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Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe

versão On-line ISSN 2224-7912
versão impressa ISSN 0041-4751

Tydskr. geesteswet. vol.49 no.4 Pretoria  2009

 

Musiek en kulturele diversiteit in Suid-Afrika

 

Music and cultural diversity in South Africa

 

 

Winfried Lüdemann

Universiteit van Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, E-pos: wl@sun.ac.za

 

 


OPSOMMING

Hierdie artikel gaan uit van die mening dat die politieke versoening, wat tot die vestiging van demokrasie in Suid-Afrika gelei het, nie gepaardgegaan het met 'n ooreenkomstige en gelykwaardige versoening op die sosiale en veral kulturele terreine nie. Hierdie "onafgehandelde besigheid" gee toenemend aanleiding tot spanning op allerlei vlakke, soos die taalkwessie, plekname, interpretasie van die geskiedenis, skoolleerplanne, ens. Ook op die gebied van musiek - veral in die openbare media, die onderwys en die toedeling van fondse - is hierdie probleme merkbaar.
Om die bydrae te ondersoek wat musiek kan maak tot versoening van die soort konflik wat potensieel met kulturele diversiteit gepaardgaan, word dit gekoppel aan die begrip menswaardigheid, gebaseer op die opvatting dat musikaliteit 'n universele kenmerk is wat met die evolusie van homo sapiens na vore gekom het. Met musiek (soos met taal) artikuleer die mens sy menswees en dus sy menswaardigheid. Met verwysing na moderne ekumeniese teologie word daar tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat 'n versoening van musikale (en by implikasie ook kulturele) diversiteit slegs op die basis van menswaardigheid en vanuit 'n houding van selfkritiek bereik kan word. Dit gaan daarom dat die ander se estetiese sienings aanvaar word sonder om jou eie sienings prys te gee. Vanuit 'n posisie van selfkritiek word dit moontlik om elkeen se reg te erken om sy eie musikale identiteit te kies terwyl die verskillende musiekstyle terselfdertyd aan kritiek onderwerp kan word. 'n Musikale (en intellektuele) middelgrond word bepleit waar die verskillende musiekstyle met mekaar in interaksie kan tree sonder om noodwendig hulle eie estetiese paradigmas te moet prysgee. Demokrasie verskaf die mees geskikte raamwerk waarbinne dit kan plaasvind. Gebrek aan kulturele versoening in Suid-Afrika, en die konflikpotensiaal wat dit inhou, kan die delikate ooreenkomste wat veertien jaar gelede op politieke terrein bereik is, ongedaan maak. Sodanige musikale versoening sou as 'n belangrike model kon dien vir 'n veel breër kulturele versoening.

Trefwoorde: Kulturele diversiteit, "difference", "otherness", menswaardigheid, musikaliteit, identiteit, ekumeniese teologie, konflik, versoening


ABSTRACT

This article takes as its point of departure the opinion that the political reconciliation that led to the establishment of democracy in South Africa was not accompanied by an equivalent reconciliation in the social and especially the cultural spheres of our society. This unfinished business is creating increased levels of tension on various levels of the social life in the South African nation, such as the vexing language question, education, conflicting interpretations of our history, place names, land reform, etc. In the sphere of music - especially in respect of school curricula, the public media and the allocation of funding - such conflict is also noticeable.
In order to investigate the contribution that could be made by music towards the resolution of conflict resulting from cultural diversity, it is linked to the concept of human dignity. It is argued that the capacity for music, which is a universal characteristic of homo sapiens, leads to one of the forms of symbolic thinking by which humans articulate their dignity. Humans express their humanness by means of music (and, of course, language) and thus also their dignity. I am able to recognise the dignity of the other in his/her music. Drawing on ideas advanced by contemporary ecumenical theology, it is subsequently proposed that musical diversity can be addressed only by taking on an attitude of self-criticism. It is about the imperative of accepting the aesthetic views of the other without sacrificing one's own. From a position of self-criticism it becomes possible to recognise everyone's right to choose a particular musical identity while at the same time allowing the various musical styles to be subjected to critique. A musical (and intellectual) middle ground is then called for where various musical styles can interact with each other without necessarily giving up their particular aesthetic paradigms. Finally, the tension between musical diversity and democracy is thematised. It is argued that democracy provides the best framework within which musical diversity, as it is discussed in the article, can be accommodated.
If cultural reconciliation is not achieved in South Africa, the delicate accord that was reached on the political level in 1994 could be in danger of unravelling. Reconciling musical diversity could provide an important model for such broader cultural reconciliation.

Key concepts: Cultural diversity, difference, otherness, human dignity, musical capability, identity, ecumenical theology, conflict, reconciliation


 

Full text available only in PDF format.

 

 

 

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1 Die term multikulturaliteit word hier doelbewus gebruik, omdat dit na 'n toedrag van sake verwys. Multikulturalisme sou dan die benadering (of ideologie) wees om positief met hierdie toedrag van sake om te gaan.
2 Sien Mbembe 2008 en van Eck 2008.
3 Die enkele poging wat daar wel op die gebied van musiekopvoeding was (sien Hauptfleisch 1993) is bepaal deur pragmatisme (om dit sag te stel) en het geensins op 'n deurdagte filosofiese fondament berus nie. Sien in hierdie verband Lüdemann (1994).
4 Daar is seker ook diegene wat die gees van ubuntu in hierdie verband sou wou noem.
5 1. The Republic of South Africa is one, sovereign, democratic state founded on the following values: a. Human dignity, the achievement of equality and the advancement of human rights and freedoms. [...]
6 Hans Küng (1990: 75-79, 81) wys daarop dat dit problematies is om menswaardigheid as 'n absoluut en onvoorwaardelik geldige waarde te bepaal sonder verwysing na 'n religieuse instansie. Ook die benadering wat in hierdie artikel voorgestel word kan dus nie aanspraak maak op absolute geldigheid nie, maar steun nietemin op die baie wye aanvaarding van die begrip as 'n waarde in ons hedendaagse kultuur.
7 Richerson en Boyd (2005: 144) stel dit so: "Language is often given pride of place as the watershed between humans and other animals ..." Taal moet in hierdie verband beskou word as maar één vorm van simboliese denke.
8 Sien bv. Cross (2001), Mithen (2005: 263-265) en Levitin (2006: 81-108).
9 Sien in hierdie verband Wolfgang Suppan se beskrywing van die grondslae van die antropologie as dissipline, waarvolgens "die mens nie in vergelyking met of in betrekking tot God interpreteer word nie, maar [...] waar eerder na die wesensverskille tussen mens en dier gevra word" (1984:19).
10 Vanselfsprekend sluit die manlike vorm in hierdie artikel altyd die vroulike in.
11 Alle vertalings is dié van die outeur. Funksies van musiek wat die doel het om met die onsigbare wêreld te kommunikeer, word vir die doel van hiedie artikel magiese funksies genoem.
12 Die wysie dien ook as melodie vir die amptelike lied van die Amerikaanse staat Maryland en vir die lied "The Red Flag" van die Britse Arbeidersparty.
13 Sien die onderskeie besprekings later in die artikel.
14 Sien Schneider (1979): 12; Storck (1910: 13, 19).
15 Die eerste afdeling van hierdie artikel het 'n voorbeeld hiervan gegee.
16 Vgl. in hierdie verband Hans Küng se uitspraak dat die mens se potensiaal om 'n meer menslike en omgewingsbewuste samelewing te skep nog beter benut kan word: "Der Mensch muß sein menschliches Potential für eine möglichst humane Gesellschaft und intakte Umwelt anders ausschöpfen, als dies bisher der Fall war. Denn seine aktivierbaren Möglichkeiten an Humanität sind größer als sein Ist-Stand." (1990: 53)
17 Dis 'n aanhaling wat sonder verstrekking van 'n presiese bron aan Plato toegedig word en wat wye verspreiding geniet omdat dit in versamelings van populêre aanhalings figureer.
18 Die teoloog Klaus Nürnberger verwoord soortgelyke gedagtes wanneer hy skryf: "Usually leaders attempt to bring about unity either through imposition or through consensus. Dictators and totalitarian states try to forge a united nation by imposing their official ideologies and policies on everybody by force of arms, social pressures and psychological manipulations. [...] Alternatively one can try to reach consensus. Pressure to come to an agreement usually leads to dishonesty. For the sake of peace one compromises one's true convictions. One does not dare to contradict one's peer group. One does not want to antagonise potential partners. One does not want to spoil the party. Where people are free to speak their mind, consensus usually remains elusive. Neither of these two forms [leads] to true unity. True unity can only be achieved if one does not negate diversity, but accommodates it. [...] We should give up the idea that unity must be based on consensus. Unity must be based on mutual responsibility for the whole, on respect for a different opinion, on the willingness to bear with others, to sacrifice for others. If that happens, differences can be incredibly creative and enriching. [...] That is at least one good thing about postmodernism: it is teaching us to appreciate differences and diversity and to refrain from pushing everybody and everything into the same mould." (Nürnberger 2006: 145,146,147)
19 In al hierdie oorwegings moet daar telkens duidelik onderskei word tussen die sosiale bestaansreg of relevansie ("social validity") en ideologiese inhoud van 'n bepaalde soort musiek en die estetiese of etiese waardebepaling daarvan. Sien in hierdie verband Scruton (1997: 149-150).
20 Dit is simptomaties van hierdie soort standpunt dat 'n skrywer soos Danie C. Pretorius beweer: "Afrikaanse musiek het inderwaarheid die gom geword wat die Afrikaanse kuns en kultuur aanmekaar-heg" (Pretorius: 1998: 9). Met "Afrikaanse musiek" bedoel hy naas die bydraes van S. le Roux Marais, Olaf Andresen, Danie Bosman, Nico Carstens en Koos du Plessis ook die werk van musieksterre soos o.a. Anton Goosen, Mynie Grové en David Kramer (ibid: 9-10).
21 Sien Lüdemann 2003: 270-271.
22 Die moeilik vertaalbare Duitse teks lees as volg: "Postmoderne im entwickelten Sinn strebt in einer neuen Weltkonstellation positiv einen neuen Grundkonsens von integrierenden humanen Überzeugungen an, auf den gerade die demokratische pluralistische Gesellschaft unbedingt angewiesen ist, wenn sie überleben will." (Küng: 1990: 44)

 

 

Winfried Lüdemann het aan die Universiteit van die Oranje Vrystaat gegradueer, waar hy musiekwetenskap, orrel en tromboon studeer het. In 1979 het hy as dosent in musiekwetenskap aan die Universiteit van Stellenbosch begin werk. Sy doktorale proefskrif oor die instrumentale werke van die Duitse komponis Hugo Distler (1908-1942) is in 1988 daar voltooi. By twee geleenthede het hy aan die Musikwissenschaftliches Institut, Universiteit van Hamburg verder studeer (1982 en 1991) en terselfdertyd navorsing aan die Hugo-Distler-Archiv in Lübeck onderneem. Van 1995 tot 2004 het hy as voorsitter van die Musiekwetenskapvereniging van Suider-Afrika gedien. Sy publikasies sluit in 'n hoofstuk in die boek Composers in South Africa Today (OUP) sowel as bydraes tot The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (Second Edition) en Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart asook navorsings-artikels in die South African Journal of Musicology, South African Journal of Philosophy, Der Kirchenmusiker, Musik und Kirche, Tydskrif vir Letterkunde, LitNet en Tydskrifvir Geesteswetenskappe. Sy boek Hugo Distler. Eine musikalische Biographie het in 2002 by Wissner-Verlag, Augsburg verskyn. Tans dien prof. Lüdemann as voorsitter van die Departement Musiek, Universiteit van Stellenbosch.

Winfried Lüdemann is a graduate of the University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein, where he studied musicology, organ and trombone. In 1979 he joined the teaching staff of the Music Department at the University of Stellenbosch as lecturer in musicology. He completed his doctoral dissertation on the instrumental music of the German composer Hugo Distler (1908-1942) at that university in 1988. On two occasions he furthered his studies at the Musikwissenschaftliches Institut, University of Hamburg, Germany (1982 and 1991), while conducting research at the Hugo-Distler-Archiv in Lübeck. He served as chairman of the Musicological Society of Southern Africa from 1995 to 2004. His publications include a chapter in the book Composers in South Africa Today (OUP), contributions to the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (Second Edition) and Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart as well as research articles in the South African Journal of Musicology, the South African Journal of Philosophy, Der Kirchenmusiker, Musik und Kirche, Tydskrif vir Letterkunde, LitNet and Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe. His book Hugo Distler. Eine musikalische Biographie was published in 2002 by Wissner-Verlag, Augsburg (Germany). Prof. Lüdemann currently serves as chairman of the Music Department, University of Stellenbosch.

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