SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.111 issue3Monte Carlo simulation of Pt-Al thin film diffusionIn search of low cost titanium: The Fray Farthing Chen (FFC) Cambridge process author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy

On-line version ISSN 2411-9717
Print version ISSN 0038-223X

J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.111 n.3 Johannesburg  2011

 

JOURNAL PAPER

 

Fluid bed chlorination pilot plant at Mintek

 

 

A. Kale; K. Bisaka

Mintek

 

 


SYNOPSIS

A chlorination pilot plant having capacity to produce 5-10 kg/hr of titanium tetrachloride is in operation at the chlorination facility in Mintek. The bubbling fluid bed chlorination plant can be operated in batch and/or continuous process to study the chlorination kinetics of various feedstocks. The chlorination of titaniferrous ores to produce titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) was carried out during the commissioning of the pilot plant and also as part of the titanium programme carried out at Mintek. TiCl4 is a basic raw material for producing commercial titanium dioxide pigment and titanium metal.
This paper discusses the challenges faced during the commissioning and operation of the chlorination pilot plant. It also discusses the effect on the auxiliary facilities and instrumentation as a result of the harsh operating conditions of +1000°C and use of corrosive gases like chlorine and titanium tetrachloride. It discusses the effect of physico-chemical properties of the titanium tetrachloride and iron chlorides. The effect on the chlorinator refractory lining due to heating and cooling of the chlorinator is also discussed.
Besides the special provisions made during the design of the chlorinator, this paper also discusses the operational experience and possible solutions to be implemented in future.

Keywords: Fluid bed chlorination, titanium ore chlorination, titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) production using fluid bed technology


 

 

“Full text available only in PDF format”

 

 

References

1. TZMI & EHK Technologies 2007.         [ Links ]

2. The Economics of titanium metal. Roskill Information Services, 2004, p. 10.         [ Links ]

3. CRC Handbook of Chemistry & Physics, 88th edition, pp. 4-98.         [ Links ]

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License