SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.49 issue1Freedom of (Afrikaans) speech: Rich, richer, RykieThe use of the subordinating conjunction "wanneer" (when) in hypotactic binding author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand



Related links

  • On index processCited by Google
  • On index processSimilars in Google


Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe

On-line version ISSN 2224-7912
Print version ISSN 0041-4751

Tydskr. geesteswet. vol.49 n.1 Pretoria  2009


Verhoogde leksikografiese toeganklikheid in die oorgang van 'n toeristewoordeboek na 'n toeriste-gids as naslaanbron


Increased lexicographic accessibility in the transition from a tourist dictionary to a tourist guide



Rufus GouwsI; Patrick LeroyerII

IDepartement Afrikaans en Nederlands, Universiteit van Stellenbosch,
IISentrum vir Leksikografie, Universiteit van Aarhus, Denemarke




Die ontwikkeling van die leksikografieteorie is daarop gerig om die produksie van beter woordeboeke te verseker. As naslaanbronne het woordeboeke 'n bepaalde data-aanbod, vertoon hulle sekere leksikografiese strukture en moet hulle bepaalde leksikografiese funksies bevredig. Talle aspekte van die teoretiese leksikografie sou ook gebruik kon word in die beplanning en samestelling van ander naslaanbronne. In hierdie bydrae word gewys hoe bepaalde beginsels uit die teoretiese leksikografie vir die daarstelling van ander naslaanbronne benut kan word. 'n Verhoging in die toegang tot data en 'n doeltreffender onttrekking van inligting word in die vooruitsig gestel in die geval waar bestaande toeristewoordeboeke opgeneem word in omvattender toeristegidse wat volgens 'n geleksikografiseerde benadering saamgestel is. Die fokus is op die benutting van leksikografiese funksies en op 'n erkenning aan verskillende onderafdelings van die toegangsproses in naslaanbronne.

Trefwoorde: Geamalgameerde komponent, kognitiewe funksie, kommunikatiewe funksie, laaistruktuur, leksikografie, leksikografiese funksies, naslaanbron, operatiewe funksie, toegangsproses, toegangsroetes, toeganklikheid, toeristegids, toeristewoordeboek


Research in theoretical lexicography has led to the formulation of various models for the planning and compilation of dictionaries. These dictionaries belong to different typological categories but they should all be regarded as reference sources with a specific data presentation, specific structures and well defined functions. Although directed at the compilation of dictionaries, many aspects of these theoretical models can also be applied to other sources of reference. In this paper it is proposed that the implementation of developments in theoretical lexicography should be extended so that certain types of reference sources other than dictionaries, also fall within the scope of their application. These suggestions may look like an attempted lexicographisation of other reference works. However, they should rather be seen as a proposed delexicographisation of a well developed theory, which is at present restricted in its application to the field of dictionaries.
Following a brief discussion of some salient features in the development of theoretical lexicography, especially the lexicographic functions approach, the focus switches to the possibility of planning a more general reference source according to criteria laid down for dictionaries. Due to the lack of a proper theoretical basis, many tourist dictionaries fail to satisfy the needs of their intended target users. Accordingly, as opposed to merely proposing an improved tourist dictionary, this article employs tourist dictionaries as a case in point to argue in favour of a more comprehensive tourist guide that will include the tourist dictionary as one of the texts in its central component. Various aspects of the reference needs of tourists are discussed and an indication is given of ways in which dictionaries can provide in these needs.
The transition from a tourist dictionary to a tourist guide is presented as the best solution to the problem of inadequate tourist dictionaries. Various aspects of the relevant adaptation and implementation of lexicographic criteria are discussed. Innovative suggestions regarding the structure of the more comprehensive reference source, e.g. the use of an amalgamated central component in which so-called drawer texts are presented as equal status integrated inner texts, are complemented by a focus on the way in which access to the data on offer in such a reference source could be enhanced. It is indicated that, contrary to the prevailing approach in tourist dictionaries, not only a communicative function but also a cognitive function should be satisfied by tourist reference guides. In order to achieve this, the access process needs to make provision for a poli-accessible reference source which allows different search routes with a variety of reference source external points of departure to guide the intended target user to a variety of destinations within the reference source, where the external access routes are linked to internal routes. The notion of intra access routes to link different texts within the amalgamated central component to ensure an optimal retrieval of information and to ascertain textual cohesion is introduced. In a reference source like a tourist guide, access should not be limited to the source internal data. Users often need to be guided to pragmatic and cognitive destinations outside the reference source. To assist users in this regard, suggestions are made for an exit process, giving access to the source external environment. This form of access activates the use of a further lexicographic function, i.e. the operative function. Information retrieved from the reference source should enable knowledgeable target users to employ it in the pragmatic source external environment in order to satisfy certain needs. The reference source, in this case the comprehensive tourist guide, is elevated to a communicative, cognitive as well as operative access route directed at the real tourist environment. Such an approach helps to fulfil the genuine purpose of the relevant reference source.
By delexicographising certain aspects of lexicographic theory its more general application can enhance the quality, accessibility and usefulness of many other sources of reference.

Key concepts: Access process, access routes, accessibility, amalgamated component, cognitive function, communicative function, drawer structure, lexicographic functions, lexicography, operative function, reference source, tourist dictionary, tourist guide


Full text available only in PDF format. 



Bergenholtz, H. & Bergenholtz, I. 2007.On the timelessness of music dictionaries. Lexikos 17: 407-415.         [ Links ]

Bergenholtz, H. & Gouws, R.H. 2007. The Access Process for Fixed Expressions. Lexicographica 23: 236-260.         [ Links ]

Bergenholtz, H. & Gouws, R.H. 2007a. Korrek, volledig, relevant. Dít is die vraag aan leksikografiese definisies. Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe 47 (4): 568-586.         [ Links ]

Bergenholtz, H. & Tarp, S. 2002. Die moderne lexikographische Funktionslehre. Diskussionsbeitrag zu neuen und alten Paradigmen, die Wörterbücher als Gebrauchsgegenstände verstehen. Lexicographica 18: 253-263.         [ Links ]

Bergenholtz, H. & Tarp, S. 2003. Two opposing theories: On H.E. Wiegand's recent discovery of lexicographic functions. Hermes 31: 171-196.         [ Links ]

Bergenholtz, H., Tarp, S. & Wiegand, H.E. 1999. Datendistributionsstrukturen, Makro- und Mikrostrukturen in neueren Fachwörterbüchern. Hoffmann, L. et al. (eds) 1999. Fachsprachen. Languages for Special Purposes. Berlin: De Gruyter, pp. 1762-1832.         [ Links ]

Gouws, R.H. 2001. Lexicographic training: approaches and topics. Emejelu J du P (red.) 2001. Elements de Lexicographie Gabonaise. Jack Hillman Publishers, pp. 58-94.         [ Links ]

Gouws, R.H. 2004. Outer texts in bilingual dictionaries. Lexikos 14: 67-88.         [ Links ]

Gouws, R.H. 2005. Meilensteine auf dem historischen Weg der Metalexikographie. Lexicographica 21: 158-178.         [ Links ]

Gouws, R.H. 2005a. Oor die verhouding tussen woordeboekstrukture, woordeboekinhoud en leksikografiese funksies. Lexikos 15: 52-69.         [ Links ]

Gouws, R.H. 2007. Op pad na 'n nuwe woordeboektipologie. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies 25 (3) 2007: 319-331.         [ Links ]

Hausmann, F.J. & Wiegand, H.E. 1989. Component Parts and Structures of General Monolingual Dictionaries: A Survey. Hausmann, F.J. et al. (eds) 1989-1991. Wörterbücher. Dictionaries. Dictionnaires. An international encyclopedia of Lexicography. Berlyn: W. De Gruyter, pp. 328-360.         [ Links ]

Leroyer, P. 2008. Maultasche og Novillada. En teori for turistordbeger. Nordiske Studier I Leksikografi 9.         [ Links ]

Leroyer, P. 2008a. Les Mutations de la Lexicographie Touristique. Cahiers de linguistique.         [ Links ]

Leroyer, P. Om te verskyn. From travel to tourist dictionary: Laying the foundation for a new field of dictionary research.         [ Links ]

Tarp, S. 2000. Theoretical challenges to LSP lexicography. Lexikos 10:189-208.         [ Links ]

Tarp, S. 2007. Lexicography in the information age. Lexikos 17: 170-179.         [ Links ]

Tarp, S. 2008. Lexicography in the borderland between knowledge and non-knowledge. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer.         [ Links ]

Tarp, S. 2008a. Revival of a dusty old profession. Professorale intreerede: Sentrum vir Leksikografie, Universiteit van Aarhus.         [ Links ]

Wiegand, H.E. 2008. Zugriffsstrukturen in Printwörterbüchern. Ein zusammenfassender Beitrag zu einem zentralen Ausschnitt einer Theorie der Wörterbuchform. Lexicographica 24.         [ Links ]

Zgusta, L. 1971. Manual of Lexicography. Den Haag: Mouton.         [ Links ]



Rufus Gouws is professor in Afrikaanse Taalkunde aan die Universiteit van Stellenbosch. Sy primêre doseer-, studieleidings- en navorsingsgebied is die teoretiese leksikografie. Hy publiseer wyd in plaaslike en internasionale vaktydskrifte en boeke en tree gereeld op as spreker en aanbieder by internasionale kongresse, simposia en kursusse. Vir sy leksikografiese navorsing ontvang hy verskeie beurse en toekennings. Sy werk in die teoretiese leksikografie word aangevul met werk aan verskillende woordeboekprojekte, onder meer die internasionale Dictionary of Lexicography and Dictionary Research en, in die Afrikaanse leksikografie, die HAT.

Rufus Gouws is professor of Afrikaans Linguistics at the University of Stellenbosch. His primary field of interest in teaching, supervision and research is theoretical lexicography. He has published widely in local and international scientific journals and books and is a frequent participant in international conferences, symposia and courses. His work in the field of theoretical lexicography is complemented by work on various dictionary projects, including the international Dictionary of Lexicography and Dictionary Research and, in Afrikaans lexicography, the HAT.

Patrick Leroyer, PhD, is medeprofessor vir Frans en Deens as vaktaal aan die Aarhus Sake-skool, Universiteit van Aarhus, waar hy ook verbonde is aan die Sentrum vir Leksikografie - Navorsing in behoefte gerigte inligting en datatoegang. Sy huidige navorsing is op die ter-rein van die teoretiese en praktiese leksikografie, insluitende die ontwikkeling van woordeboek-funkies in toeristewoordeboeke. Hy neem gereeld deel aan internasionale kongresse en publiseer op die gebied van vaktaal, sakekommunikasie, terminografie en leksikografie.

Patrick Leroyer, PhD, is Associate Professor of French and Danish LSP at the Aarhus School of Business, University of Aarhus, and is attached to the Centre for Lexicography - Research into Needs-Adapted Information and Data Access. His current research focuses on theoretical and practical lexicography, and includes the development of dictionary functions in tourist dictionaries. He participates in international conferences on a regular basis and has published within the fields of LSP and business communication, terminography and lexicography.

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License