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Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe

versão On-line ISSN 2224-7912
versão impressa ISSN 0041-4751

Tydskr. geesteswet. vol.49 no.2 Pretoria  2009

 

Die implikasies van 'n regstaat vir ontwikkelende lande

 

The implications of a constitutional state for developing countries

 

 

Danie StraussI; Jannie RossouwII; Johan FourieIII

IDekaanskantoor, Fakulteit Geesteswetenskappe, Universiteit van die Vrystaat, Bloemfontein dfms@cknet.co.za
IISA Reserwebank en Departement Ekonomie, Universiteit van Pretoria, Jannie.rossouw@resbank.co.za
IIISA Reserwebank, Johan.fourie@resbank.co.za

 

 


OPSOMMING

Hierdie artikel begin met 'n historiese perspektief op staat en ekonomie om vervolgens oor te gaan tot 'n tipering van die aard van 'n regstaat in terme van die verskillend-geaarde regsfere in 'n gedifferensieerde samelewing. Daarna word die aard van ontwikkelende lande, die armoedeprobleem en 'n aantal prominente ontwikkelingsteorieë aan die orde gestel. Uit die feit dat oor 'n typerk van 30 jaar (1970 tot 2000) daar in sekere wêrelddele merkwaardige sukses behaal is met pogings om armoede uit te wis, maar dat armoede in sekere ander wêrelddele toegeneem het, volg dit dat breëre samehange verreken moet word in die beoordeling daarvan. Op die basis van hierdie gesigspunte word daar dan gelet op die vraag of die onderliggende beginsels van 'n regstaat 'n belangrike rol in ontwikkelende lande kan speel, onder meer in die lig van bestaande ontwikkelingsteorieë. Die onverbreeklike samehang tussen 'n vrye onderneming-stelsel, die vrye mark en die juridiese borge wat deur 'n regstaat gestel word, begelei kernelemente in die gevolgtrekking waartoe gekom word.

Trefwoorde: Armoede, demokrasie, eiendomsreg, ekonomiese groei, ekonomiese ontwikkeling, groeiteorieë, (on)gedifferensieerde samelewing, owerheidsgesag, regstaat


ABSTRACT

This article commences with a historical perspective on state and economy in order to arrive at a characterisation of the nature of a constitutional state, in terms of the differently-natured legal spheres within a differentiated society. The focus then shifts to developing countries, the problem of poverty and the relevance of various theories of development.
A literature review reveals as alternative theories for economic growth the linear-stages-growth model, the neo-Marxist (or dependency) growth model, the orthodox growth model and the structural growth theory. The single main objective of all these models is the quickest eradication of poverty, but these theories differ with regard to the most suitable ways in which to eradicate poverty on a sustained basis in the shortest possible time. Literature on development strategies currently favours either the orthodox model or the structural model, as the other two models have been discredited owing to recent experiences in economic growth and development. This challenge of poverty eradication has been described as one of melting the "Golden curtain" which separates wealthy countries in the northern hemisphere from the poor countries in the southern hemisphere.
Although different models aiming at economic growth and economic development were used by different countries and in different regions, African countries have shown little progress in the eradication of poverty. Factors other than the application of particular development strategies therefore played a role and contributed, depending on the circumstances, either to a faster or to a slower eradication of poverty in different regions and countries. These discrepancies that occurred over a period of 30 years (1970 tot 2000) between certain parts of the world recording remarkable progress in their efforts to combat poverty on the one hand, compared to increases in poverty in other parts of the world on the other, require an assessment which takes into account a more encompassing perspective.
On the basis of these considerations the question is then raised in this paper as to whether or not the "just state" can play a significant role in developing countries, inter alia, in the light of existing theories of development. The intimate coherence between a system of free enterprise, the free market and the juridical guarantees of a just state underpins key elements in the formulation of the conclusion of this article.

Key concepts: Democracy, economic development, economic growth, growth theories, governmental authority, poverty, property rights, rule of law ("regstaat"), (un)differentiated society


 

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1 Die menings in hierdie artikel weerspieël nie noodwendig die menings van die SA Reserwebank of enige van die universiteite nie.
2 Hoewel die kwalifikasie "under the rule of law" oortollig mag klink moet onthou word dat byvoorbeeld die kommunistiese volksrepublieke van die vorige eeu ook konstitusies gehad het - en dus "kon-stitusionele state" was - maar hulle was almal magstate. Daar kan derhalwe onderskei word tussen konstitusionele regstate en konstitusionele magstate. Nogtans sal ons kortheidshalwe 'n regstaat as 'n "constitutional state" aandui. ('n Regstaat soos Engeland het byvoorbeeld nie 'n geskrewe konstitusie nie.)
3 Selfs die term staat is van resente herkoms. Die term Politeia is tradisioneel gebruik met as Latynse ekwivalent regnum. Dit was eers gedurende die 16de en 17de eeue dat die term "staat" in Engelse, Franse en Duitse geskrifte begin verskyn het (vgl. Jellinek 1966:132-135).
4 Vergelyk die eerste Hoofstuk, Boek I van Aristoteles se werk Politica (Aristoteles, 2001:1127 ff., 1252a e.v.).
5 In die pouslike ensikliek Quadragesimo anno (15 Mei 1931) word dit eksplisiet gestel: "Ongetwyfeld besit die kerk nie die taak om die menslike persoon bloot tot 'n verganklike en tekortskietende blydskap te bring nie, want dit moet 'n mens tot ewige geluksaligheid voer" (vgl. Schnatz, 1973:403).
6 Die aard van ontwikkeling hang ten nouste saam met die historiese dimensie van die werklikheid. Daarom word kortliks aandag gegee aan die historiese agtergrond van die moderne regstaat - dit het nie eensklaps uit die lug geval nie.
7 Ons laat tans die skromelike verwaarlosing van die ekonomiese regsbelange van die burgery tydens die industriële omwenteling daar deur bloot daarop te wys dat die eensydige leiding wat deur die klassiek-liberale staatsidee van Locke en die oortuigings van die klassieke skool in die ekonomie -Adam Smith en sy nakomelinge - gegee is, gelei het tot die uitbuiting van die werkers en tot die opkoms van vakbondwese, die arbeiderpartye uit die 19de eeu asook die Marxisme en kommunisme.
8 In 'n absolutistiese staat is daar geen politieke vryhede nie terwyl 'n totalitêre staat geen burgervryhede en samelewingsvryhede eerbiedig nie - dit misken m.a.w. alle nie-staatlike vryhede.
9 Vryheid omskryf Rousseau tewens as gehoorsaamheid aan dié wet wat die mens vir sigself stel (Rousseau 1975:247).
10 "... ce qui ne signifie autre chose sinon qu'on le forcera á être libre" (Rousseau 1975:246).
11 Mekkes is daarom korrek wanneer hy opmerk dat saam met die kulminasiepunt van die humanisties-demokratiese vryheidsideaal tegelyk sy diepste val gegee is (Mekkes 1940:315).
12 Hy omskryf 'n staat (civitas) tewens as "die vereniging van 'n versameling mense onder juridiese wette" (Kant 1971-B:195). Omdat geen mens homself of haarself sal benadeel nie (volenti non fit iniuria), kan slegs die instemming tot die verenigde wil van almal wetgewend wees.
13 Die uiterstes van atomisme en holisme onderlê die klassiek-liberale staatsidee van Locke en uiteenlopende sosialistiese benaderings gedurende die 19de en 20ste eeue. Ons fokus op die regstaat en die onderliggende idee van 'n gedifferensieerde samelewing impliseer dat 'n bespreking van die liberalisme en sosialisme buite die bestek van hierdie artikel val.
14 Rawls erken hierdie beginsel op sy eie manier: "Indeed, it seems natural to suppose that the distinctive character and autonomy of the various elements of society requires that, within some sphere, they act from their own principles designed to fit their peculiar nature" (Rawls 1996:262).
15 Dit betref dus die verhouding van owerheid en onderdaan asook die gegewe dat 'n staat voortbestaan ongeag die wisseling van owerheidspersone of onderdane. Ter onderskeiding van verbande besit gemeenskappe slegs een van hierdie twee eienskappe - óf 'n permanente gesagstruktuur, óf 'n solidêre eenheidskarakter (bv. die huwelik, familie en volk - vgl. Strauss 2006:244 e.v.).
16 Dit omvat politieke vryhede - publiekregtelike burgervryhede, soos die reg om polities te kan vergader, openbare organisasievryheid, die reg tot politieke meningsuiting, die reg om publieke media orent te bring, die reg om te kritiseer, die reg om te protesteer en natuurlik die sluitsteen van politieke vryhede, die aktiewe en passiewe kiesreg (om te kan stem en om verkiesbaar te mag wees).
17 Die siviele reg dien as borg vir die beskerming van die persoonlike vryheidsfeer van elke burger -afgesien van enige samelewingsvorm (verband of gemeenskap) waarin die mens as deel van 'n groter geheel in aanmerking kom. Weliswaar gaan die lewe van geen mens op in enige samelewings-verbintenis nie - die mens kan opeenvolgend 'n verskeidenheid funksies in die samelewing vervul sonder dat die bestaan van so 'n persoon ooit uitputtend deur enigeen van hierdie sosiale rolle omvat kan word. Mens-wees transendeer al hierdie funksies.
18 Dit betref die interne reg en vryheid van elke nie-staatlike lewensverbintenis.
19 De Montesquieu het owerheid en onderdaan in-mekaar-getrek. Hy merk tewens op dat die volk in 'n demokrasie in 'n bepaalde sin die monarg en in 'n ander sin die onderdaan is - en dat dit slegs die monarg kan wees indien dit uitdrukking aan sy wil gee. (Hy bespreek dit in Boek II, Hoofstuk II van sy werk uit die jaar 1748 - Die Gees van die Wette).
20 Daarom hoef dit ons nie te verbaas dat die Humanisme gedurende die eerste twee eeue na die Renaissance slegs magstaatsteorieë opgelewer het nie. Die moderne Humanisme beliggaam enersyds die ideaal om die mens volledig outonoom (self-wetgewend) en vry te verklaar. Andersyds het hierdie outonome vryheidstrewe die moderne natuurwetenskappe as instrument beskou met behulp waarvan die ganse werklikheid in die greep van 'n volledig gedetermineerde natuurwetmatige greep gekry kan word. Konsekwent deurgedink bedreig hierdie natuurwetenskapsideaal die vryheid van die mens, want as alles natuurwetmatig gedetermineer is, is ook die mens gereduseer tot fisikaal-kousale onvryheid.
21 Sien byvoorbeeld Gyatso 2001; Heath 2003; of Katz & Tarr 1996.
22 Sien ook Stiglitz 1997:986; Sundrijo 1999; of The Modern Rationalist 2005.
23 Suid-Afrika is 'n voorbeeld van 'n land met 'n vreemde geskiedenis van onderlinge verwantskap tussen regering en die media. Die Nasionale Party se kabinetsmininsters het vir baie jare op die direksies van die vernaamste Afrikaanse persgroepe (Nasionale Pers in die destydse Kaapprovinsie en Perskor in die destydse Transvaal) gedien. Terselfdertyd het die redakteurs van die twee groepe se koerante ook hoofraadsvergaderings van die Nasionale Party bygewoon (sien byvoorbeeld Van Rooyen 1976). Hierdie praktyk (wat inderdaad as 'n tradisie beskryf is), is onder meer in stand gehou ter wille van " ... samewerking tussen Party en Pers" (Van Rooyen 1976:91). Dit was egter eers in 1980, tydens die bewind van Premier (later Staatspresident) P. W. Botha, dat hierdie praktyk beëindig is toe 'n verbod op die hou van direkteurskappe deur kabinetsministers geplaas is. Let terloops daarop dat dit streng gesproke foutief is om van die "regerende party" te praat. Die politieke party is nie 'n inherente staatsorgaan nie en regeer daarom ook nie in 'n staat nie. Dit is bloot 'n konstitusionele bevoegdheid wat aan dié party wat die meeste stemme tydens 'n algemene verkiesing verkry, gegee word om die owerheid van die land (as regeringshoof) in die amp te plaas. Gevolglik vermy ons die geykte praktyk om van die "regerende party" te praat.
24 Brittan is van mening dat "(t)he simplest definition of democracy is decision by voting. The more sensible propagators of democratic slogans are aware of the dangers of oppression of minorities or the havoc that can be wrought by ill-informed public opinion. From here there are two ways to go. You can say that true democracy involves far more than voting in nationwide elections; or you can stick with the simple definition, and accept that democracy is just a particular decision rule" (2007:32). Ons het reeds opgemerk dat die plasing van die owerheid in die owerheidsamp 'n meerderheidstem verg - maar dat dit as sodanig geen substituut kan wees vir die regeertaak van die owerheid nie. Wat normaalweg aangedui word as die "wigte en teëwigte" wat nodig is om te verseker dat verkiesings vry en regverdig is en dat die owerheid in reg en geregtigheid sy regshandhawingstaak volvoer, appelleer ten diepste op die wyse waarop die grondwet uitdrukking gee en beskerming verleen aan die regsfere wat op 'n uniek-onderskeidende wyse die aard van 'n regstaat bepaal en begrens. Die beginsels wat die publieke verbandsreg van die staat begelei is nie die produk van 'n meerderheidstem nie - elke meerderheidstem veronderstel immers die staat as regsverband asook die veelheid nie-staatlike lewensvorme wat die veelheid regsbelange oplewer wat deur die owerheid in ewewig en harmonie gehou moet word - insluitende ekonomiese regte en vryhede. Wat normaalweg as 'n verteenwoordigende demokrasie bekend staan (sien byvoorbeeld Britannica Student Encyclopedia, 2007) fokus slegs op die eis van algemene kiesreg en verantwoord gevolglik geensins die genuanseerde veelkantigheid van 'n egte regstaat nie.
25 'n Quango word gedefinieer as" ... a semi-public administrative body outside the civil service but receiving financial support from the government, which makes senior appointments to it. (It is an) ... acronym from quasi non-governmental organisation" (Soanes & Stevenson 2004:1174) en word normaalweg in 'n negatiewe konteks gebruik. 'n Voorbeeld van 'n quango is 'n openbare uitsaaikorporasie.
26 GNP is die afkorting van gross national product, waarvan die Afrikaanse vertaling bruto nasionale produk (BNP) is. Dit is die maatstaf waarmee die uitset van die produksiefaktore van 'n land gemeet word, ongeag of dit binnelands of buitelands plaasvind, en is verwant aan die bruto binnelandse produk (BBP), waarvan die Engelse vertaling gross domestic product (GDP) is. Laasgenoemde is die maatstaf waarmee die waarde van produksie vir 'n gegewe tydperk binne die geografiese grense van 'n bepaalde land gemeet word. In die praktyk is lande se BBP en BNP normaalweg baie naby aan mekaar en die ekonomiese literatuur gebruik dikwels hierdie terminologie asof dit presies dieselfde betekenis het.
27 Volgens Nafziger (1990:8-9) kan hierdie veranderings faktore insluit soos " ... an improvement in the material well-being of the poorer half of the population; a decline in agriculture's share of GNP and a corresponding increase in the GNP share of manufacturing, finance, construction and government administration; an increase in the education and skills of the labor force; and substantial technical advances originating within the country".
28 Heilbroner (1975) het hierdie stelling sowat 30 jaar gelede gemaak, wat impliseer dat hy na die twintigerjare van die vorige eeu verwys.
29 Sien byvoorbeeld Agénor en Montiel 1996; Anyanwu 2006:43; Bedford-Strohm 2006; Beinhocker 2007; Epstein 2002; Michie 2006; Rossouw 2007; Rossouw & Fourie 2007; of Stiglitz 1997.
30 Waar ondersteuning vir hierdie siening gevind word by byvoorbeeld Grier en Tallock (1989); Rossouw (2007); Scully (1988); Sen (1999); en Thompson & Thompson (2000), huldig Li & Xu (2007) 'n teëgestelde oortuiging.
31 Sekere dele van hierdie afdeling is op Rossouw (2007) en Rossouw & Fourie (2007) gebaseer.
32 Sien byvoorbeeld Agenor & Montiel 1996:13; Contreras 1999; Jha 2003; of Shahzad, [S.a.].
33 Suid-Afrika was lank die slagoffer van 'n soortgelyke koloniale praktyk. Gevolglik het sekondêre nywerheidsontwikkeling in Suid-Afrika eers ná die Tweede Wêreldoorlog plaasgevind.
34 Sien byvoorbeeld Agenor & Montiel, 1996:13; Shahzad, [S.a.].
35 Die ortodokse siening staan binne die dampkring van die Konsensus van Washington (Washington Consensus) (sien byvoorbeeld Niam 1999; Rossouw 2007 of Williamson 2002 vir 'n bespreking van hierdie Konsensus).
36 Sien byvoorbeeld Jha (2003:387-393); Mlambo & Oshikoya (2001:40-42); Page (2006:538); Prasad et al., (2003:58); of Servén (1998:24).
37 Sien byvoorbeeld ook Harford (2006:201); Parkin (2000:48); Rossouw (2007:268-269); of Stiglitz (1997:33).
38 Navorsing wat in 2006 voltooi is, toon dat 90 lande se inwoners vry van onderdrukking was, 58 lande se inwoners het gedeeltelike vryheid geniet, en die inwoners van 45 lande het nie vryheid geniet nie (Freedom House 2007; sien byvoorbeeld ook International Center for Peace and Development, [S.a.]) Hierdie navorsing beskryf die vryheid van inwoners as die "... opportunity to act spontaneously in a variety of fields outside the control of the government and other centres of political domination ... " (Freedom House 2007). Die navorsing beoordeel vryheid aan die hand van politieke en burgerregte en huldig die standpunt dat " ... freedom for all peoples is best achieved in liberal democratic societies" (Freedom House 2007), 'n standpunt wat onderskryf kan word gedagtig aan die wyse waarop 'n regstaat hierbo omskryf is.
39 Soanes en Stevenson (2004:786) omskryf hierdie regeringsvorm as een met " ... a ruler ... (i.e. a kleptocrat) ... who uses their power to steal their country's resources".
40 Volgens Sachs en Warner (1997:335) is kolonialisme en etniese verskille nie per se die verklaring vir onbevredigende groei nie, maar dra dit waarskynlik by tot swak ekonomiese beleidskeuses deur arm lande.
41 Hoewel staatshoofde dikwels deur 'n demokratiese prosedure in die owerheidsamp land, gebeur dit soms daarna dat hulle optree asof hulle nog konings is - gedagtig aan die segswyse uit die Britse konstitusionele geskiedenis: "A King can do no wrong".

 

 

Danie Strauss word in 1971 as Senior Lektor in Wysbegeerte aan die destydse UOVS aangestel. In Januarie 1976 is hy bevorder tot medeprofessor en in Oktober 1977 word hy aangestel as professor en hoof van die Departement Wysbegeerte aan die UOVS. In 1994 vertrek by na Kanada waar hy as eerste Direkteur van die Dooyeweerd Centre die publikasie van die versamelde werke van Herman Dooyeweerd in Engels van stapel stuur. Hy keer in 1997 terug na Suid-Afrika en vanaf 1 April 1998 tot 31 Desember 2001 ageer hy as Dekaan van die nuwe Fakulteit van Geesteswetenskappe aan die UOVS. Benewens 15 selfstandige publikasies, 35 internasionale konferensievoordragte en 20 bydraes tot versamelde werke het sowat 230 vak-artikels in nasionale en internasionale tydskrifte uit sy pen verskyn. In 2005 is 'n werk oor die wysgerige grondslae van die moderne natuurweten-skappe deur die Duitse Uitgewer Peter Lang gepubliseer - Paradigmen in Mathematik, Physik und Biologie und ihre philosophische Wurzeln (216 pp.) (Frankfurt am Main). In 2006 het 'n werk oor die sosiologie ook by Peter Lang verskyn -Reintegrating Social Theory - Reflecting upon human society and the discipline of sociology (310 pp.) (Oxford/New York).

Danie Strauss was appointed as Senior Lecturer in Philosophy at the then UOFS in 1971. In January 1976 he was promoted to associate professor and in October 1977 he assumed the position of professor and head of the Department of Philosophy at the UOFS. In 1994 he went to Canada, where, as the first Director of the Dooyeweerd Centre, he initiated the publication of the collected works of Herman Dooyeweerd in English. He returned to South Africa in 1997 and from 1 April 1998 to 31 December 2001 he was Dean of the new Faculty of Humanities at the UOFS. Apart from 15 independent publications, 35 international conference papers and 20 contributions to collected works, he has published about 230 articles in national and international journals. In 2006 his work on the philosophical foundations of the modern natural sciences was published by Peter Lang Publishers - Paradigmen in Mathematik, Physik und Biologie und ihre philosophische Wurzeln (216 pp.) (Frankfurt am Main). In 2006 Peter Lang also published his work Reintegrating Social Theory - Reflecting upon human society and the discipline of sociology (310 pp.) (Oxford / New York).

Jannie Rossouw is 'n Adjunkhoofbestuurder van die SA Reserwebank en doseer deeltyds ekonomie aan die Universiteit van Pretoria. Hy het 'n magistergraad in die ekonomie en 'n MBA aan die Universiteit van Pretoria behaal, en 'n PhD aan die Universiteit van KwaZulu-Natal. Sy vernaamste navorsingsveld is geloofwaardige en akkurate inflasiesyfers. Saam met sy kollega Johan Fourie doen hy navorsing oor die bydrae van politieke strukture en makro-ekonomiese konvergensie in die SAOG-streek tot die bekamping van streeksarmoede. Hy het etlike akademiese artikels in wetenskaplike tydskrifte gepubliseer en spreek gereeld plaaslike en internasionale konferensies oor sy navorsing toe.

Jannie Rossouw is a deputy general manager of the SA Reserve Bank and is employed as a parttime lecturer in economics at the university of pretoria. He completed a master's degree in economics and an MBA at the University of Pretoria, as well as a PHD at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. He has published numerous academic papers in accredited journals in south africa and abroad, and he frequently addresses local and international conferences on his research interests. His current research focuses on inflation credibility and accuracy. In conjunction with his colleague Johan Fourie his research on political structures and macro-economic convergence in the SADC focuses on the eradication of poverty in the region.

Johan Fourie het sy kwalifikasies in staatsleer aan die destydse Universiteit van Port Elizabeth verwerf. Hy is tans die Uitvoerende Assistent van die President van die SA Reserwebank. Saam met sy kollega Jannie Rossouw doen hy navorsing oor die bydrae van politieke strukture en makroekonomiese konvergensie in die Suider-Afrikaanse Ontwikkelingsgemeenskap tot die bekamping van armoede. Hy het konferensies oor hierdie onder-werpe toegespreek en sy navorsing is in wetenskaplike tydskrifte gepubliseer.

Johan Fourie obtained his qualifications in political science from the former University of Port Elizabeth. He is currently the Executive Assistant of the Governor of the SA Reserve Bank. In conjunction with his colleague Jannie Rossouw his research focuses on the contribution of political structures and macro-economic convergence in the Southern African Development Community to the eradication of poverty. He has addressed local and international conferences on his research interests and his research has been published in accredited academic journals.

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