SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.111 issue3-4State of green technologies in South AfricaThe writing on the landscape author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand



Related links

  • On index processCited by Google
  • On index processSimilars in Google


South African Journal of Science

On-line version ISSN 1996-7489
Print version ISSN 0038-2353

S. Afr. j. sci. vol.111 n.3-4 Pretoria Mar./Apr. 2015 



Develop energy from shale with local ecosystems in mind



Casparus J. Crous

forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa




In South Africa, there currently are plans to develop shale-based gas extraction in arid and semi-arid landscapes of the Karoo. The extraction of gas from shale in the Karoo through hydraulic fracturing, also known as 'fracking', remains a contentious issue, with stakeholders often criticised for not being forthright in their reporting of the possible risks to local water resources.1 Indeed, what I find the most striking among all the debate and polemical essays is how very few scientific reports there are on the possible local effects of fracking on the native Karoo biota.

A recent review underscored this shortfall in hydraulic fracturing development globally.2 The authors concluded that energy development from shale gas often suffers from being ambiguous and incomprehensive across space: far too few peer-reviewed research papers particularly address the impact that fracking might have on the biotic elements in the landscape. This review therefore addresses the much-needed emphasis on including biodiversity conservation in assessing a fracking-targeted landscape.

A lack of focus from shale gas energy developers with regard to local biodiversity in the Karoo landscape would be naive for two reasons. Firstly, it is generally accepted that intact ecosystems provide the necessary goods and services to sustain a society.3 Secondly, considering that the Karoo is also a dryland ecosystem, it is important to note that there is a global pattern indicating dryland plant species richness as strongly related to sustainable dryland ecosystem function.4 Thus, the appropriate management of biota in the landscape would ensure a sufficient buffer against environmental threats such as climate change and desertification.4

In view of the above, the findings by Souther et al.2 should function as a stark wake-up call to all stakeholders of shale gas energy development in the Karoo; the locally targeted ecosystem needs to be considered in full to ensure cognisance of the realised impacts of fracking on the whole ecosystem. This biotic focus is especially relevant for the South African Karoo region because the method in question is directly threatening an already water-limited environment.

It is shortsighted to review the potential for shale gas development in South Africa and disregard the biotic influences when considering the vagaries of the successes and impact of fracking globally (see also Inman5). It would also be in direct contrast to the character of science as serving the whole community.

What biotic sacrifices are we about to make to extract shale gas energy? I believe more people would be at peace with the matter if they had access to more locally relevant scientific evidence - across all hierarchies of needs.




1. De Wit MJ. The great shale debate in the Karoo. S Afr J Sci. 2011;107(7/8):1-9.        [ Links ]

2. Souther S, Tingley MW, Popescu VD, Hayman DTS, Ryan ME, Graves TA, et al. Biotic impacts of energy development from shale: Research priorities and knowledge gaps. Front Ecol Environ. 2014;12(6):330-338.        [ Links ]

3. Cardinale BJ, Duffy JE, Gonzales A, Hooper DU, Perrings C, Venail P et al. Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity. Nature. 2012;486:59-67.        [ Links ]

4. Maestre FT, Quero JL, Gotelli NJ, Escudero A, Ochoa V Delgado-Baquerizo M, et al. Plant species richness and ecosystem multifunctionality in global drylands. Science. 2012;335:214-218.        [ Links ]

5. Inman M. The fracking fallacy. Nature. 2014;516:28-30.        [ Links ]



Casper Crous
Forestry and Agricultural
Biotechnology Institute
University of Pretoria
Pretoria 0002
South Africa

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License