SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.49 issue2Is the academic work role still sustainable?The self-perceived quality of life of staff caring for adults with intellectual disabilities author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand



Related links

  • On index processCited by Google
  • On index processSimilars in Google


Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe

On-line version ISSN 2224-7912
Print version ISSN 0041-4751

Tydskr. geesteswet. vol.49 n.2 Pretoria  2009


Die dienskwaliteit van die PUK Rugby Instituut


The service quality of the PUK Rugby Institute



CA Bisschoff; R A Lotriet

Potchefstroom Besigheidskool; Potchefstroom Kampus. Noordwes Universiteit, Tel: 018 299-1411, Faks: 018 299-1416




Kliëntetevredenheid is van kardinale belang vir die PUK Rugby Instituut (PRI). Die kliënte van die PRI bestaan uit studentespelers wat hoë verwagtinge koester van die PRI om die nodige ontwikkelingswerk te doen op sport sowel as akademiese terrein. Empiriese navorsing is ingespan om die kliënte (spelers) se tevredenheid te toets. Daar is ook 'n vergelyking getref tussen sogenaamde Prioriteitspanne van die PRI (PUK 1, 0/21A en 0/19A) en Nie-prioriteitspanne (PUK 2, PUK 3 en ander onderouderdom spanne). Die dienskwaliteit is gemeet by al die spanne en die diensvlakke kan as bevredigend beskryf word. Veral die Prioriteitspanne evalueer die diens van die PRI as uitstekend. Die effekgrootte is gebruik om betekenisvolle verskille in diens te meet, en daar is bevind dat daar nie prakties betekenisvolle verskille voorkom tussen die dienstevredenheid van Prioriteitspanne en dié van Nie-prioriteitspanne nie. Verder is daar vyf onderliggende faktore geïdentifiseer deur middel van 'n faktor-ontleding wat 'n bevredigende 55% van die variansie verklaar. Hiervan is faktor 1, Sukses behaal deur die afrigtingspan, die belangrikste aangesien dit 31% van die variansie verklaar. Die ander vier faktore is: Vaardigheid van spelers, Regstellende kommunikasie, Klerasie, en Addisionele spelersbetrokkenheid.

Trefwoorde: Kliëntediens, dienskwaliteit, rugby, faktor-ontleding, PUK Rugby Instituut, diensgaping, spelers, kliëntediensindeks, sport


The PUK Rugby Institute (PRI) was founded in 2000 and earmarked to be of strategic importance in the marketing of the university as well as in the role sport plays in the tertiary environment. It is imperative that the NWU rugby team(s) do well as the image of tertiary rugby has been substantially lifted as a result of the extensive media, and especially television, coverage it receives in the Varsity-cup (and other clashes).
As a result, the PRI identified a number of key performance areas to ensure success on and off the field. One of these key performance areas is intent on ensuring that a high quality of service is rendered to the customers of the PRI, namely the players (and their parents). Customer service is important because not only does it guarantee satisfied players, but it also results in high quality new players being recruited. The players have high expectations of the university and especially the PRI because it is seen as not only the agent of development on the rugby field, but also on academic terrain. However, no objective measure of customer service, or the measurement of satisfaction levels, exists at the PRI. The research dealt with in this article addresses the development of a research instrument and methodology to do just that.
The theoretical research concentrates on the theory of customer satisfaction and then specifically on the measurement thereof. Two models of customer service were analysed to determine their applicability in the case of measuring the customer service levels of the PRI. They were the Kano model and the Servqual model. In addition, the concept of a tailor-made measuring instrument was also researched. The outcome of the theoretical research was that, due to the uniqueness of the PRI, a tailor-made instrument should be developed specifically for the needs of the PRI. Another advantage of the tailor-made instrument is that a more detailed analysis of customer satisfaction is possible. As such, a questionnaire was developed to measure the levels of customer satisfaction specifically at the PRI. A 5-point Likert scale was employed to record the service perceptions in a number of categories. These service quality categories that were identified are: Development of individual player skills, clothing, feedback on performance, rehabilitation of injuries, academic performance, the coach, discipline and the image of the PRI.
The empirical research was then performed to actually evaluate the level of customer service satisfaction of customers (players). A distinction was made between Priority teams (PUK 1, 0/21A and 0/19A) on the one hand, and Non-priority teams (PUK 2, PUK 3 and the other under-aged teams) on the other Questionnaires were distributed amongst players with the request that they complete and return them. A response rate of 90,3% resulted due to the controlled environment of data collection. The data were subjected to the reliability and internal consistency test of Cronbach alpha, and showed a favourable coefficient of 0.96.
Results consist of calculating the mean values of service satisfaction across all the categories identified, a comparative analysis of perceived differences and its practical significance, and a factor analysis. The calculated mean values show that the PRI generally performed well in the categories, but that the Priority team players are even more pleased with the service quality than the Non-priority teams. However, an analysis of the practical significance of the different service quality levels was performed by means of the effect size. The analysis showed no practical significant differences in the service quality. In addition, the analysis includes a principle factor analysis (Varimax rotation). Five factors were extracted, explaining a cumulative variance of 55%. Of these five factors, factor 1, Success of the coaching team, is the most important as it explains 31% of the variance. The other factors are: Skills of players, Corrective communication, Clothing and Additional player commitment.

Key words: Customer service, service quality, rugby, factor analysis, PUK Rugby Institute, service gap, players, customer service index, sport


Full text available only in PDF format.



Albrecht, K. & Bradford, L.J. 1990. The service advantage - How to identify and fulfill customer needs. Illinois: Dow Jones-Irwin.         [ Links ]

Anon. 2007. Cost of convenience.         [ Links ] [Web:] [Datum van besoek 20 November 2008].

Anon. 2008. Types of reliability. Research methods knowledge base.         [ Links ] [Datum van besoek: 3 Maart 2009].

Anon. 2009. Emerit. Top Training, Better Service, Higher Profit.         [ Links ] [Datum van besoek: 4 Maart 2009].

Berger, C. 1993. Kano's methods for understanding customer-defined quality. The center for quality management, 2(4):2-36.         [ Links ]

Bhattacharjee, C. 2005. Service Sector Management. An Indian Perspective. Mumbai:Jaico Publishing House.         [ Links ]

Bichenso, J. 2008. The lean toolbox: Management - the Kano model for quality.         [ Links ] [Datum besoek: 6 Maart 2009]

Bisschoff, A. & Bisschoff, C.A. 2001. Customer service factors of a telematic learning BBA degree. South African Journal of Education. Pretoria: UNISA        [ Links ]

Bisschoff, C.A. & Hough, J. 1994. Dienskwaliteit van Vrystaatse Koöperasie Beperk. Ongepubliseerde navorsingsverslag. Reitz:VKB.         [ Links ]

Boshoff, A.B. & Hoole, C. 1998. Portability ofjob involvement and job satisfaction constructs between the USA and RSA. SA journalfor economic management sciences, 1(1):73-84. March.         [ Links ]

Cartin, T.J. 2004. Principles and practices of organisational performance excellence. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India.         [ Links ]

Du Plessis, J.L. Interview. Statistiese Konsultasiedienste. Potchefstroom:NWU.         [ Links ]

Ellis, S.M. & Steyn, H.S. 2003. Practical significance (effect sizes) versus or in combination with statistical significance (p-values). Management dynamics, 12(4):51-53.         [ Links ]

Fedoroff, P. 2003. Comparing service quality performance with customer service quality needs: Servqual. 12 manage: The executive fast track.         [ Links ] [Datum van besoek: 4 Maart 2009].

Field, A. 2006. Discovering statistics using SPSS. 2de uitgawe. London:Sage Publications.         [ Links ]

Gounder, Y. 2008. Customer service of a private university. MBA Dissertation. Mancosa. Durban.         [ Links ]

Grönroos, C. 1988. Service quality: The six criteria of good perceived service quality. Review of business, 9(3):10-13.         [ Links ]

Haasbroek, A. 2007. Brand positioning in the remarket automotive industry. MBA Dissertation. North-West University: Potchefstroom.         [ Links ]

Hand, A. 2004. Applying the Kano Model to user experience design.         [ Links ] [Datum van besoek: 10 September 2008]

Hill, P. & Alexander, T. 2006. The handbook of customer satisfaction and loyalty measurement. 3rd edition. Gower:Aldershot.         [ Links ]

Hsiu-Yuan, H., Yu-Cheng, L. & Tieh-Min, Y. 2009. Amend Importance-Performance Analysis Method with Kano's Model and DEMATEL. Journal of Applied Sciences, 1(1):1-14. Beskikbaar by Science Alert.         [ Links ] [Datum besoek: 6 Maart 2009].

Jane, A.C. & Dominguez, S.M. 2003. Citizens' Role in Health Services: Satisfaction Behavior: Kano's Model, Part 2. Quality management in health care, 12(1):72-80.         [ Links ]

Kano, N., Seraku, N., Takahashi, F., Tsuji, S. 1984. Attractive quality and must-be quality. Hinshitsu, 14:39-48.         [ Links ]

Kleynhans, K. 2008. Customer service of convenience stores. MBA Dissertation. NWU. Potchefstroom. Kotler, P. 2003. Marketing Management 11de uitgawe.. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Lancashire West. 2008. Fact Sheet: Service gaps and Servqual. Scribt.         [ Links ] [Datum besoek: 6 Maart 2009].

Laubser, J.C.K & Bisshcoff, C.A. 2003. Die beeld van die PUK Rugby Instituut. Voordrag gelewer by die jaarlikse konferensie van die Suid-Afrikaanse Instituut vir Bestuurswetenskaplikes te Potchefstroom. Gepubliseer in die Kongresbundel van 2003.         [ Links ]

Parasuraman, Berry & Zeithaml. 1988. Servqual: A multi-item scale for measuring customer perceptions of service quality. Journal of Retailing, 64(1) Spring:12-40.         [ Links ]

Prodcast. 2008. Better Service Delivers an 18% Profit Boost. Data Integration White Paper.         [ Links ] . [Datum van besoek: 3 Maart 2009].,39024759,60469106p,00.htm

SPSS. 2009. What does Cronbach Alpha mean. FAQ SPSS.         [ Links ] [Datum van besoek: 3 Maart 2009].

Turban, E., Aronson, J.E., Liang, T.P. & Sharda, R. 2007. Decision Support Systems and Intelligence Systems, 8/e. New York: Prentice Hall        [ Links ]

Wikapedia. 2008. The free encyclopedia.         [ Links ] [Datum van besoek: 3 Maart 2009]

Zeithaml, V., Parasuraman, A. & Berry, L. 1990. Delivering quality service: balancing customer perceptions and expectations.         [ Links ] [Web:] [Datum van besoek: 3 Maart 2009] 1 November 2008.



Christo Bisschoff het in 1986 die graad B-Comm aan die destydse Universiteit van Port Elizabeth. Daarna sluit hy hom aan by die familie-boerdery op Steynsburg waar hy 5 jaar lank die posisie Bestuurder en Direkteur beklee. In dié tyd bekwaam hy homself verder deur aan die Universiteit van Suid Afrika die grade B-Comm (honneurs) (1989) en M-Comm (1990) te verwerf. Hy sluit aan by Noordwes Koöperasie as Senior landbou-ekonoom in 1991 en aanvaar in 1992 die pos as senior lektor aan die Universiteit van Pretoria. Hy voltooi sy doktorale studies in 1992 (Unisa) en aanvaar in 1995 die pos as professor in bemarking by die Potchefstroomse Besigheidskool aan die (huidige) Noordwes-Universiteit. Tydens sy loopbaan het hy verskeie nasionale en internasionale konferensies bygewoon, referate gelewer en artikels gepubliseer. Bykomend tot sy akademiese pligte is hy ook verantwoordelik vir die bestuur van die MBA-program asook die bemarkingsfunksie van die Potchefstroomse Besigheidskool.

Christo Bisschoff obtained the degree of B-Comm at the then University of Port Elizabeth in 1986. Thereafter he joined the family farming enterprise as manager and director of the irrigation division. During this time he resumed his studies at the University of South Africa where he obtained the degrees B-Comm (honours) (1989) and M-Comm (1990). After five years he joined North-West Cooperative as Senior Agricultural Economist (1991) and completed his doctoral studies at Unisa. In 1992 he was appointed as a senior lecturer at the University of Pretoria and in 1995 he accepted a position as professor of marketing at the Potchefstroom Business School at the North-West University. In the course of his academic career he delivered numerous local and international papers at conferences and published a number of popular and accredited articles. In addition to his academic responsibilities, Christo is also tasked with the marketing of the Potchefstroom Business School.

Ronald Lotriet het sy studies aan die destydse Potchefstroomse Universiteit vir Christelike Hoër Onderwys voltooi waarna hy aangesluit het by die Skool vir Ekonomie, Risikobestuur en Internasionale Handel as dosent. As professor het hy aan die hoof gestaan van die vakgroep ekonomie. Hy aanvaar in 2001 die pos by die Potchefstroom Besigheidskool as dosent in Bestuursekonomie, en word ook aangewys as die programbestuurder vir MBA. Verder tree hy ook op as die program-bestuurder vir die sertifikaatprogram waarin fundamentele bestuurskursusse aangebied word. Ronnie is die skrywer van 'n hele aantal geakkrediteerde en populêre artikels (meer as 30) en het 'n toekenning ontvang vir debuutwerk wat uit sy pen gevloei het. Hy ontvang ook 'n beste referaat toekenning by 'n bestuurskongres, dien as stigterskonvensielid van "BenAfrica" (Business & Ethics Network of Africa) in Kenia. Verder het hy reeds meer as 40 referate gelewer by nasionale en internasionale konferensies. Hy ontvang as dosent verskeie toekennings vir voortreflike onderrig en tree gereeld op as bestuurskonsultant in die praktyk.

Ronald Lotriet completed his studies at the Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education whereafter he joined the School of Economy, Risk Management and International Trade in the capacity of lecturer. As professor he headed the subject group of economics. In 2001 he accepted the appointment as lecturer in Managerial Economics at the Potchefstroom Business School. He was also appointed as the programme manager for the MBA programme, as well as the Programme in Fundamental Management. Ronnie is the author of numerous accredited and popular articles (in excess of 30) and has received an award for writing. He also received the award for best paper delivered at the business management conference, and acted as founder convention member of "BenAfrica" (Business & Ethics Network of Africa) in Kenia. In addition he delivered more than 40 papers locally and internationally at conferences. He received numerous teaching rewards and is also employed as a management consultant.

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License