuterojasaja. Amsterdam: VU Uitgeverij.         [ Links ]

_____ 1996. Auf der Suche nach einem redaktionskritische Modell für Jesaja 40-55. TLZ 121/9, 803-818.         [ Links ]

McKenzie, J. L. 1968. Second Isaiah. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. (Anchor Bible 20.         [ Links ])

Matheus, F. 1990. Singt dem Herrn ein neues Lied. Die Hymnen Deuterojesajas. Stuttgart: Verlag Katholisches Bibelwerk. (Stuttgarter Bibelstudien 141.         [ Links ])

Melugin, R. F. 1976. The formation of Isaiah 40-55. Berlin: W. de Gruyter. (BZAW 141.         [ Links ])

Merendino, R. P. 1981. Der Erste und der Letze. Eine Untersuchung von Jes 40-48. Brill: Leiden. (SVT31.         [ Links ])

Mettinger, T. N. D. 1997. In search of the hidden structure: YHWH as King in Isaiah 40-55, in Broyles, C. C. & Evans, C. A. (eds.), Writing and reading the scroll of Isaiah. Studies of an interpretive tradition. Volume One, 143-154 Leiden / New York / Köln: Brill. (SVT 70,1.         [ Links ])

North, C. R. 1977. The Second Isaiah. Introduction, translation and commentary to chapters XL-LV. Oxford: Claredon.         [ Links ]

Oded, B. 1977. Judah and the exile, in Hayes, J. H. & Miller, J. M. (eds.), Israelite and Judaean history, 435-488. London: SCM.         [ Links ]

Pearce, L. E. 2006. New evidence for Judeans in Babylonia, in Lipschits, O. & Oeming, M. (eds.), Judah and the Judeans in the Persian Period, 399-411. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns.         [ Links ]

Rekema, J. 1999. Lamentations. Leuven: Peters. (Historical Commentary on the Old Testament.         [ Links ])

Schoors, A. 1973. I am God your saviour. A form-critical study of the main genres in Is XL-LV. Leiden: Brill. (SVT 24.         [ Links ])

Seitz, C. R. 1998. How is the prophet Isaiah present in the latter half of the book?, in Word without end. The Old Testament as abiding theological witness, 168-193. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans        [ Links ]

Smith-Christopher, D. L. 1997. Reassessing the historical and sociological impact of the Babylonian exile (597/587-539 BCE), in Scott, J. M. (ed.), Exile. Old Testament, Jewish and Christian conceptions, 7-36 Leiden: Brill. (Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism 56.         [ Links ])

Snaith, N. H. 1977. Isaiah 40-66. A study of the teaching of Second Isaiah and its consequences, in Orlinsky, H. M. & Snaith, N. H., Studies on the second part of the book of Isaiah, 135-264. Leiden: Brill. (SVT 14.         [ Links ])

Steck, O. H. 1992. Gottesknecht und Zion. Gesammelte Aufsätze zu Deuterojesaja. Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck). (Forschungen zum Alten Testament 4.         [ Links ])

Sweeney, M. A. 1988. Isaiah 1-4 and the post-exilic understanding of the Isaianic tradition. Berlin / New York: W. de Gruyter. (BZAW 171.         [ Links ])

Tiemeyer, L.-S. 2007. Geography and textual allusions: Interpreting Isaiah xl-lv and Lamentations as Judahite texts. VT 57, 367-385.         [ Links ]

Van de Mieroop, M. 2005. A history of the Ancient Near East ca. 3000-323 BC. Mal-den, MA: Blackwell Publishing.         [ Links ]

Vanderhooft, D. 2003. Babylonian strategies of imperial control in the West: Royal practice and rhetoric, in Lipschits, O. & Oeming, M. (eds.), Judah and the Judeans in the Persian Period, 235-262. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns.         [ Links ]

Van der Woude, A. 2005. Geschiedenis van der terugkeer. De rol van Jesaja 40,1-11 in het drama van Jesaja 40-55. Maastricht: Shaker Publishing.         [ Links ]

Van Oorschot, J. 1993. Von Babel zum Zion. Eine literarkritische und redaktionsgeschichtliche Untersuchung. Berlin / New York: W. de Gruyter. (BZAW 206.         [ Links ])

Werlitz, J. 1997. Vom Knecht der Lieder zum Knecht des Buches. Ein Versuch über die Ergänzungen zu den Gottesknechtstexten des Deuterojesajabuches. ZAW 109, 30-43.         [ Links ]

Westermann, C. 1981. Das Buch Jesaja Kapitel 40-66. 4., ergänzte Auflage. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. (Das Alte Testament Deutsch.         [ Links ])

Williamson, H. G. M. 1994. The book called Isaiah. Deutero-Isaiah's role in composition and redaction. Oxford: Claredon.         [ Links ]

Wiseman, D. J. 1983. Nebuchadrezzar and Babylon. Oxford: University Press.         [ Links ]

Younger, K. L. 1998. The deportations of the Israelites. JBL 117, 201-227.         [ Links ]

 

 

Correspondence:
M. D. Terblanche
Department of Old Testament
University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa
E-mail: mdterblanche@absamail.co.za

Creative Commons License Todo o conteúdo deste periódico, exceto onde está identificado, está licenciado sob uma Licença Creative Commons