SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.108 issue9Proceedings, 111th Annual General Meeting, 2008 author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy

On-line version ISSN 2411-9717

J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.108 n.9 Johannesburg Sep. 2008

 

PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS

 

Presidential Address: How cool are refractory materials?

 

 

A.M. Garbers-Craig

Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, University of Pretoria

 

 


SYNOPSIS

This paper reviews the history of refractory materials, highlights the development of refractory technology over the years, draws attention to the technology behind these materials, and comments on future developments in this field. By walking the path with refractory materials, from their initial uses in BC times, to the composite materials that are used nowadays, and the nanotechnology developments that are currently taking place in this field, the reader will come to agree that refractory materials are indeed very 'cool'!

Keywords: refractory materials; bricks; monolithic materials


 

 

“Full text available only in PDF format”

 

 

References:

1. CARNIGLIA, S.C. and BARNA, G.L. Handbook of Industrial Refractories Technology, Principles, Types, Properties and Applications, Noyes Publications, New York, 1992.         [ Links ]

2. LEE, W.E. and MOORE, R.E. J Am Ceram Soc, vol. 81, no. 6, 1998, pp. 1385-410.         [ Links ]

3. KINGERY, W.D., BOWEN, H.K. and UHLMAN, D.R. Introduction to Ceramics, 2nd edition, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1960.         [ Links ]

4. KARAKUS, M. and MOORE, R.E. Cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy application to refractories and slags. J Minerals & Materials Characterisation & Engineering, vol. 1, no. 1, 2002, pp. 11-29.         [ Links ]

5. LEE, W.E. and RAINFORTH, W.M. Ceramic Microstructures Property Control by Processing, Chapman and Hall, London, 1994.         [ Links ]

6. RIGAUD, M.A. and LANDY, R.A. (eds.), Pneumatic Steelmaking Volume Three Refractories, Iron and Steel Society, 1996.         [ Links ]

7. KREBS, R. Unshaped Refractory Products, Refractories Handbook, Schacht, C.A. (ed.), CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca, Raton, 2004, pp. 287-333.         [ Links ]

8. BANERJEE, S. Monolithic Refractories A Comprehensive Handbook, The American Ceramic Society, World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, 1998.         [ Links ]

9. FANZOTT, S.W. Modern Refractory Technique, Raw Materials, Products, Applications, Verlag Moderne Industrie, Didier-Werke AG, 1991, pp. 6-7.         [ Links ]

10. VESUVIUS SA presentation, 2004.         [ Links ]

11. ZHANG, S. and LEE, W.E. Carbon-containing castables: Current status and future prospects. Br Ceram Trans, vol. 101, no. 1, 2002, pp. 1-8.         [ Links ]

12. SUGAWARA, M. and ASANO, K. The recent developments of castable technology in Japan. UNITECR 2005, pp. 30-34.         [ Links ]

13. PERET, C.M., GREGOLIN, J.A., FARIA, L.I.L. and PANDOLFELLI, V.C. Patent generation and the technological development of refractories and steelmaking. RA News, vol. 12, no. 1, Jan/Feb 2007, pp. 10-14.         [ Links ]

14. SEMLER, C.E. India Revisited. RA News, vol. 12, no. 3, May/June 2007, pp. 6-7.         [ Links ]

15. PANDOLFELLI, V.C. and RIGAUD, M. Why does seduction have to do with refractory engineering education in the 21st century? J Techn Ass of Refractories, Japan, vol. 27, no. 1, 2008, pp. 1-5.         [ Links ]

16. LANKARD, D.R. Evolution of monolithic refractory technology in the United States, New Developments in Monolithic Refractories, Fischer, R.E. (ed.), The American Ceramic Society, Columbus, Ohio, 1985, pp. 46-66.         [ Links ]

17. NORTON, F.H. Refractories, 4th edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968.         [ Links ]

18. CHESTERS, J.H. Refractories production and properties, The Institute of Materials, London, 1973.         [ Links ]

19. KRAUSE, C.A. Refractories: The Hidden Industry, American Ceramic Society, 1987.         [ Links ]

20. Refractory Engineering Materials - Design - Construction (2nd edn.), Vulkan-Verlag Essen, 2005.         [ Links ]

21. BROSNAN, D.A. Alumina-Silica Brick. Refractories Handbook, Schacht, CA (ed.), CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca, Raton, 2004, pp. 79-107.         [ Links ]

22. LAMING, J. Sintered and chemically bonded MgO-chrome ore refractories. High Temperature Oxides Part I Magnesia, Lime and Chrome Refractories, Alper, A.M. (ed.), Academic Press, New York, 1970, pp. 143-189.         [ Links ]

23. LANDY, R.A. Refractories Handbook, Schacht, C.A. (ed.), CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca, Raton, 2004, pp. 109-149.         [ Links ]

24. KAPPMEYER, K.K. and HUBBLE, D.H. Pitch-bearing MgO-CaO refractories for the BOP process. High Temperature Oxides Part I Magnesia, Lime and Chrome Refractories, Alper, A.M. (ed.), Academic Press, New York, 1970, pp. 1-76.         [ Links ]

25. MUAN, A. and OSBORN, E.F. Phase Equilibrium among Oxides in Steelmaking, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, 1965.         [ Links ]

26. YAMAGUCHI, A. Self-repairing function in the carbon-containing refractory. Int J Applied Ceramic Technology, vol. 4, no. 6, 2007, pp.490-495.         [ Links ]

27. HAYASHI, T. Recent trends in Japanese Refractories Technology. Trans ISIJ, vol. 21, 1981, pp. 607-617.         [ Links ]

28. YAMAGUCHI, A. Role and behavior of additive in the carbon-containing refractory (on new additive: Al4O4C, Al2OC, Al8B4C7 and Al4SiC4). Refractories: Trends in research and applications, CIMTEC 2002, TECHNA, Vincenzini, P. and Aliprandi, G. (eds.), 2003, pp. 43-51.         [ Links ]

29. TANAKA, P. and BALDO, J.B. A new friendly resin with coupled antioxidants protectors for carbon containing refractories. UNITECR 2007, Dresden, Germany, pp. 30-33.         [ Links ]

30. MCDOWELL, J.S. and ROBERTSON, H.S. J Am Ceram Soc, vol. 12, no. 5, 1922, pp. 865-887.         [ Links ]

31. WHITE, J. Magnesia-based refractories. High Temperature Oxides Part I Magnesia, Lime and Chrome Refractories, Alper, A.M. (ed.), Academic Press, New York, 1970, pp. 77-141.         [ Links ]

32. PATRICK, R.F. Rebonded fused MgO-chrome ore grain refractories. High Temperature Oxides Part I Magnesia, Lime and Chrome Refractories, Alper, AM (ed.), Academic Press, New York, 1970, pp. 191-207.         [ Links ]

33. MUAN, A. and SOMIYA, S. Phase equilibrium studies in the system iron oxide-Al2O3-Cr2O3. J Am Ceram Soc, vol. 42, no.12, pp. 603-613.         [ Links ]

34. BERRY, T.F., ALAN, W.C., and SNOW, R.B. Chemical changes in basic brick during service. J Am Ceram Soc, vol. 33, no. 4, 1950, pp. 121-152.         [ Links ]

35. GARDIOL, M. and FRANKISH, A.W. Fused cast AZS chrome-bearing refractory materials for all-electric furnaces. Glass, vol. 57, 1980, pp. 12-15.         [ Links ]

36. ALPER, A.M., DOMAN, R.C. and MCNALLY, R.N. Basic fusion-cast refractories. High Temperature Oxides Part I Magnesia, Lime and Chrome Refractories, Alper, A.M. (ed.), Academic Press, New York, 1970, pp. 209-250.         [ Links ]

37. ZHANG, S. AND LEE, W.E. Spinel-containing refractories. Refractories Handbook, Schacht, C.A. (ed.), CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca, Raton, 2004, pp. 215-257.         [ Links ]

38. GOLESTANI-FARD, F., MOLLAIE, H., MOZTAZADEH, F. and ZAHED, F. The effect of zirconia addition on microstructure and properties of dolomite refractories. Refractories: Trends in research and applications, CIMTEC 2002, TECHNA, Vincenzini, P and Aliprandi, G. (eds.), 2003, pp. 85-92.         [ Links ]

39. RICHMOND, C. Refractories Handbook, Schacht, C.A. (ed.), CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca, Raton, 2004, pp. 183-199.         [ Links ]

40. DZERMEJKO, A.J. Refractories Handbook, Schacht, C.A. (Ed), CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca, Raton, 2004, pp. 201-214.         [ Links ]

41. LAMONT, P.H. 'Chill-Kote' carbon and graphite refractory lining system for submerged arc furnaces. Steel Metals and Minerals International, Sep 2005.         [ Links ]

42. ANEZIRIS, C.G., KLIPPEL, U., SCHARFL, W. and STEIN, V. Functional refractory material design for advanced thermal shock performance due to titania additions. Int J Appl Ceram Techn, vol. 4, no. 6, 2007, pp. 481-489.         [ Links ]

43. KRÖNERT, W. Recent progress in the use of monolithic refractories in Europe. New Developments in Monolithic Refractories, Fischer, R.E. (ed.), The American Ceramic Society, Columbus, Ohio, 1985, p. 21-34.         [ Links ]

44. LEE, W.E., VIEIRA, W., ZHANG, S., AHARI, K.G., SARPOOLAKY, H. and PARR, C. Castable refractory concretes. International Materials Reviews, vol. 46, no. 3, March 2001, pp. 145-167.         [ Links ]

45. BANERJEE, S., KILGORE, R.V. and KNOWLTON, D.A. Low-moisture castables: Properties and applications. New Developments in Monolithic Refractories, Fischer, R.E. (ed.), The American Ceramic Society, Columbus, Ohio, 1985, pp. 257-273.         [ Links ]

46. CLAVAUD, B., KIEHL, J.P. and RADAL, J.P. A new generation of low-cement castables. New Developments in Monolithic Refractories, Fischer, R.E. (ed.), The American Ceramic Society, Columbus, Ohio, 1985, pp. 274-284.         [ Links ]

47. MACZURA, G., KOPANDA, J.E. and ROHR, F.J. Calcium aluminate cements for emerging castable technology. New Developments in Monolithic Refractories, Fischer, R.E. (ed.), The American Ceramic Society, Columbus, Ohio, 1985, pp. 285-301.         [ Links ]

48. LEE, W.E. Refractories School, SAIMM, Vanderbijlpark, 30 Jan. 2004.         [ Links ]

49. BANERJEE, S. Refractories Handbook, Schacht, C.A. (ed.), CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca, Raton, 2004, pp. 1-10.         [ Links ]

50. LEE, W.E., ZHANG, S. and SARPOOLAKY, H. Different types of in situ refractories. Fundamentals of Refractory Technology, Bennett, J.P. and Smith, J.D. (eds.), The American Ceramic Society, Westerville, 2001.         [ Links ]

51. BENNETT, J.P. and KWONG, K-S. An overview of recycling refractory material. Refractories: Trends in research and applications, CIMTEC 2002, TECHNA, Vincenzini, P. and Aliprandi, G. (eds.), 2003, pp. 251-262.         [ Links ]

52. EBBRECHT, T., WEYERSHAUSEN, B., LIPINSKI, T.VR. and STROHM, H. A novel high performance binder for refractories. UNITECR 2007, pp. 388-390.         [ Links ]

53. CHANGMING, K., YUEE, N., YANGZHEN, L. and NAN, L. Preparation of MgAl2O4 nano-powder by mechanical aloying. UNITECR 2007, pp. 290-293.         [ Links ]

54. TANAKA, P. AND BALDO, J.B. A new friendly resin with coupled antioxidants protectors for carbon containing refractories. UNITECR 2007, pp. 30-33.         [ Links ]

55. SUGITA, K. Energy conservation and environmental protection from refractory-technological viewpoints. Refractories: Trends in research and applications, CIMTEC 2002, TECHNA, Vincenzini, P. and Aliprandi, G. (eds.), 2003, pp. 275-284.         [ Links ]

56. GUIMARAES DE SA, R., LENZ E SILVA, G.F.B., and BITTENCOURT, L.R. Recycling of spent refractories from metallurgical processing: Management and technological approach. UNITECR 2007, pp. 590-593.         [ Links ]

57. RIGUAD, M. and PALCO, S. Carbon-containing castables for steelmaking applications. Refractories: Trends in research and applications, CIMTEC 2002, TECHNA, Vincenzini, P and Aliprandi, G. (Eds), 2003, pp. 235-250.         [ Links ]

58. LIU, X. and ZHANG, S. Low-temperature preparation of titanium carbide coatings on graphite flakes from molten salts. J Am Ceram Soc, vol. 91, no. 2, 2008, pp. 667-670.         [ Links ]

59. HE, H., PALCO, S. and RIGUAD, M. Multiple functions of antioxidants in carbon-containing castables. UNITECR 2005, pp. 579-601.         [ Links ]

60. PAGLIOSA, C., TOFANELLI, A., AUAD, M., FREIRE, N. and DETTOGNE, R. MgO-C self flow shotcrete castable for hot repairing of BOF converter and steel ladle. UNITECR 2007, pp. 325-328.         [ Links ]

61. GUIMARAE DE SA, R. and LEE, W.E. Nanotechnology for the refractories industry-A foresight perspective. The Refractories Engineer, May 2007, pp. 12-19.         [ Links ]

62. TAMURA, S., OCHIAI, T., TAKANAGA, S., KANAI, T., and NAKAMURA, H. Nanotech refractories - 1 The development of the nano structural matrix. UNITECR 2003, pp. 517-520.         [ Links ]

63. TAKANAGA, S., OCHIAI, T., TAMURA, S., KANAI, T., and NAKAMURA, H. Nanotech refractories - 2 The application of the nano structural matrix to MgOC bricks. UNITECR 2003, pp. 521-524.         [ Links ]

64. GHOSH, S., LODHA, R., BARICK, P., and MUKHOPADHYAY, S. Improvement of thermal characteristics of refractory castable by addition of gel-route spinel nanoparticles. Materials and Manufacturing Processes, vol. 22, 2007, pp. 81-90.         [ Links ]

65. HUIZHONG, Z., HOUZHI, W., WENJIE, Z., and HUAZHI, G. The influence of nano-alumina and nano-silica sintering and mechanical performance of corundum refractory. Refractories (Chinese), vol. 2, 2002, pp. 283-288.         [ Links ]

66. MATSUI, T., GOTO, K., YAMADA, Y., and TAKI, N. Characteristics and applications of nano-tech magnesia carbon bricks. UNITECR 2005, pp. 176-179.         [ Links ]

67. RIGAUD, M. Fire: Still growing. UNITECR 2007, pp. 102-105.         [ Links ]

68. LEE, W.E., ARGENT, B.B., and ZHANG, S. Past, present and future studies of slag attack of refractories. Refractories: Trends in research and applications, CIMTEC 2002, TECHNA, Vincenzini, P. and Aliprandi, G. (eds.), 2003, pp. 3-14.         [ Links ]

69. http://www.fire.polymtl.ca/        [ Links ]

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License