SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.64Structure of coordination complexes: The synergy between NMR spectroscopy and computational chemistrySynthesis of 9H-indeno [1, 2-b] pyrazine and 11H-indeno [1, 2-b] quinoxaline derivatives in one-step reaction from 2-bromo-4-chloro-1-indanone índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
Home Pagelista alfabética de revistas  

Servicios Personalizados

Articulo

Indicadores

Links relacionados

  • En proceso de indezaciónCitado por Google
  • En proceso de indezaciónSimilares en Google

Compartir


South African Journal of Chemistry

versión On-line ISSN 1996-840X
versión impresa ISSN 0379-4350

S.Afr.j.chem. (Online) vol.64  Durban  2011

 

REVIEW ARTICLE

 

Twenty golden years of battery R&D at CSIR, 1974-1994

 

 

Michael Thackeray*

Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, USA

 

 


ABSTRACT

This paper is a personal reflection of 20 years of sodium- and lithium-based battery R&D in South Africa between 1974 and 1994. The impact of the innovative materials science and engineering research conducted during this period is highlighted by the later successful implementation of batteries in powering practical systems, as well as in technology licensing.

Keywords: CSIR, battery, Zebra, sodium-metal chloride, sodium-sulphur, LiAl/FeSx, lithium-ion, spinel


 

 

Full text available only in pdf format.

 

Acknowledgements

Several colleagues and acquaintances have expressed interest in learning about the history of South African battery research that was initiated at CSIR approximately 35 years ago - this paper is the result. Roy Galloway (formerly at CSIR, South Africa and Beta R&D, UK) and Jim Sudworth (formerly at Beta R&D, UK) of General Electric are thanked for proof-reading the manuscript and providing input to the Zebra battery narrative. Professor Alan Morris of the University of Cape Town is thanked for valuable discussions. Support to write this article from the Office of Vehicle Technologies, U.S. Department of Energy, is gratefully acknowledged.

The submitted manuscript has been created by UChicago Argonne, LLC, Operator of Argonne National Laboratory ('Argonne'). Argonne, a US Department of Energy Office of Science laboratory, is operated under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. The US Government retains for itself, and others acting on its behalf, a paid-up, nonexclusive, irrevocable worldwide license in said article to reproduce, prepare derivative works, distribute copies to the public, and perform publicly and display publicly, by or on behalf of the Government.

 

References (only US or Japan patents cited for brevity)

1 J. Coetzer and M.M. Thackeray, Acta Cryst. B., 1975, 31, 2113-2114.         [ Links ]

2 M.M. Thackeray and J. Coetzer, Electrochim. Acta, 1979, 24, 495-502.         [ Links ]

3 D. Linden and T.B. Reddy, Handbook of Batteries, 3rd edn, McGraw-Hill, New York, USA, 2003.         [ Links ]

4 G.L. Henriksen and D.R. Vissers, J. Power Sources, 1994, 51, 115-128.         [ Links ]

5 J. Coetzer and M.M. Thackeray, US Patent 4 288 506, 1981.         [ Links ]

6 J. Coetzer, J. Power Sources, 1986, 18, 377-380.         [ Links ]

7 J. Coetzer and M.M. Thackeray, US Patent 4 366 215, 1982.         [ Links ]

8 M.M. Thackeray and J. Coetzer, Mater. Res. Bull., 1981, 16, 591-597.         [ Links ]

9 J. Coetzer and J. Sudworth, Out of Africa - The story of the Zebra Battery,2000. Available from http://eaaeurope.org/out_of_africa.pdf.         [ Links ]

10 R.C. Galloway, J. Electrochem. Soc., 1987, 134, 256-257.         [ Links ]

11 R.J. Bones, R.C. Galloway, J. Coetzer and D.A. Teagle, US Patent 4 560 627, 1985.         [ Links ]

12 J. Sudworth, J. Power Sources, 2001, 100(1-2), 149-163.         [ Links ]

13 M. Taylor, Owners charged up over electric cars, but manufacturers have pulled the plug, San Francisco Chronicle, 24 April 2005. Available from http://www.sfgate.comcgi-binartide.cgi?file=/c/a/2005/04/24/MNGDTCEA9B1.DTL.         [ Links ]

14 FIAMM Group, FIAMM and MES-DEA constitute a new company, February 4, 2010. Available from http://www.fiamm.it/news.php?s=1258.         [ Links ]

15 Defense Technology International, April 2008, p. 42.         [ Links ]

16 Green Car Congress, GE launches durathon sodium-metal halide battery for UPS market, May 18, 2010. Available from http://www.greencarcongress/2010//05/durathon-20100518.html.         [ Links ]

17 M.M. Thackeray, W.I.F. David and J.B. Goodenough, J. Solid State Chem., 1984, 55, 280-286.         [ Links ]

18 K. Mizushima, P.C. Jones, P.J. Wiseman and J.B. Goodenough, Mater. Res. Bull., 1980, 15, 783-789.         [ Links ]

19 J.B. Goodenough and K. Mizushima, US Patent 4 302 518, 1981; 4 357 215, 1982.         [ Links ]

20 M.M. Thackeray, W.I.F. David and J.B. Goodenough, Mater. Res. Bull., 1982, 17, 785-793.         [ Links ]

21 M.M. Thackeray, W.I.F. David, P.G. Bruce and J.B. Goodenough, Mater. Res. Bull., 1983, 18, 461-472.         [ Links ]

22 M.M. Thackeray and J.B. Goodenough, US Patent 4 507 371, 1985.         [ Links ]

23 M.M. Thackeray, Progress in Solid State Chem, 1997, 25, 1-71.         [ Links ]

24 M.H. Rossouw and M.M. Thackeray, US Patent 5 166 012, 1992.         [ Links ]

25 M.H. Rossouw, D.C. Liles, M.M. Thackeray, W.I.F. David and S. Hull, Mat. Res. Bull., 1992, 27, 221-230.         [ Links ]

26 M.H. Rossouw and M.M. Thackeray, Mater. Res. Bull., 1991, 26, 463-473.         [ Links ]

27 M.M. Thackeray and M.H. Rossouw, US Patent 5 153 081, 1992.         [ Links ]

28 M.H. Rossouw, D.C. Liles and M.M. Thackeray, J. Solid State Chem., 1993, 104, 464-466.         [ Links ]

29 R.J. Gummow, A. de Kock and M.M. Thackeray, Solid State Ionics, 1994, 69, 59-67.         [ Links ]

30 M.M. Thackeray and R.J. Gummow, US Patent 5 316 877, 1994.         [ Links ]

31 E. Ferg R.J. Gummow, A. de Kock and M.M. Thackeray, J. Electrochem. Soc., 1994, 141, L147-L150.         [ Links ]

32 M.M. Thackeray, R.J. Gummow and E. Ferg, Japan Patent 3 523 899, 2004.         [ Links ]

33 M.M. Thackeray, R.J. Gummow and E. Ferg, US Patent 7452 630, 2008; 7 556 890,2009; 7 722 990, 2010; 7 824 804,2010; 7 838 149, 2010; 7 855 016, 2010; 7 964 310, 2011.         [ Links ]

34 M.M. Thackeray, S.-H. Kang, C.S. Johnson, J.T. Vaughey R. Benedek and S.A. Hackney, J. Mater. Chem., 2007, 17, 3112-3125.         [ Links ]

35 M.M. Thackeray, C.S. Johnson, K. Amine and J. Kim, US Patent 6 677 082, 2004; 6 680 143, 2004; 7 135 252, 2006; 7 468 223, 2008.         [ Links ]

36 J.-M. Tarascon and M. Armand, Nature, 2001, 14, 359-367.         [ Links ]

37 The Economist, In search of the perfect battery, Technology Quarterly, 8 March 2008, pp. 22-24.         [ Links ]

 

 

Received 20 June 2011
Accepted 30 June 2011

 

 

Submitted by invitation to celebrate 2011 the 'International Year of Chemistry'.
* E-mail: thackeray@anl.gov

Creative Commons License Todo el contenido de esta revista, excepto dónde está identificado, está bajo una Licencia Creative Commons