SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.76 número3The effect of pyridoxal-5-phosphate on serum alanine aminotransferase activity in dogs suffering from canine babesiosis índice de autoresíndice de assuntospesquisa de artigos
Home Pagelista alfabética de periódicos  

Serviços Personalizados

Artigo

Indicadores

Links relacionados

  • Em processo de indexaçãoCitado por Google
  • Em processo de indexaçãoSimilares em Google

Compartilhar


Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research

versão On-line ISSN 2219-0635
versão impressa ISSN 0030-2465

Onderstepoort j. vet. res. vol.76 no.3 Cape Town  2009

 

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

 

Morphology of the tongue of the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae). I. Gross anatomical features and topography

 

 

M.R. Crole; J.T. Soley

Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110 South Africa

 

 


ABSTRACT

Despite numerous papers addressing the topic, the gross morphology of the ratite tongue and more specifically that of the emu, has been superficially or poorly described. This paper presents the first definitive macroscopic description of the emu tongue and reviews, consolidates and compares the scattered information on the gross morphology of the ratite tongue available in the literature. Twenty-three heads obtained from birds at slaughter were used for this study. Specimens were fixed in 10 % neutral buffered formalin, rinsed and the gross anatomy described. The emu tongue is divided into a body and a root. The body is triangular, dorsoventrally flattened, pigmented and displays caudally directed lingual papillae on both the lateral and caudal margins. The root, a more conspicuous structure in comparison to other ratites, is triangular, with a raised bulbous component folding over the rostral part of the laryngeal fissure. Following the general trend in ratites, the emu tongue is greatly reduced in comparison to the bill length and is specifically adapted for swallowing during the cranioinertial method of feeding employed by palaeognaths. This study revealed that it is not only the shape of the tongue that differs between ratites, as previously reported, but also its colour, appearance of its margins and root, and its length in comparison to the bill, and the shape of the paraglossum.

Keywords: Dromaius novaehollandiae, emu, gross morphology, ratite, tongue


 

 

“Full text available only in PDF format”

 

 

REFERENCES

AL-MANSOUR, M.I. & JARRAR, B.M. 2004. Structure and secretions of the lingual salivary glands of the White-Cheeked Bulbul, Pycnonotus leucogenys (Pycnontidae). Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 11:119-126.         [ Links ]

BACHA, W.J. & BACHA, L.M. 2000. Digestive system, in Color atlas of veterinary histology, edited by D. Balado. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.         [ Links ]

BAILEY, T.A., MENSAH-BROWN, E.P., SAMOUR, J.H., NALDO, J., LAWRENCE, P. & GARNER, A. 1997. Comparative morphology of the alimentary tract and its glandular derivatives of captive bustards. Journal of Anatomy, 191:387-398.         [ Links ]

BAUMEL, J.J., KING, A.S., BREAZILE, J.E., EVANS, H.E. & VANDEN BERGE, J.C. 1993. Handbook of avian anatomy: Nomina anatomica avium, 2nd ed. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Nuttall Ornithological Club.         [ Links ]

BHATTACHARYYA, B.N. 1980. The morphology of the jaw and tongue musculature of the common pigeon, Columba livia, in relation to its feeding habit. Proceedings of the Zoological Society, Calcutta, 31:95-127.         [ Links ]

BONGA TOMLINSON, C.A. 2000. Feeding in paleognathous birds, in Feeding: form, function, and evolution in tetrapod vertebrates, edited by K. Schwenk. San Diego: Academic Press.         [ Links ]

BOTEZAT, E. 1910. Morphologie, Physiologie und phylogenetische Bedeutung der Geschmacksorgane der Vögel. Anatomischer Anzeiger, 36:428-461.         [ Links ]

BRADLEY, O.C. 1915. The structure of the fowl. London: A. and C. Black, Ltd.         [ Links ]

CALHOUN, M.L. 1954. Microscopic anatomy of the digestive system of the chicken. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State College Press.         [ Links ]

CHO, P., BROWN, B. & ANDERSON, M. 1984. Comparative gross anatomy of ratites. Zoo Biology, 3:133-144.         [ Links ]

CROLE, M.R. & SOLEY, J.T. 2008. Histological structure of the tongue of the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae). Proceedings of the Microscopy Society of Southern Africa, 38:63.         [ Links ]

CUVIER, G. 1836. Leçons d'anatomie comparée, 3rd ed. Vol. 1 & 2, edited by M. Duméril. Bruxelles: Dumont.         [ Links ]

DAVIES, S.J.J.F. 1978. The food of emus. Australian Journal of Ecology, 3:411-422.         [ Links ]

DUERDEN, J.E. 1912. Experiments with ostriches. XVIII. The anatomy and physiology of the ostrich. A. The external characters. Agricultural Journal of the Union of South Africa, 3: 1-27.         [ Links ]

FARAGGIANA, R. 1933. Sulla morfología della lingua e del rialzo laringeo di alcune specie di uccelli Ratiti e Carenati non comuni. Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia e Anatomia comparata, 43:313-323.         [ Links ]

FEDER, F-H. 1972. Zur mikroskopischen Anatomie des Verdauungsapparates beim Nandu (Rhea americana). Anatomischer Anzeiger, 132:250-265.         [ Links ]

FOWLER, M.E. 1991. Comparative clinical anatomy of ratites. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 22:204-227.         [ Links ]

GADOW, H. 1879. Versuch einer vergleichenden Anatomie des Verdauungssystemes der Vögel. Jenaische Zeitschrift für Medizin und Naturwissenschaft, 13:92-171.         [ Links ]

GARDNER, L.L. 1926. The adaptive modifications and the taxonomic value of the tongue in birds. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 67: Article 19.         [ Links ]

GARDNER, L.L. 1927. On the tongue in birds. The Ibis, 3:185-196.         [ Links ]

GENTLE, M.J. 1971. The lingual taste buds of Gallus domesticus. British Poultry Science, 12:245-248.         [ Links ]

GÖPPERT, E. 1903. Die Bedeutung der Zunge für den sekundären Gaumen und den Ductus nasopharyngeus. Morphologisches Jahrbuch, 31:311-359.         [ Links ]

GUSSEKLOO, S.W.S. & BOUT, G.R. 2005. The kinematics of feeding and drinking in palaeognathous birds in relation to cranial morphology. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 208:3395-3407.         [ Links ]

HARRISON, J.G. 1964. Tongue, in A new dictionary of birds, edited by A.L. Thomson. London: Nelson.         [ Links ]

HODGES, R.D. 1974. The digestive system, in The histology of the fowl. London: Academic Press.         [ Links ]

HOMBERGER, D.G. & MEYERS, R. 1989. Morphology of the lingual apparatus of the domestic chicken Gallus gallus, with special attention to the structure of the fasciae. American Journal of Anatomy, 186:217-257.         [ Links ]

JACKOWIAK, H. & GODYNICKI, S. 2005. Light and scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in the white tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla, Accipitiridae, Aves). Annals of Anatomy, 187:251-259.         [ Links ]

JACKOWIAK, H. & LUDWIG, M. 2008. Light and scanning electron microscopic study of the structure of the ostrich (Strutio camelus) tongue. Zoological Science, 25:188-194.         [ Links ]

KAUPP, M.S. 1918. The anatomy of the domestic fowl. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company.         [ Links ]

KING, A.S. 1993. Apparatus respiratorius [Systema respiratorium], in Handbook of avian anatomy: nomina anatomica avium, 2nd ed., edited by J.J. Baumel, A.S. King, J.E. Breazile, H.E. Evans & J.C. Vanden Berge. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Nuttall Ornithological Club.

KING, A.S. & McLELLAND, J. 1984. Digestive system, in Birds -their structure and function, 2nd ed. London: Bailliere Tindall.         [ Links ]

KOBAYASHI, K., KUMAKURA, M., YOSHIMURA, K., INATOMI, M. & ASAMI, T. 1998. Fine structure of the tongue and lingual papillae of the penguin. Archivum Histologicum Cytologicum, 61:37-46.         [ Links ]

KOCH, T. 1973. Splanchnology, in Anatomy of the chicken and domestic birds, edited by B.H. Skold & L. DeVries. Ames, Iowa: The Iowa State University Press.         [ Links ]

LILLIE, F.R. 1908. The development of the chick. New York: Henry Holt and Co.         [ Links ]

LIMAN, N., BAYRAM, G. & KOÇAK, M. 2001. Histological and histochemical studies on the lingual, preglottal and laryngeal salivary glands of the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) at the post-hatching period. Anatomia, 30:367-373.         [ Links ]

LUCAS, F.A. 1896. The taxonomic value of the tongue in birds. Auk, 13:109-115.         [ Links ]

LUCAS, F.A. 1897. The tongues of birds. Reports of the United States National Museum, 1895:1003-1020.         [ Links ]

MacALISTER, A. 1864. On the anatomy of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 9:1-24.         [ Links ]

McCANN, C. 1973. The tongues of kiwis. Notornis, 20:123-127.         [ Links ]

McLELLAND, J. 1975. Aves digestive system, in Sisson and Grossman's The anatomy of the domestic animals, edited by R. Getty. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company.         [ Links ]

McLELLAND, J. 1979. Digestive system, in Form and function in birds, Vol. 1, edited by A.S. King & J. McLelland. London: Academic Press.         [ Links ]

McLELLAND, J. 1990. Digestive system, in A colour atlas of avian anatomy. Aylesbury, England: Wolfe Publishing Ltd.         [ Links ]

McLELLAND, J. 1993. Apparatus digestorius [Systema alimentarium], in Handbook of avian anatomy: Nomina anatomica avium, 2nd ed., edited by J.J. Baumel, A.S. King, J.E. Breazile, H.E. Evans & J.C. Vanden Berge. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Nuttall Ornithological Club.

McLEOD, W.M. 1939. Anatomy of the digestive tract of the domestic fowl. Veterinary Medicine, 34:722-727.         [ Links ]

MECKEL, J.F. 1829. System der vergleichenden Anatomie. Halle: Der Rehgerschen Buchhandlung.         [ Links ]

MOORE, D.A. & ELLIOTT, R. 1946. Numerical and regional distribution of taste buds on the tongue of the bird. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 84:119-131.         [ Links ]

NICKEL, R., SCHUMMER, A. & SEIFERLE, E. 1977. Digestive system, in Anatomy of the domestic birds. Berlin: Verlag Paul Parey.         [ Links ]

OWEN, R. 1879. Memoirs on the extinct and wingless birds of New Zealand; with an appendix of those of England, Australia, Newfoundland, Mauritius and Rodriguez. Vol. 1. London: John van Voorst.         [ Links ]

PARKER, T.J. 1891. Observations on the anatomy and development of apteryx. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B., 182:25-134.         [ Links ]

PARKER, W.K. 1866. On the structure and development of the skull in the Ostrich Tribe. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 156:113-183.         [ Links ]

PORCHESCU, G. 2007. Comparative morphology of the digestive tract of the Black African ostrich, hen and turkey. Ph.D. thesis, Agrarian State University of Moldova.         [ Links ]

PYCRAFT, W.P. 1900. On the morphology and phylogeny of the palaeognathae (Ratitae and Crypturi) and neognathae (Carinatae). Transactions of the Zoological Society of London, 15: 149-290.         [ Links ]

ROACH, R.W. 1952. Notes on the New Zealand kiwis (1). New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 1:38-39.         [ Links ]

SALES, J. 2006. Digestive physiology and nutrition of ratites. Avian and Poultry Biology Reviews, 17:41-55.         [ Links ]

SALES, J. 2007. The emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae): A review of its biology and commercial products. Avian and Poultry Biology Reviews, 18:1-20.         [ Links ]

TIVANE, C. 2008. A morphological study of the oropharynx and oesophagus of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). M.Sc. thesis, University of Pretoria.         [ Links ]

WARNER, R.L., McFARLAND, L.Z. & WILSON, W.O. 1967. Microanatomy of the upper digestive tract of the Japanese quail. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 28:1537-1548.         [ Links ]

WEBB, M. 1957. The ontogeny of the cranial bones, cranial peripheral and cranial parasympathetic nerves, together with a study of the visceral muscles of Struthio. Acta Zoologica, 38: 81-202.         [ Links ]

ZISWILER, V. & FARNER, D.S. 1972. Digestion and the digestive system, in Avian biology, edited by D.S. Farner, J.R. King & K.C. Parkes. New York: Academic Press.         [ Links ]

 

 

Accepted for publication 4 March 2009-Editor

 

 

* Author to whom correspondence is to be addressed: E-mail: martina.crole@up.ac.za

Creative Commons License Todo o conteúdo deste periódico, exceto onde está identificado, está licenciado sob uma Licença Creative Commons