SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.47 número2Other manifestations of HIV vasculopathyThe future of HIV vasculopathy when our patients are on antiretroviral therapy índice de autoresíndice de assuntospesquisa de artigos
Home Pagelista alfabética de periódicos  

Serviços Personalizados



Links relacionados

  • Em processo de indexaçãoCitado por Google
  • Em processo de indexaçãoSimilares em Google


South African Journal of Surgery

versão On-line ISSN 2078-5151
versão impressa ISSN 0038-2361

S. Afr. j. surg. vol.47 no.2 Cape Town Mai. 2009




HIV and venous thrombotic events



A. EyalI; M. VellerII

IM.B. CH.B., M.MED. (SURG.), Department of Surgery, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg
IIM.B. CH.B., F.C.S. (S.A.), M.MED., Department of Surgery, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg




HIV has been widely recognised as a prothrombotic condition, with the first case reports having appeared more than 20 years ago. However, surprisingly little evidence is available regarding the mechanisms by which this disease leads to thrombosis. There is little doubt that the relationship is both multifactorial and complex. This review aims to look at the available data and provide a concise summary of the present level of knowledge.



“Full text available only in PDF format”



1. Hassell KL, Kressin DC, Neumann A, et al. Correlation of antiphospholipid antibodies and protein S deficiency with thrombosis in HIV-infected men. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 1994; 5(4): 455-462.         [ Links ]

2. Klein SK, Slim EJ, de Kruif MD, et al. Is chronic HIV infection associated with venous thrombotic disease? A systemic review. Neth J Med 2005; 63: 129-136.         [ Links ]

3. Fowkes FJ, Price JF, Fowkes FG. Incidence of diagnosed deep vein thrombosis in the general population: a system review. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2003; 25(1): 1-5.         [ Links ]

4. UNAIDS/WHO Epidemiological Fact Sheets on HIV and AIDS, 2008 Update. (accessed 8 February 2009).         [ Links ]

5. Louw S, Jacobson BF, Buller H. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acute deep vein thrombosis. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2008; 14(3): 352-355.         [ Links ]

6. Laing RB, Brettle RP, Leen CL. Venous thrombosis in HIV infection. Int J STD AIDS 1996; 7(2): 82-85.         [ Links ]

7. Ahonkhai AA, Gebo KA, Streiff MB, et al. Venous thromboembolism in patients with HIV/AIDS. A case control study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2008; 48: 310-314.         [ Links ]

8. Lijfering WM, Sprenger HG, Georg RR, et al. Relationship between progression to AIDS and thrombophilic abnormalities in HIV infection. Clin Chem 2008; 54(7): 1226-1233.         [ Links ]

9. Saif MW, Greenberg B. HIV and thrombosis: A review. AIDS Patient Care STDs 2001; 15(1): 15-24.         [ Links ]

10. Crum-Cianflone NF, Weekes J, Bavaro M. Thromboses among HIV-Infected patients during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. AIDS Patient Care STDs 2008; 22(10): 771-778.         [ Links ]

11. Stahl CP, Wideman CS, Spira TJ, et al. Protein S deficiency in men with long-term human immunodeficiency virus infection. Blood 1993; 81: 1801-1807.         [ Links ]

12. Lafeuillade A, Sorice M, Griggi T, et al. Role of autoimmunity in protein S deficiency during HIV-1 infection. Infection 1994; 22(3): 201-203.         [ Links ]

13. Sorice M, Griggi T, Arcieri P, et al. Protein S and HIV infection. The role of anticardiolipin and anti-protein S antibodies. Thromb Res 1994; 73(3-4): 165-175.         [ Links ]

14. Feffer SE, Fox RL, Orsen MM, et al. Thrombotic tendencies and correlation with clinical status in patients infected with HIV. South Med J 1995; 88(11): 1126-1130.         [ Links ]

15. Toulon P, Lamine M, Ledjev I, et al. Heparin cofactor II deficiency in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Thromb Haemost 1993; 70(5): 730-735.         [ Links ]

16. Loizou S, Singh S, Wypkema E, et al. Anticardiolipin, anti-β2-glycoprotein I and antiprothrombin antibodies in black South African patients with infectious disease. Ann Rheum Dis 2003; 62: 1106-1111.         [ Links ]

17. Galrao L, Brites C, Atta ML, et al. Antiphospholipid antibodies in HIV-positive patients. Clin Rheumatol 2007; 26: 1825-1830.         [ Links ]

18. Palomo I, Alarcon M, Sepulveda C, et al. Prevalence of antiphospholipid and antiplatelet antibodies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected Chilean patients. J Clin Lab Anal 2003; 17: 209-215.         [ Links ]

19. Youd P, Main J, Jackson E. Cytomegalovirus infection and thrombosis: A causative association? J Infect 2003; 46: 141-143.         [ Links ]

20. Keller TT, Mairuhu ATA, de Kruif, MD, et al. Infections and endothelial cells. Cardiovasc Res 2003; 60: 40-48.         [ Links ]

21. Shantsila E. Endothelial microparticles: a universal marker of vascular health? J Hum Hypertens 2008; Nov. 20 [Epub ahead of print]         [ Links ]

22. Schved JF, Gris JC, Arnaud A, et al. Von Willebrand factor antigen, tissue type plasminogen activator antigen, and risk of death in human immunodeficiency virus 1-related clinical disease: independent prognostic relevance of tissue-type plasminogen activator. J Lab Clin Med 1992; 120: 411-419.         [ Links ]

23. Bain BJ. The haematological features of HIV infection. Br J Haematol 1997; 99(1): 1-8        [ Links ]

24. Holme PA, Muller F, Solum NO, et al. Enhanced activation of platelets with abnormal release of RANTES in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. FASEB J 1998; 12(1): 79-89.         [ Links ]

25. Von Hentig N, Forster AK, Kuczka K, et al. Platelet-leucocyte adhesion markers before and after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy with HIV protease inhibitors. J Antimicrob Chemother 2008; 62(5): 1118-1121.         [ Links ]

26. Jaffe EA. Cell biology of endothelial cells. Hum Pathol 1987; 18(3): 234-239.         [ Links ]

27. Skolnik PR, Pomerantz RJ, de la Monte SM, et al. Dual infection of retina with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and cytomegalovirus. Am J Ophthalmol 1989; 107(4): 361-372.         [ Links ]

28. Solages A, Vita JA, Thornton DJ, et al. Endothelial function in HIV-infected persons. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 42(9): 1325-1332.         [ Links ]

29. Joshi VV, Pawel B, Conner E, et al. Arteriopathy in children with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Pediatr Pathol 1987; 7: 261-275.         [ Links ]

30. Blann AD, Taberner DA. A reliable marker of endothelial cell dysfunction: does it exist? Br J Haematol 1995; 90(2): 244-248.         [ Links ]

31. Seigneur M, Constans J, Blann A, et al. Soluble adhesion molecules and endothelial cell damage in HIV infected patients. Thromb Haemost 1997; 77(4): 646-649.         [ Links ]

32. Ross AC, Armentrout R, O'Riordan MA, et al. Endothelial activation markers are linked to HIV status and are independent of antiretroviral therapy and Lipoatrophy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2008; 49(5): 499-506.         [ Links ]

33. Torriani FJ, Komarow L, Parker RA, et al. Endothelial function in human immunodeficiency virus-infected antiretroviral-naive subjects before and after starting potent antiretroviral therapy. The ACTG (Aids Clinical Trials Group) Study 5152s. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008; 52(7): 569-576.         [ Links ]

34. Sullivan PS, Dworkin MS, Jones JL, et al. Epidemiology of thrombosis in HIV-infected individuals. AIDS 2000; 14: 321-324.         [ Links ]

35. Geerts WH, Bergqvist D, Pineo GF, et al. Prevention of venous thromboembolism: American College of Chest Physicians evidence based clinical practice guidelines (8th Edition). Chest 2008; 133(6 Suppl): 381S-453S.         [ Links ]

Creative Commons License Todo o conteúdo deste periódico, exceto onde está identificado, está licenciado sob uma Licença Creative Commons