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Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research

versão On-line ISSN 2219-0635
versão impressa ISSN 0030-2465

Onderstepoort j. vet. res. vol.76 no.3 Cape Town  2009




Study on the efficacy and safety of different antigens and oil formulations of infectious coryza vaccines containing an NAD-independent strain of Avibacterium paragallinarum



B. DunguI; B. BrettI; R. MacdonaldI; S. DevilleII; L. DupuisII; J. TheronIII; R.R. BraggIV

IOnderstepoort Biological Products, Private Bag X07, Onderstepoort, 0110 South Africa
IISEPPIC, Tour Kupka C-7, Bld Franck Kupka, 92039 Paris, France
IIIDepartment of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 South Africa
IVUniversity of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300 South Africa




The present study was designed to assess and compare three different formulations of the new Onderstepoort infectious coryza (IC) quadrivalent vaccine, which contain an NAD-independent strain of Avibacterium paragallinarum (previously known as Haemophilus paragallinarum), and a commercial IC vaccine, not containing an NAD-independent strain, for their safety and ability to protect chickens of varying ages against virulent challenges with four different serovars of A. paragallinarum, including the NAD-independent strain of the C-3 serovar.
Four groups of 140 chickens each were vaccinated at the age of 17 weeks and revaccinated at the age of 19 weeks with each of the four vaccine formulations. A similar sized group of non-vaccinated chickens was used as control. Two rounds of challenge were conducted: a group of chicken in each vaccination group was challenged between 31 and 35 weeks of age, while another group was challenged between 51 and 55 weeks of age. The "in-contact" challenge model was used in this experiment. For each vaccination group, the four challenge strains representing four local serovars were used in each challenge round. The efficacy of the vaccines was compared based on overall protection levels obtained and the duration of protection. The safety of the different vaccines was determined by the severity of post-vaccination reactions.
The need for the incorporation of the NAD-independent strain in the vaccine was evidenced by the low protection level against NAD-independent challenge recorded in the group of birds vaccinated with the commercial vaccine. The results obtained confirmed not only the variation in virulence of different South African serovars, with serovar C-3 being the most virulent and serovar B having almost no virulence but also the age related increase in susceptibility. The importance of a suitable formulation of the vaccine is discussed.

Keywords: Avibacterium paragallinarum, C-3 serovar, chickens, coryza vaccine, NAD-independent strain



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Accepted for publication 19 April 2009-Editor



* Author to whom correspondence is to be directed. Present address: GALVmed, Edinburgh EH26 OPZ Scotland, UK. E-mail:

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