SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.110 número2Understanding heavy mineral separation duties using finite element analysis índice de autoresíndice de assuntospesquisa de artigos
Home Pagelista alfabética de periódicos  

Serviços Personalizados

Artigo

Indicadores

Links relacionados

  • Em processo de indexaçãoCitado por Google
  • Em processo de indexaçãoSimilares em Google

Compartilhar


Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy

versão On-line ISSN 2411-9717
versão impressa ISSN 0038-223X

J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.110 no.2 Johannesburg Fev. 2010

 

JOURNAL PAPER

 

The effect of cation and organic addition on the settling and compaction behaviour of clay-rich slimes

 

 

M. FowlerI; J. MorkelII

IExxaro Resources, South Africa
IIUniversity of Pretoria, South Africa

 

 


SYNOPSIS

A high volume of slimes which are separated out during the mining of heavy mineral sands has a high environmental impact and results in great capital as well as operational expenses. The presence of clay minerals drastically increases the slimes volume that needs to be catered for due to its low settling capability as well as swelling characteristics. By adding coagulants in the form of cations and organics, one can improve the settling rate of the minerals as well as the degree of solid bed compaction. The addition of flocculant, which is currently used in industry to improve settling rate, is detrimental to solid bed compaction. By combining the cations and flocculant one can dramatically improve the solid bed compaction. This combination is, however, detrimental to the settling rate of kaolinite-rich slimes but improves the settling rate of smectite-rich slimes. Organics can also be used to produce a clear supernatant and improve the settling rate.


 

 

“Full text available only in PDF format”

 

 

References

Addai-Mensah, Enhanced flocculation and dewatering of clay mineral Dispersions, Powder Technology, Elsevier, vol. 179, nos. 1-2, 2007.         [ Links ]

Bernstein, S., Frei, D., McLimans, R.K., Knudsen, C., and Vasudev, V.N. Application of CCSEM to heavy mineral deposits: Source of high-Ti ilmenite sand deposit of South Kerala beaches, SW India, Journal of geochemical exploration, vol. 96, 2008. pp. 25-42.         [ Links ]

Bland, W. and Rolls, D. Weathering: An introduction to the scientific principles, Arnold Publishers. 1998.         [ Links ]

Ferrage, E., Lanson, B., Sakharov, B.A., and Drits, V.A. Investigation of smectite hydration properties by modeling experimental X-ray diffraction patterns: Part i. Montmorillonite hydration properties. American Mineralogist, vol. 90, 2005. pp. 1358-1374.         [ Links ]

Giesking, J.E. and Jenny, H. Mechanism of cation exchange in the Montmorillonite-Beidellite-Nontronite type of clay minerals, Soil Sciences, vol. 47, 1939. pp. 1-14.         [ Links ]

Gregory, J. Flocculation by polymers and polyelectrolytes, Tadros, Th.F (ed.), Solid/liquid Dispersions, Academic Press, London, 1987. pp. 163-181.         [ Links ]

Grim, R.E. Clay Mineralogy, Mcgraw Hill. 1968.         [ Links ]

Horn, G.F.J. and Strydom, J.H. Mineral resource of South Africa, 1998. pp. 106-109.         [ Links ]

Jewell, R.J. and Fourie, A.B. Paste and thickened tailings-a guide. 2006.         [ Links ]

Ma, C. and Eggleton, R. Cation exchange capacity of kaolinite.         [ Links ]

MacEwan, D.M.C. Complexes of clays with organic compounds, I, Transactions of the Faraday Society, vol. 44, 1948. pp. 349-367.         [ Links ]

Madsen, F.T. and Muller-Vonmoos, M. The swelling behaviour of clays, Applied Clay Science 4, 1989. pp. 143-156.         [ Links ]

McAtee, J.L., Jr. Inorganic-organic cation exchange on montmorillonite, American Mineralogist, vol. 44, 1959. pp. 1230-1236.         [ Links ]

McFarlane, A.J., Bremmel, K.E., and Addai-Mensah, J. Optimising the dewatering behaviour of clay tailings through interfacial chemistry, orthokinetic flocculation and controlled shear, Powder Technology, vol. 160, 2005. pp. 27-34.         [ Links ]

Mekhamer, W.K. and Assaad, F.F. Flocculation and coagulation of Ca- and K saturated montmorillonite in the presence of polyethylene oxide, Journal of Applied Sciences, vol. 73, 1999. pp. 659-662.         [ Links ]

Moss, N. and Dymond, B. Flocculation: Theory and application, Mine and Quarry Journal. 1978.         [ Links ]

Mpofu, P., Addai-Mensah, J., and Ralston, R. Investigation of polymer structure type on flocculation, rheology and dewatering behaviour of kaolinite dispersions, International Journal of Mineral Processing, vol. 71, 2003a. pp. 247-268.         [ Links ]

Mpofu, P., Addai-Mensah, J., and Ralston, R. The influence of hydrolysable metal ions in the interfacial chemistry, particle interactions and dewatering behaviour of kaolinite dispersions, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 261, 2003b. pp. 349-359.         [ Links ]

Mpofu, P., Addai-Mensah, J., and Ralston, R. Flocculation and dewatering behaviour of smectite dispersions: effect of polymer structure type, Minerals Engineering, vol. 17, 2004. pp. 411-423.         [ Links ]

Newman, A.C.D. Chemistry of Clays and Clay Minerals. Longman Scientific & Technical. 1987.         [ Links ]

O'Gordon, J.V. and Kitcherner, J.A. An Investigation of the Colliodal Properties and De-watering of Kimberlite Slimes, Fine Particle Technology Project, Dept. of Mining and Mineral Technology, Imperial College, London. 1972.         [ Links ]

Olivier, W. Investigating the settling of kimberlite in the presence of cation salts, Final year thesis, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. 2006.         [ Links ]

Richens, D.T. The Chemistry of Aqua Ions: Synthesis, structure and reactivity, John Wiley and Sons, United Kingdom. 1997.         [ Links ]

Schlegal, M.L., Charlet, L., and Manceau, A. Sorption of Metal Ions on Clay Minerals: 11. Mechanism of Co Sorption on Hectorite at High and Low Ionic Strength and Impact on the Sorbent Stability, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 220, 1999. pp. 392-405.         [ Links ]

Sheiner, B.J. and Smelly, A.G. Dewatering of fine particles mining wastes using polyethylene oxide flocculant, Minerals and Metallurgical Processing, 1984.pp.71-75.         [ Links ]

Sposito, G. The Surface Chemistry of Soils, Oxford University Press, Oxford, England. 1984.         [ Links ]

Van Olphen, H. An introduction to clay colloidal chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, New York. 1977.         [ Links ]

Wills, B.A. Mineral Processing Technology, 6th edition, 1997. pp. 369-375.         [ Links ]

Yamanaka, S. and Brindley, G.W. Hydroxy-nickel interlayering in montmorrillonite by the titration method, Clays and Clay Minerals, vol. 26, no. 1, 1977. pp. 21-24, 1978.         [ Links ]

Ye, C., Wang, D., Shi, B., Yu, J., Qu, J., Edwards, M., and Tang, H. Alkalinity effect of coagulation with polyaluminum chlorides: Role of electrostatic patch, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physiochem. Eng. Aspects, vol. 294, 2007. pp. 163-173.         [ Links ]

Creative Commons License Todo o conteúdo deste periódico, exceto onde está identificado, está licenciado sob uma Licença Creative Commons