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Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe

On-line version ISSN 2224-7912

Tydskr. geesteswet. vol.48 n.4 Pretoria  2008

 

Die ontwikkeling van 'n misdaadvoorkomingsmodel binne 'n kommersiële produksiegebied

 

The development of a crime prevention model within a commercial production area

 

 

Freddie KrugerI; Anastasios LadikosII

IMisdaadondersoeker, Mpumalanga krugerjfe@tsb.co.za
IIDepartement Kriminologie, Universiteit van Suid-Afrika Pretoria ladika@unisa.ac.za

 

 


OPSOMMING

Hierdie artikel bespreek vier sentrale temas ten einde 'n model daar te stel vir die verbetering van misdaadvoorkoming op plase van die "Transvaal Suiker Beperk" gebied. Die gedrukte media, kwantitatiewe en kwalitatiewe navorsingsbeginsels is onder andere aangewend om data te versamel. Die temas verwys eerstens na die verbetering van houdings tussen plaasboer en plaaswerker, tweedens na die ontwikkeling van die plaaswerker, derdens na die ondersteuning wat deur die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisie Dienste en ander instansies aan die plaasboer gegee moet word en vierdens na die belangrikheid van misdaadvoorkoming deur teikenverharding.
Die gedrukte media en kwantitatiewe en kwalitatiewe navorsingsbeginsels is gebruik om data in te samel en te bepaal tot watter mate misdaad deur die deelnemers ervaar word. Die waarde van die primêre fisiese hindernisse of obstruksies met betrekking tot misdaadvoorkoming is ook in hierdie artikel beklemtoon. Sonder die ondersteuning van konvensionele elektronika, en die insette van die mensfaktor, is fisiese misdaadvoorkomingsmaatreëls van geringe waarde, veral op geografiese uitgestrekte landbougronde. Goeie onderlinge werksverhoudinge en lojale gesindhede word as kern-faktore geïdentifiseer waarop boere kan fokus om misdaad op plase te minimaliseer. Samewerking tussen kommersiële boere en die SAPD kan 'n belangrike bydrae tot die hantering van die probleem lewer. Sodanige samewerking is egter in baie gevalle tot 'n hoë mate afwesig. 'n Positiewe ingesteldheid jeens misdaadvoorkoming op plase is die fondament vir enige suksesvolle misdaadvoorkomings inisiatiewe op plase.
Misdaad op plase verdien die aandag van alle sektore in die samelewing. Die GOOM model wat ontwikkel is sodat misdaadvoorkoming op plase verbeter kan word, spruit voort uit die bevindinge van kwantitatiewe en kwalitatiewe navorsing asook die verwerking van toepaslike literatuurstudies.

Trefwoorde: Misdaadvoorkoming, plaasaanvalle, versperrings, fisiese hindernisse, elektronika, tegnologie, omgewingsontwerp, verdedigbare ruimte, sekuriteitdiensverskaffers, teikenverharding, ontwikkeling, ondersteuning, lojaliteit, onderhoude, waarneming, empiries fenomenologies, onderlinge verhoudinge


ABSTRACT

This article discusses four central themes essential for the designing of a model with the aim of improving crime prevention on farms in the area of "Transvaal Sugar Limited". The first theme refers to the improvement of attitudes between farmer and farm worker. In this respect the creation of good and positive work relations enhances mutual trust between employer and employee and minimizes the possibility of crime on farms because farm workers remain loyal to their employer by in a sense accepting "co-ownership" of the farm. In this sense one needs to be aware of the fact that various people have different needs which need to be fulfilled and the attitude of the employer is crucially important in this regard. Moreover the recruiting and selection of quality personnel should not be neglected by the employer as it is also an important step for the establishment of future attitudes and relations. Employers should carefully consider prospective candidates by conducting interviews and learning also from previous mistakes select the best candidate. As conflict and relative differences between groups of people are unavoidable, an attempt should initially be made to solve any arising dispute by mutual discussion between farmer and farm worker and by doing so potential conflict may be avoided. In addition better work conditions should be put in place to provide job satisfaction as employees expect to be treated fairly and also be part of a democratic decision making process which in turn will assist them to fulfil their full potential.
The second theme revolves around the development of the farm worker by creating sound mutual work relations. The point of departure highlights the fact that the development and training of farm workers regarding their work obligations on the farm enhance the existence of good mutual work relations. Thus it becomes easier for the employer to explain to farm workers the importance of a budget or the impact of non-productivity on the budget results. The management of a worker's development includes performance measurement, performance discussion and development activities. An additional way to develop employees is through the process of job enrichment programmes.
The third theme refers to the support which must be given by the South African Police Services and other instances to the farmer. It is absolutely essential that the government of the day supports and assists farmers by means of the optimal use of various resources at its disposal. The South African Police Services and organised agriculture are really in partnership with the farmer/employer with regard to crime prevention. Farmers do not only desire assistance during a farm attack but also effective service delivery in times of less serious crime incidents. It is the responsibility of the South African Police Services to show more interest by visiting farming communities more often and not only in times of need. They should also ensure that their logistic arrangements are always in order. Employers/farmers should also express greater interest in police activities by for example attending police meetings on a more continuous basis, not employing illegal immigrants and also by themselves taking basic steps in protecting their property and by reporting suspicious persons to the police.
The fourth theme refers to the importance of crime prevention through target hardening. These are the steps that can be taken by farmers/employers themselves in order to prevent crime and are supported by modern technological aids. Consequently the farmer confirms ownership of his possessions and to a certain extent crime is transferred to more vulnerable areas. Physical barriers which are integrated with an alarm system serve as basic crime prevention measures implemented on a cost-effective manner by the farmer and thus protecting his property. In this research the printed media, quantitative and qualitative research principles were used to gather data and determine to what extent crime is experienced by the participants. The value of the primary physical barriers or obstructions with regard to crime prevention is also emphasised in this article. The ADSC crime prevention model is developed as a result of this study with the aim of contributing to the prevention of crime on farms.

Key concepts: Crime prevention, farm attacks, barriers, physical obstructions, defensible space, environmental design, electronics, technology, security service providers, target hardening, development, support, interviews, empirical-phenomenological


 

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Freddie Kruger matrikuleer in 1982 aan Hoër-skool Patriot te Witbank. Hy behaal in 1998 die graad BA (Polisiekunde) en in 2000 die graad Hons BA (Kriminologie) aan die Universiteit van Suid-Afrika. Terselfdertyd voltooi hy 'n diploma, "Gevorderde program in Sekuriteitsbestuur." In 2002 voltooi hy die graad MA (Kriminologie) aan die Universiteit van Suid-Afrika. Die graad Doctor Litterarum et Philosophiae word in 2005 aan hom toegeken, ook deur die Universiteit van Suid-Afrika. Sy navorsing beklemtoon hoe belangrik onderlinge verhoudinge en samewerking tussen verskeie rolspelers is ten einde misdaad op plase effektief aan te spreek. Hy is huidiglik hoof van misdaadondersoeke in die privaatsektor. Hy is ook 'n volle lid van die Kriminologiese en Viktimologiese Vereniging van Suider Afrika (CRIMSA) en dien op verskeie plaaslike komitees waar hy as sekerheidskonsultant diens lewer.

Freddie Kruger matriculated in 1982 at High School Patriot in Witbank. He obtained the BA (Police Science) degree in 1998 and in 2000 the Honours BA (Criminology) degree at the University of South Africa. During the same period he completed the "Advance programme in Security Management". During 2002 he completed the MA (Criminology) through the University of South Africa. In 2005 the degree Doctor Litterarum et Philosophiae is awarded to him, also by the University of South Africa. His research emphasizes the importance of sound relationships and cooperation between different role players to effectively address crime on farms. At present he is head of criminal investigations in the private sector. He is also a full member of the Criminological and Victimological Society of Southern Africa (CRIMSA) and serves on various local committees where he renders a service as security consultant.

Anastasios Ladikos is 'n mede-professor verbonde aan die Instituut vir Kriminologiese Wetenskappe, Departement Kriminologie by die Universiteit van Suid-Afrika. In sy navorsing lê hy klem op die verwantskap tussen teorie, metode en empiriese data by 'n reeks van verskeie misdaadverwante vraagstukke in 'n poging om 'n balans tussen kwantitatiewe en kwalitatiewe metodologie te bewerkstellig. Hy is ook 'n volle lid van die Kriminologiese en Viktimologiese Vereniging van Suider Afrika (CRIMSA), die President van die Suid-Afrikaanse Gemeenskap vir Griekse Filosofie en die Geestes-wetenskappe (SAGGFG) en die redakteur van die geakkrediteerde tydskrif Phronimon. Daarby is hy ook die koödineerder van die akademiese netwerk van die "World Council of Greeks Abroad" (SAE) vir Afrika en die Midde-Ooste streek.

Anastasios Ladikos is an associate professor attached to the Institute for Criminological Sciences in the Department of Criminology at the University of South Africa. He pursues the methodologies of criminological research focussing on the relationship between theory, method and empirical data on a range of different crime-related issues. In his research exploits he invariably strives to achieve a balance between quantitative and qualitative methodology. He is a full member of the Criminological and Victimological Society of Southern Africa (CRIMSA), the president of the South African Society for Greek Philosophy and the Humanities (SASGPH) and the editor of the accredited journal Phronimon. He is also the co-ordinator of the academic network of the World Council of Greeks Abroad (SAE) for the Africa and Middle East region.