versão On-line ISSN 2219-0635
Onderstepoort j. vet. res. vol.76 no.3 Cape Town 2009
M.H. Boma; G. Bilkei
Veterinary Consulting, Bahnhofstrasse 42, CH - 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
The present study was performed in order to evaluate the effects of lower than usual industry levels of dietary trace minerals on plasma levels, faecal excretion, performance, mortality and morbidity in growing-finishing pigs in a hot African climate.
Group 1 (n =100 pigs) received a diet with common industry levels of trace minerals.
Group 2 (n =100 pigs) received reduced dietary trace mineral levels but were fed the same basic diet as Group 1.
Mortality, morbidity, pig performance and carcass measurements were evaluated.
Two pigs in Group 1 and three pigs in Group 2 died. Thirteen pigs in Group 1 and 27 pigs in Group 2 were medically treated (P < 0.05).
Carcass masses, back fat depth, loin depth, and lean percent were not significantly different between the groups. However, the carcasses when evaluated revealed a non-significant higher back fat thickness, lower loin eye area and percentage of fat-free lean in barrows compared to gilts within each group.
Despite lower initial masses, pigs fed diets containing industry levels of trace minerals were heavier (P < 0.05) and had a higher (P< 0.05) than average daily gains compared to those that received a diet containing lower levels of trace minerals.
Faecal zinc excretion was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in pigs fed with lower dietary zinc levels. Copper, manganese and iron excretion were not affected (P > 0.05) by the dietary levels of these trace minerals.
Plasma trace mineral concentrations were not affected by the dietary treatment.
Keywords: Climate, mortality, morbidity, performance, pigs, trace element
“Full text available only in PDF format”
BILKEI, G., BIRO, O., BÔLCSKEI, A., CLAVADETSCHER, E., ORBAN, P. & WALLER, C. 1995. Practice related management strategies on post-weaning E. coli problems in intensive pig production. Proceedings of the 8th "In-between" Symposium of the International Society for Animal Hygiene. Hungarian Veterinary Journal, 10:766-768. [ Links ]
CREECH, B.L., SPEARS, J.W., FLOWERS, W.L., HILL, G.M., LLOYD, K.E., ARMSTRONG, T.A. & ENGLE, T.E. 2004. Effect of dietary trace mineral concentration and source (inorganic vs. chelated) on performance, mineral status, and fecal mineral excretion in pigs from weaning through finishing. Journal of Animal Sciences, 82:2140-2147. [ Links ]
GENGELBACH, G.P., WARD, J.D. & SPEARS, J.W. 1994. Effect of dietary copper, iron and molybdenum on growth and copper status of beef cows and calves. Journal of Animal Sciences, 72:2722-2727. [ Links ]
GOODWIN, R. & BURROUGHS, S. (Eds) 1995. Genetic evaluation terminal line program results. Des Moines, Iowa: National Pork Producers Council. [ Links ]
JONGBLOED, A.W. & LENIS, N.P. 1993. Excretion of nitrogen and some minerals by livestock, in Nitrogen flow in pig production and environmental consequences, edited by M.W.A. Verstegen L.A. den Hartog & G.J.M. van Kempen. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Pudoc Scientific. [ Links ]
KLASING, K.C. 2001. Protecting animal health and well being: nutrition and immune function, in Scientific advantages in animal nutrition: Promise for the new century, edited by National Research Council. Washington DC: National Academy Press. [ Links ]
MAHONEY, J.P., BUSH, J.A., GUBLER, C.J., MORETZ, W.H., CARTWRIGHT, G.E. & WINTROBE, M.M. 1955. Studies on copper metabolism. Excretion of copper by animals. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 46:702-708. [ Links ]
NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL 1998. Nutrient requirements of swine, 10th ed. Washington DC: National Academic Press. [ Links ]
PABOEUF, F., NYS, Y. & CORLOUËR, A. 2000. Réduction des rejets en cuivre et en zinc chez le porc charcutier par le diminutation de la supplementation minérale. Journées de la Recherche Porcine en France, 32:59-66. [ Links ]
PULS, R. 1994. Mineral levels in animal health, 2nd ed. Clear-brook, British Columbia, Canada: Sherpa International. [ Links ]
UNDERWOOD, E.J. 1977. Trace elements in human and animal nutrition. New York: Academic Press. [ Links ]
VAN HEUGTEN, E., O'QUINN, P.R., FUNDERBURKE, D.W., FLOWERS, W.L. & SPEARS, J.W. 2004. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, plasma minerals, and fecal mineral excretion in grower-finisher swine diets with levels of trace minerals lower than common in industry levels. Journal of Swine Health and Production, 12:237-241. [ Links ]
WEIGAND, E. & KIRCHGESSNER, M. 1980. Total true efficiency of zinc utilisation. Determination and homeostasis dependence upon the zinc supply status in young rats. Journal of Nutrition, 110:469-480. [ Links ]
Accepted for publication 19 February 2009-Editor