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Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy

versão On-line ISSN 2411-9717
versão impressa ISSN 0038-223X

J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.108 no.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2008




Ilmenite smelting: The basics



P.C. Pistorius

Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria




While some of the practical details of ilmenite smelting are not well documented, there is a substantial body of literature on the principles of ilmenite smelting, and the behaviour of solidified titania slag. This information is summarized, focusing on the basic reactions, departure from equilibrium, the behaviour of impurities, and reactions of solidified slag. The emphasis is on the South African operations.



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4. ZIETSMAN, J.H. and PISTORIUS, P.C. Process mechanisms in ilmenite smelting. Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, vol. 104, 2004. pp. 653-660.         [ Links ]

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7. ZIETSMAN, J.H. and PISTORIUS, P.C. Modelling of an ilmenite-smelting DC arc furnace process. Minerals Engineering, vol. 19, 2006. pp. 262-279.         [ Links ]

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9. GOUS, M. An overview of the Namakwa Sands ilmenite smelting operations. Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, vol. 106, 2006. pp. 379-384.         [ Links ]

10. PISTORIUS, P.C. Fundamentals of freeze lining behaviour in ilmenite smelting. Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, vol. 103, 2003. pp. 509-514.         [ Links ]

11. GRAU, A. and POGGI, D. Physico-chemical properties of molten titania slags, J.M. Toguri and G.C. Weatherly (eds.), Annual Volume 1978, Metallurgical Society of Canada, Institute of Mining & Metallurgy, Montreal, 1978, pp. 97-102.         [ Links ]

12. GARBERS-CRAIG, A.M. and PISTORIUS, P.C. Slag-refractory interactions during the smelting of ilmenite. South African Journal of Science, vol. 102, no. 11/12, 2006. pp. 575-580.         [ Links ]

13. ERIKSSON, G. and PELTON, A.D. Critical evaluation and optimization of the thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams of the MnO-TiO2, MgO-TiO2, FeO-TiO2, Ti2O3-TiO2, Na2O-TiO2, and K2O-TiO2 systems. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, vol. 24B. 1993. pp. 795-805.         [ Links ]

14. GELDENHUIS, J.M.A. and PISTORIUS, P.C. The use of commercial oxygen probes during the production of high titania slags. Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, vol. 99, no. 1, 1999. pp. 41-47.         [ Links ]

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17. COETSEE, T. and PISTORIUS, P.C. Preliminary observations on phase relations in the 'V2O3-FeO' and V2O3-TiO2 systems from 1400°C to 1600°C in reducing atmospheres. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 83, 2000. pp. 1485-1488.         [ Links ]

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19. BOROWIEC, K., GRAU, A.E., GUEGIN, M., and TURGEON, J.-F. Method to upgrade titania slag and resulting product.: U.S. Patent No. 5,830,420 (1998).         [ Links ]

20. VAN DYK, J.P., VEGTER, N.M., VISSER, C.P., DE LANGE, T., WINTER, J.D., WALPOLE, E.A., and NELL, J. Beneficiation of titania slag by oxidation and reduction treatment. U.S. Patent No. 6,803,024 (2004).         [ Links ]

21. BESSINGER, D., GELDENHUIS, J.MA., PISTORIUS, P.C., MULABA, A., and HEARNE, G. The decrepitation of solidified high titania slags. Journal of Non- Crystalline Solids, vol. 282, no. 1, 2001. pp. 132-142.         [ Links ]

22. BESSINGER, D. GELDENHUIS, J.M.A., and PISTORIUS, P.C. Phase changes in the decrepitation of solidified high titania slags. Heavy Minerals 2005, Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration, 2005. pp. 213-219.         [ Links ]

23. PISTORIUS, P.C. and MOTLHAMME, T. Oxidation of high-titanium slags in the presence of water vapour. Minerals Engineering, vol. 19, 2006. pp. 232-236.         [ Links ]

24. COETZEE, C., LAMONT, P.H., BESSINGER, D., RABE, J., ZIETSMAN, J., and MULLER, J. Application of UCAR® Chill KoteT lining to ilmenite smelting. Eleventh International Ferroalloys Conference (Infacon XI), India, 2007. pp. 837-846.         [ Links ]

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