On-line version ISSN 2224-7912
Print version ISSN 0041-4751
Tydskr. geesteswet. vol.48 n.4 Pretoria 2008
Gender and racial differences in 6 and 7 year old children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in learning related abilities and ADHD
Yolandie Wessels; Anita E. Pienaar; Anquanette Peens
Suid-Afrika het 'n diverse bevolkingsamestelling wat verteenwoordiging van verskillende rasgroepe insluit. Hierdie diversiteit word gekompliseer deur wisselende ekonomiese omstandighede wat stimulasie vanjong kinders voordat hulle skool toe gaan kan beïnvloed. Koördinasieagterstande op 'n jong ouderdom word in verband gebring met leer- en aandagtekortprobleme wat met die ontwikkeling van jong kinders kan inmeng. Die doel van die studie was om te bepaal of geslags- en rasverskille ten op sigte van leerverwante vaardighede en ADHD by 6-7-jarige skoolbeginners voorkom wat met ontwikkelingskoordinasieversteurings (DCD) geïdentifiseer is. Nege-en-negentig leerders (N=99) is ewekansig vir die studie geselekteer wat die verskillende rasgroepe proporsioneel verteenwoordig het [Wit (n = 37), Swart (n = 50) en Kleurling (n = 12)]. Die Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), Aptitude Test for School Beginners Test Battery (ASB), Taylor Hyperactivity Checklist en Modified Conner's Abbreviated Teacher vraelyste is gebruik om die groep te evalueer. Die resultate het 'n nie-betekenisvolle geslagsinteraksie tussen DCD (MABC totaal < 15e persentiel) en leerverwante vaardighede aangedui (p>0.05), alhoewel een subitem, naamlik koördinasie en die ADHD totaal wel geslagsverskille uitgewys het. 'n Variansie analise (ANOVA) opgevolg met 'n Tuckey post hoc toets het aangedui dat numeriese en verbale begripvaardighede deur ras beïnvloed word. Identifisering van motoriese ontwikkelingsagterstande en aanbieding van motoriese ontwikkelingsprogramme kan as voorkomende strategies by voorskoolse kinders aangewend word om diè probleme te voorkom.
Trefwoorde: Leerprobleme, DCD, geslag, ADHD, koördinasie, motoriese ontwikkeling, kinders, skoolgereedheid, ras, etnisiteit, aandag, hiperaktiwiteit
Early childhood is regarded as a unique period of a child's life, as this is a time in which they develop physically, emotionally, intellectually and socially. Proper development of fundamental motor skills are therefore important during this period as it forms essential building blocks for more complex motor skills and perceptual motor development, while it is also a critical part of a young child's school readiness make-up. Research findings report co-morbidity between problems such as Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), learning related problems and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and also that problems such as these interfere with the sound development of a significant percentage of school children (Sugden & Sugden, 1991:329; Missiuna, 1994:227; Winnick, 2005:195). South Africa has a diverse population including different racial groups. Adding to this complexity, people in this country come from different economical backgrounds which may impede on the stimulation young children receive before they enter the formal school system. Although differences in the motor development of children from different racial groups are reported in the literature, few research findings with regard to coordination difficulties, learning related problems and ADHD differences among children from different racial groups are found in the literature. Gender differences are reported, indicating boys to experience more problems compared to girls with DCD (ratio 2-3:1); learning related problems (3-15 times) and ADHD (ratio 2-9:1). A study by Pienaar (2005:322) indicates that Black and Coloured children between the ages of 10 and 12 years had higher percentages of problems in fine motor skills compared to White and Indian children, while White boys and Indian girls had more ball skill problems compared to Black and Coloured children. No literature could however be found regarding racial differences for ADHD and learning related problems among school beginners with DCD. The aim of the study was therefore to determine whether gender and racial differences exist between school beginners in the age group 6 to 7 years diagnosed with DCD with regard to ADHD and learning-related problems. Ninety-nine (N=99) learners were identified, randomly and proportionally representative of various ethnic groups [White (n = 37), Black (n = 50) and Coloured (n = 12)], and evaluated with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), Aptitude Test for School Beginners Test Battery (ASB), Taylor Hyperactivity Checklist and the Modified Conner's Abbreviated Teacher questionnaire through which a combined ADHD total was obtained. The learning-related skills (determined with the ASB) of boys (n = 47) and girls (n = 52) who were classified by the MABC as DCD (< 15e percentile) were compared with those of boys and girls without DCD by means of t-testing (p< 0.05, StatSoft, 2006). The results indicate a non-significant gender interaction between DCD and learning-related problems, although gender differences with regard to the ADHD total and one sub-item of the ASB, namely coordination, was found. An ANOVA followed by a Tuckey post hoc analysis indicated the numerical skills of Black children with coordination problems were significantly poorer than White and Coloured children, while their verbal comprehension skills and their ASB total only differed significantly from White children. It can be concluded that boys and girls diagnosed with DCD do not differ much regarding learning related problems (boys only tested poorer in coordination skills than girls). Boys with DCD, however, experienced significantly more attention related problems once diagnosed with DCD. The racial groups also did not differ much, although difficulties pointing to numerical and verbal comprehension problems among young Black children were indicated by the results. Although more research is needed to back up the findings of this study, it is necessary to address the differences found, especially those which are substantiated by other research findings. Most of the identified differences need to be addressed by teachers in the pre-school years, and motor intervention programmes during this period could be very effective in addressing problems such as coordination and attention difficulties (especially for the boys), and perceptual motor activities (for numeric and verbal comprehension) among Black children who show motor backlogs.
Key words: Learning difficulties, DCD, gender, ADHD, coordinatiion, motor development, children, school readiness, race, ethnic, attention, hyperactivity
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Mev. Yolandie Wessels het haar voorgraadse en nagraadse studies aan die Noordwes-Universiteit, Potchefstroom Kampus voltooi BA. Menslike Bewegingskunde (2002-2004), BA Honeurs in Kinderkinetika (2005), en haar Meestersgraadstudie in 2007. Sy is 'n gerigistreerde Kinderkinetikus wat tans die eienaar van haar eie Kinderkinetika sentrum in Brakpan is waar sy in dienste vir kinders met en sonder spesiale behoeftes in die ouderdomsgroep vanaf 3 maande tot 12 jaar spesialiseer. Sy is tans vir 'n deeltydse doktorsgraadstudie ingeskryf waarvan die doel is om motoriese agtsterstande by kinders met aandagafleibaarheid te bepaal en daarvolgens 'n motoriese program te ontwikkel om die agterstande by hulle te verbeter.
Mrs. Yolandie Wessels completed her under_ graduate and post graduate studies at the Northwest University BA. Human Movement Science (2002-2004), BA Honours in Kinderkinetics (2005) and her Master's degree in 2007. She is a registered Kinderkineticist and currenly the owner of her own KInderkinetics business in Brakpan where she specialises in services for children with and without special needs in the age range between 3 months to 12 years of age. She is currently enrolled for a part time doctoral degree at the Northwest University where she aims to determine motor backlogs among children with attention deficiencies and to develop a motor program to improve such deficiencies among children with ADHD.
Anita Elizabeth Pienaar beklee 'n professoraat in die Skool vir Biokinetika, Rekreasie en Sportweten-skap by die Noordwes Universiteit, Potchefstroom Kampus. Sy is die vakgroepvoorsitter van Kinder-kinetika binne die Skool, en is verantwoordelik vir die opleiding van voorgraadse studente in Menslike Bewegingskunde, maar veral nagraadse studente wat in Kinderkinetika spesialiseer. Sy is ook die Direkteur van die Suid-Afrikaanse Professionele Instituut vir Kinderkinetika (SAPIK) in Suid-Afrika. Haar navorsingsfokus is gerig op kinders se ontwikkeling, en dit sluit in die motoriese en fisieke ontwikkeling van jong kinders, ontwikkelingskoördinasieversteurings asook gesondheidsgerigte probleme, soos obesiteit wat grootliks by kinders weens onaktiwiteit ontstaan. Sy doen ook navorsing oor groei en die onderbou van sporttalent.
Anita Elizabeth Pienaar is a professor in the School of Biokinetics, Recreation and Sport Science at the Northwest University, Potchefstroom Campus. She is the subject head of Kinderkinetics within the school, and is responsible for the training of undergraduate students in Human Movement Science, but also post graduate students who specialize in Kinderkinetics. She is also the Director of the South African Professional Institute for Kinderkinetics (SAPIK) in South-Africa. Her research focus entails the development of children, and includes the motor and physical development of young children, coordination problems, and health related problems such as obesity experienced by children who are inactive. She also does research concerning the growth of children and underlying abilities for sport.
Dr. Anquanette Peens was die Kinderkinetika Sentrambestuurder van die Noordwes-Universiteit vir 2 jaar (2003-2005), waarna sy as 'n senior lektor in die Skool vir Biokinetika, Rekreasie en Sportwewetenskap by die Noordwes-Universiteit, Potchefstroom Kampus vanaf2006 tot 2008 werksaam was. Sy was gedurende die tydperk verantwoordelik vir die opleiding van voorgraadse studente in Menslike Bewegingskunde, maar veral nagraadse studente wat in Kinderkinetika spesialiseer. Haar navorsingsfokus is gerig op die motoriese en fisieke ontwikkeling van babas en jong kinders, maar veral kinders met ontwikkelingskoördinasieversteurings (DCD). Sy is tans swanger met haar tweede baba en het die akademie in julie 2008 verlaat om al haar aandag aan haar kinders te kan wy.
Dr. Anquanette Peens is a registered Kinder-kineticist and she was the manager of the Kinder-kinetics Centre of the Northwest University for 2 years (2003-2005), after which she was appointed as a senior lecturer in the School of Biokinetics, Recreation and Sport Science of the Northwest University, Potchefstroom Campus (2006-2008). She was responsible for the training of undergraduate students in Human Movement Science, but also post graduate students who specialize in Kinderkinetics. Her research focus entails the motor and physical development of babies and young children, but also children with developmental coordination disorders (DCD). She is currently pregnant with her second child and left her job at the University at the end of July 2008 to raise her children.