On-line version ISSN 2411-9717
J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.111 n.2 Johannesburg 2011
Energy consumption for Kell hydrometallurgical refining versus conventional pyrometallurgical smelting and refining of PGM concentrates
K. LiddellI; T. NewtonII; M. AdamsIII; B. MullerII
IISimulus Pty Ltd
IIIMutis Liber Pty Ltd
Current practice for the recovery of platinum group metals (PGM) from flotation concentrates is by energy-intensive smelting processes followed by separation and refining of the base and precious metals. Energy costs are rapidly increasing in South Africa and this trend is forecast to continue in future years. Moreover, the smelting operations are highly susceptible to deleterious constituents, particularly chromite; and the increasing tonnages of UG2 chromititic ore being mined results in an increasing chromite content of smelter feeds. Hence there is a substantial incentive to assess and implement alternative processes to smelting for the treatment of PGM concentrates. The Kell process is a patented hydrometallurgical alternative to smelting that is totally insensitive to the chromite content of the feed concentrate and comprises three commercially proven unit operations (pressure oxidation leaching of base metals and sulfur, roasting and chlorination of precious metals).
The Kell process provides the opportunity for existing and new PGM producers to significantly reduce their energy consumption, and in particular their consumption of electricity, by removing the need to smelt PGM concentrates. Energy costs, greenhouse gas emissions and installed power requirements are also much reduced. Compared with smelting and refining these reductions are calculated as:
➤ Total energy consumption-50% reduction
➤ Electrical energy consumption-84% reduction
➤ Energy consumption costs-76% reduction
➤ CO2 emissions-70% reduction
➤ Installed power requirement-92% reduction.
The data obtained from simple laboratory batch amenability testing can be readily applied to the Simulus mass and energy balance simulation procedure to determine energy and reagent consumptions, equipment selection and process optimization.
The applicability of Kell to treating low-grade 'dirty' concentrates with high UG2 content as well as to polymetallic concentrates containing base metals as the major payable metals with subordinate PGM means that these savings can also be expected when the process is used for treating a range of concentrate types and grades.
Keywords: PGM,UG2, Merensky, smelting, chromite, electricity, hydrometallurgy, Kell Process, Eskom
“Full text available only in PDF format”
1. LIDDELL, K.S. and ADAMS, M.D. Kell hydrometallurgical process for extraction of platinum group metals and base metals from flotation concentrates, J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. Trans., submitted for publication March 2010. [ Links ]
2. ADAMS, M.D., LIDDELL, K.S., and HOLOHAN, T. Hydrometallurgical processing of Platreef flotation concentrate. Minerals Engineering, 6th July 2010. [ Links ]
3. LIDDELL, K.S. Hydrometallurgical treatment process for extraction of platinum group metals obviating the matte smelting process, R.S.A. Pat. 2000/6600, Appl. 19 May 1998, Acc. July 25 2001. [ Links ]
4. LIDDELL, K.S. Hydrometallurgical treatment process for extraction of platinum group metals obviating the matte smelting process, U.S. Pat. 6,579,504, Appl. 19 May 1999, Acc. June 17, 2003. [ Links ]
5. LIDDELL, K.S. Hydrometallurgical treatment process for extraction of platinum group metals obviating the matte smelting process, Canada Pat. 2,332,520, Appl. 19 May 1999, Acc. January 27, 2009. [ Links ]
6. JONES, R.T. An overview of Southern African PGM smelting. Nickel and Cobalt 2005. Challenges in extraction and production, 44th Annual Conference of Metallurgists, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 21-24 August 2005. CIM, Montreal, pp.147-178. [ Links ]
7. RULE, C.M. Energy considerations in the current PGM processing flowsheet utilizing new technologies. J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall., 2009. vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 39-46. [ Links ]
8. VAN MANEN, P.K. Furnace energy efficiency at Polokwane smelter. J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall., 2009. vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 47-52. [ Links ]
10. CRAMER, L.A. What is your PGM concentrate worth? Third International Platinum Conference 'Platinum in Transformation', S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall., 2008, pp. 387-394. [ Links ]
13. ESKOM HOLDINGS LIMITED, 2010 Integrated Report, http://financialresults.co.za/2010/eskom_ar2010/corp_tables_enviro.htm; accessed June 2010. [ Links ]
14. NATIONAL ENERGY REGULATOR OF SOUTH AFRICA, Media Statement 24 February 2010, NERSA's decision on Eskom's required revenue application-multiyear price determination 2010/111 to 2012/13 . [ Links ]