SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.48 issue2Joseph Stalin's (1878-1953) physical and psychological healthNicol Stassen & Ulrich van der Heyden (samestellers): German publications on the Anglo-Boer War / Duitse publikasies oor die Anglo-Boereoorlog / Deutsche Publikazionen über den Anglo-Burenkrieg author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe

On-line version ISSN 2224-7912
Print version ISSN 0041-4751

Tydskr. geesteswet. vol.48 n.2 Pretoria  2008

 

"Mite" as geesteswetenskaplike konsep in heroënskou

 

"Myth" reviewed as a concept in the human sciences

 

 

Annette Marié Jordaan

Departement Afrikaans, Universiteit van Pretoria annette.jordaan@up.ac.za

 

 


OPSOMMING

Daar word in hierdie artikel van die standpunt uitgegaan dat, gegewe die verwarring in definisies van die term "mite", dit nodig is om die term presieser te definieer en ook te verduidelik alvorens dit in akademiese diskoers gebesig word. Dit is ook onbevredigend en soms selfs verwarrend dat die woordeboekdefinisies en wydverspreide gebruik van die term beperk word tot óf die heroïese dade uit die antieke wêreld en die kaperjolle van hulle gode en godinne, óf andersins uitgebrei word om na hedendaagse wanopvattings of selfs valshede te verwys. Jospeh Campbell, een van die prominentste "mitoloë" van die twintigste eeu, verduidelik die sogenaamde mag van mites as "stories of our search through the ages for truth, for meaning, for significance" (in Flowers 1988:5). In 'n onlangse publikasie oor die geskiedenis van die mite verbind Karen Armstrong die maak van mites aan "a quest for the soul" (Armstrong 2005:11). As sodanig het die mite 'n houvas op mense deurdat dit hulle versterk en hulle lewe die moeite werd maak. Baie skrywers en navorsers in die menswetenskappe, soos byvoorbeeld Carl Guystav Jung, Thomas Bulfinch, G.M. Kirkwood, D. de Rougemont, die historici Samuel en Thompson, N. Frye, M Scarborough, P.J. Conradie, Etienne Leroux en Charles Malan gaan akkoord met hierdie opvatting oor die essensiële funksie van die mite in die menslike bestaan.
Die belangrike vraag skyn te wees: Is dit moontlik dat die mens se soeke na "truth, meaning and significance", sy of haar "quest for the soul", kan uitloop op niks anders as die skep van valshede nie?

Trefwoorde: Gedragskodes, geloofsisteme, koherensiesisteme, letterkunde, mite, miteskepping, stories / verhale, taalpolitiek, Verbeelde gemeenskappe" / groepe, waardesisteme, waarheid, wanperpersepsies / leuens


ABSTRACT

Judging from various definitions by human scientists (among them Joseph Campbell, the historians Samuel and Thompson, Karen Armstrong and others) of the term "myth", it would appear that it is a complex concept, defying a single definition. Steenberg (in Cloete 1999:312) notes that the term is mostly defined in accordance with the researcher's focus, for instance historical, philosophical, theological, aesthetic, or sociological orientations. In 2004 two theses were completed at South African universities with "myth" featuring in the title of the studies: one from a literary perspective and one from the perspective of language sociology, or language politics. Although the focus differed and the bibliographies (despite significant resemblances) indicate different fields of study, the interesting fact is that at the end both researchers came to more or less the same conclusion regarding the nature and function of myths.
The first of these two researchers (Van Schalkwyk 2004) uses the concept "coherence system" as more or less synonymous to the term "myth" and quotes Linde in this regard: "A coherence system is a discursive practice that represents a system of beliefs and relations between beliefs" (Linde 1993:164). Other important sources for Van Schalkwyk's study include Northrop Frye (1982), Scarborough (1994) and Roland Barthes (195 7/1975).
The second researcher (Jordaan 2004), and author of the present article, studies the role of "myth making" in the "story of Afrikaans" from the perspective of language politics. Given this context, myths are primarily seen as "stories of our search through the ages for truth, for meaning, for significance" (Campbell in Flowers 1988:5). "Myth", in this instance, being defined as a narrative reconstruction of the fundamental truths that give meaning to human existence. As such myths are furthermore seen as instrumental in establishing systems of belief as well as value systems and codes of conduct within specific cultural groups (also defined as "imagined communities", cf. Anderson 1991). Jordaan's main sources are Joseph Campbell (1949 & 1988), Samuel and Thompson (1990), Thomas Bulfinch (sine anno), Carl Gustav Jung (1964), P.J. Conradie (1964), Etienne Leroux (1960) and Charles Malan (1978).
I argue in this article that the lexicon definitions and widespread use of the term "myth", to refer exclusively either to the heroic deeds of antique heroes and the antics of their gods and goddesses, or to modern day misconceptions and even falsehoods, may be unsatisfactory and even confusing. Definitions by prominent human scientists in the course of more or less forty years defy this superficial view of myths as "falsehoods". The following are a few examples of the view taken on the pertinent role of myths and myth making:

[...] a myth expresses rules of conduct of a given social or religious group. It issues accordingly from whatever sacred principle has presided over the formation of this group (De Rougemont 1956:18).

The distinctive quality of myth, the aspect of it that gives its peculiar value for literature, is its capacity to express in story form the primary emotional and imaginative workings of the human mind (Kirkwood 1958:22).

Throughout the inhabited world, in all times and under every circumstance, the myths of man have flourished... It would not be too much to say that myth is the secret opening through which the inexhaustible energies of the cosmos pour into human cultural manifestation (Campbell 1972:3).

[. ] myth is a fundamental component of human thought [and] has lost neither its imaginative purchase nor its living power as a historical force today (Samuel & Thompson (eds.)1990:4).

As an example of the role of myths in establishing value systems and codes of conduct, I refer in this article to the Afrikaans author and social worker of the twentieth century, Maria Elizabeth Rothmann (M.E.R.), whose writing and life work give ample proof of the central role of myth. The "power of myth" as discussed by Joseph Campbell in televised interviews with Bill Moyers on CBS News is further explicated as additional proof of the fact that a myth may be seen as a fundamental "truth" for which the believer is prepared to die rather than to live without. It is probably with this in mind that the prominent Afrikaans writer, Etienne Leroux, unequivocally stated that a human being would rather die from starvation than go without his life-sustaining myth (Leroux in Kannemeyer 1980:12).}
The article furthermore points out the link between myths and literature by referring among other things to the following statement by Barbara Kingsolver in The Poisonwood Bible: "We all are, I suppose. Trying to invent our version of the story. All human odes are essentially one: 'My life: what I stole from history, and how I live with it'" (Kingsolver 1999:492).
It is also argued that, in the words of Estes (1992:463), stories ("tales") are "in their oldest sense, a healing art". Stories, like myths, are therefore used to make sense of the human condition, to explain to members of a group (and especially to the young members of the group) where they come from, what sense their life has, and what values are inherent to the group.
In the last section of the article examples are provided of prominent and highly respected human scientists who have made use of the term "myth" in scientific discourses in the sense of a misconception or falsehood. It is argued that, according to the lexical definition of the term "myth", the use of the term by these scientists is entirely valid. On the other hand, however, it is stated that, in the light of the preceding discussion of the term as used by prominent human scientists to refer to a narrative (re)construction of man's "search through the ages for truth, meaning and significance", the implication that a myth is a falsehood may undoubtedly create confusion. The pertinent question seems to be: can man's search for "truth, meaning and significance", his or her "quest for the soul" (Armstrong 2005:11), result in nothing more than the creation of falsehoods?

Key concepts: Coherence system, codes of conduct, "Imagined communities" / Groups, language politics, literature, myth, myth making, misconception / falsehood, stories / tales, systems of belief, truth, value systems


 

Full text available only in PDF format. 

 

BIBLIOGRAFIE

Anderson, B.R. O'G. 1991. Imagined communities: reflections on the origin & spread of nationalism. New York: Verso.         [ Links ]

Armstrong, K. 2005. A short history of myth. Edinburgh: Canongate Books.         [ Links ]

Barthes, R. 1975. (Oorspronklik in Frans, eerste publiksiedatum1957.) Mythologieèn. Amsterdam: BV Uitgeverij de Arbeiderspers.         [ Links ]

Bulfinch, T. s.j. The golden age of myth and legend. Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions Ltd.         [ Links ]

Campbell, J. 1949. The hero with a thousandfaces. Princeton University Press: Princeton. (Sagtebanduitgawe 1972. Princeton: Princeton/Bollingen Paperback Printing).         [ Links ]

Claus, H. 1994. Gedichten 1948-1993. Amsterdam: De Bezige Bij.         [ Links ]

Cloete, T.T. (red.). 1992. Literêre terme en teorieè. Bloemfontein: HAUM-Literêr.         [ Links ]

Conradie, P.J. 1964. Die avonture van die Griekse helde en gode. Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau. De Rougemont, D. 1956. Passion and society. London: Faber.         [ Links ]

Estes, C.P. 1992. Women who run with the wolves. London: Rider.         [ Links ]

Eybers, E. 1990. Versamelde gedigte. Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau/Tafelberg.         [ Links ]

Flowers, B.S. (ed.) (with Bill Moyers). 1988. Joseph Campbell: The Power of myth. New York: Doubleday.         [ Links ]

Frye, N. 1991. The koine of myth: Myths as universally intelligible language. (In Denham, R.D. (ed.). Northrop Frye: Myth and metaphor - selected essays 1974 - 1988.) Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia: pp. 3-17.         [ Links ]

Giliomee, H. 2003. The Afrikaners. Kaapstad: Tafelberg.         [ Links ]

HAT (Verklarende Handwoordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal). 1994. Johannesburg: Perskor.         [ Links ]

Hegi, U. 2000. The Vision of Emma Blau. London: Simon & Schuster.         [ Links ]

Janssens, M. 2003. Mythevorming in de hedendaagse cultuur. Literator, Volume 24 (1):145-157.         [ Links ]

Jordaan, A.M. 2004. Mites rondom Afrikaans. DLitt-proefskrif: Universiteit van Pretoria (onder promotorskap van prof. M.C.J. van Rensburg).         [ Links ]

Jordaan, A.M. 2005. (Afrikaner-)mites, outobiografie en biografie. Stilet XVII:3, September 2005:47-65.         [ Links ]

Kannemeyer, J.C. (red.). 1980. Tussengebied. Johannesburg: Perskor.         [ Links ]

Kingsolver, B. The Poisonwood Bible. 1999. London: Faber and Faber Ltd.         [ Links ]

Kirkwood, G.M. 1958. A study of Sophoclean drama. Cornell: Cornell University Press.         [ Links ]

Le Roux, J. 1994. Die dagsterwals. Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau.         [ Links ]

Leroux, E. 1960. Die mens, en veral die skrywer op soek na die lewende mite. Lesing voor die Afrikaanse Studiekring, Universiteit van Stellenbosch, op 6 Mei 1960. Opgeneem in Kannemeyer (red.). 1980:11-24.         [ Links ]

Linde, C. 1993. Life stories: Creation of coherence. New York: Oxford University Press.         [ Links ]

Mak, G. 2004. In Europa:Reizen door de twintigste eeuw. Amsterdam: Atlas.         [ Links ]

Malan, C. 1978. Misterie van die alchemis: 'n inleiding tot Etienne Leroux se negedelige romansiklus. Pretoria: Academica.         [ Links ]

M.E.R. 1972. My beskeie deel: 'n outobiografiese vertelling. Kaapstad: Tafelberg-Uitgewer Bpk.         [ Links ]

Nasson, B. 1990. Abraham Esau's war, 1899-1901. Martyrdom, myth, and folk memory in Calvinia, South Africa. In Samuel, R. & P. Thompson (eds), pp. 111-126.         [ Links ]

Ruthven, K.K. 1976. The Critical Idiom 31:Myth. London: Methuen & Co Ltd.         [ Links ]

Samuel, R & Thompson, P. (eds). 1990. The myths we live by. London: Routledge.         [ Links ]

Scarborough, M. 1994. Myth and modernity. Postcritical reflections. Albany: State University of New York Press.         [ Links ]

Schoeman, K. 1998. Verliesfontein. Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau.         [ Links ]

Steenberg, D.H. 1992. "Mite". In Cloete (red.), pp. 314-316.         [ Links ]

Steyn, J.C. 1980. Tuiste in eie taal. Kaapstad: Tafelberg.         [ Links ]

Steyn, J.C. 2006. 'Holocaust' is ook vandag moontlik. Beeld-forum, Beeld 11 Mei 2006.         [ Links ]

Van Schalkwyk, P.L. 2004. Horisonne: Mites oor die moontlike in kontemporêre verhalende tekste van Suid-Afrika en die Nederlandse taalgebied. PhD-proefskrif: Potchefstroomse Universiteit vir Christelike Hoër Onderwys (onder promotorskap van prof. H.M. Viljoen).         [ Links ]

Verhoef, M. 1999. Die mites oor Afrikaans: 'n inleidende beskouing oor die persepsie van Afrikaans as onderdrukkerstaal. Literator, 20(2), Augustus 1999:123-136.         [ Links ]

 

 

Annette Marié Jordaan (gebore Neethling) matrikuleer in 1967 aan die Afrikaanse Hoër Meisieskool Pretoria. Sy behaal 'n B.A. en (H.O.D) 1970/1971 aan die Universiteit van Pretoria; M.A. in Latyn (1982) aan die Randse Afrikaanse Universiteit met prof. Anton Pauw as studieleier; M.A. in Afrikaans (1995) en DLitt (Afrikaans) (2004) onder promotorskap van prof. M.C.J. van Rensburg aan die Universiteit van Pretoria, met 'n proefskrif getiteld Mites rondom Afrikaans. Sedert 1992 is sy deeltydse dosent en sedert 1996 voltydse dosent in die Departement Afrikaans aan die Universiteit van Pretoria. Sy behartig verskeie doseervelde, waaronder taalpolitiek, Afrikaans vir niemoedertaalsprekers, taal- en teksvaardigheid, Nederlandse letterkunde en kreatiewe skryfwerk op honneursvlak. Sy het reeds agt romans by Lapa Uitgewers gepubliseer onder die skrywersnaam Magda Schmidt. Sy is getroud met dr. Chris Jordaan, 'n landbou-ekonoom en bestuurskonsultant en het vyf dogters.

Annette Marié Jordaan (née Neethling) matriculated in 1967 at the Afrikaanse Hoër Meisieskool in Pretoria. Subsequently, she obtained the following degrees: B.A. (H.E.D) 1970/1971 at the University of Pretoria; M.A. (Latin, 1982) at the Rand Afrikaans University with prof. Anton Pauw acting as study leader; M.A. (Afrikaans, 1995) and DLitt (Afrikaans, 2004) with prof. M.C.J. van Rensburg acting as promoter at the University of Pretoria; the title of the thesis was Mites rondom Afrikaans (Myths concerning Afrikaans). From 1992 to 1995 she was a part time lecturer and since 1996 she has been a full time lecturer in the Department of Afrikaans at the University of Pretoria. Her teaching involves various fields of focus, such as language politics, Afrikaans for non-mother tongue speakers, language and text proficiency, Dutch literature and creative writing at honnours level. She has published eight novels, using the pseudonym Magda Schmidt at Lapa Publishers. She is married to dr. Chris Jordaan, an agricultural economist and management consultant and has five daughters.