SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.110 issue12New Economic World OrderDevelopment in the design and construction of DC arc smelting furnaces author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy

On-line version ISSN 2411-9717
Print version ISSN 0038-223X

J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.110 n.12 Johannesburg Dec. 2010




Towards sustainability in ferroalloy production



L. Holappa

Aalto University School of Science and Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Finland




Ferroalloy production is an energy-intensive industrial sector with significant CO2 emissions. In this paper the current situation in ferroalloy processes is discussed from the standpoint of global environmental issues, trends and development. Progress and data of ferroalloys production are frequently compared with the steel industry, which is a closely related sector and the main user of ferroalloys. Emission factors of processes and electricity production are examined as well as possibilities and future scenarios of how to diminish CO2 emissions. As a part of this study a questionnaire was submitted to experts in the field of ferroalloys worldwide to survey opinions on the ferroalloy industry today and in the near future (2020). Eighteen questions concerning raw materials, energy, environmental aspects, by-products and economic aspects were responded to by seventeen experts, the answers were analysed and conclusions were drawn.

Keywords: Ferroalloys, energy, CO2 emissions, electricity, sustainability, questionnaire



“Full text available only in PDF format”




1. World Steel Association/Statistics March 2010.        [ Links ]

2.; 34 pages        [ Links ]

3. U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY (USGS). Minerals Yearbook, , FERROALLOYS [Advance release] Sept.         [ Links ] 2009. 2007.

4. INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY (IEA). World Energy Outlook 2009, Executive Summary. 2009        [ Links ]

5. KIM, Y. and WORRELL, E. International comparison of CO2 emissions trends in the iron and steel industry. Energy Policy, vol. 30, 2002. pp. 827-838.         [ Links ]

6. BERNSTEIN, L., ROY, J., DELHOTAL, K.C., HARNISCH, J., MATSUHASHI, R., PRICE, L., TANAKA, K., WORRELL, E., YAMBA, F., and FENGQI, Z. Industry. Climate Change 2007; Mitigation, Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Cambridge University Press, U.K. and New York, USA. 2007.         [ Links ]

7. SJARDIN, M. CO2 emission factors for non-energy use in the non-ferrous metal, ferroalloys and inorganics industry. Masters thesis, Copernicus Institute, Utrecht, 2003. 63 pp.         [ Links ]

8. OFFICE OF AIR AND RADIATION,US. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY. Technical Support Document for the Ferroalloy Production Sector: Proposed Rule for Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases. 2009.         [ Links ]

9. EUROPEAN COMMISSION. Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC); Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Non Ferrous Metals Industries. December 2001.         [ Links ]

10. EUROPEAN COMMISSION. Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC); Draft Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the Non- Ferrous Metals Industries. July 2009.         [ Links ]

11. NIEMELÄ, P. KROGERUS, H., and OIKARINEN, P. Formation, characteristics and utilization of CO-gas formed in ferrochromium smelting. INFACON X: Proceedings of the Tenth International Ferroalloys Congress, Johannesburg SAIMM. 2004. pp. 68-77.         [ Links ]

12. OLSEN, S.E, TANGSTAD, M., and LINDSTAD, T. Production of Manganese Ferroalloys, SINTEF and Tapir Academic Press, Trondheim 2007, p. 49.         [ Links ]

13. HOLAPPA, L. and XIAO, Y. Slags in ferroalloys production-review of present knowledge. SAIMM, Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, vol. 104, no. 7, 2004, pp. 429-437.         [ Links ]

14. TANAKA, K. Assessment of energy efficiency performance measures in industry and their application for policy. Energy Policy, vol. 36, 2008, pp. 2887-2902.         [ Links ]

15. SIITONEN, S., TUOMAALA, M., and AHTILA, P. Variables affecting energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in the steel industry. Energy Policy 2010, doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2009.12.042.         [ Links ]

16. JALKANEN, H., KOJO, M., KROGERUS, H., NIEMELÄ, P., and OIKARINEN, P. Cyanides in FeCr submerged arc furnace production-theoretical and practical consideration. INFACON 7: Proceedings of the Seventh International Ferroalloys Congress, Trondheim 1995, pp. 179-190.         [ Links ]

17. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, COP 15, Copenhagen, December 2009.         [ Links ]

18.        [ Links ]

19. INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY. International Energy Outlook 2009.         [ Links ]

20.         [ Links ]

21. TORP, T. Drastic reduction of CO2 emissions from steel production with CO2 Capture & Storage (CCS)-ULCOS project.         [ Links ]

22. WORLD STEEL ASSOCIATION. CO2 emissions data collection User Guide, Version 6;         [ Links ]

23. PARLIAMENTARY OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. Carbon Footprint in Electricity Generation.        [ Links ]

24. METZ, B., DAVIDSON, O., DE CONINCK, H.C., LOOS, M., and MEYER L.A.(eds.), IPCC 2005 Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage. Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA, 442 pp.         [ Links ]

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License