SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.76 issue2 author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand



Related links

  • On index processCited by Google
  • On index processSimilars in Google


Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research

On-line version ISSN 2219-0635
Print version ISSN 0030-2465

Onderstepoort j. vet. res. vol.76 n.2 Pretoria  2009




Curtisia dentata (Cornaceae) leaf extracts and isolated compounds inhibit motility of parasitic and free-living nematodes



L.J. ShaiI; E.S. BizimenyeraI; V. BaglaI; L.J. McgawI; J.N. EloffI

IPhytomedicine Programme, Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110 South Africa
IIDepartment of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Limpopo, P.O. Box 235, Medunsa, 0204 South Africa
IIIDepartment of Agriculture and Animal Health, UNISA, Private Bag X6, Florida 1710




Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis are among the most important parasitic nematodes of small ruminants. Caenorhabditis elegans, a free-living nematode, is used as a model for evaluating anthelmintic activity of a variety of test substances. Extracts of several medicinal plants are useful in vitro and in vivo against nematode development. Extracts of Curtisia dentata, a South African medicinal plant, and compounds isolated from leaves of this plant were investigated for anthelmintic activity against T. colubriformis, H. contortus and C. elegans. The acetone and dichloromethane extracts were active against all nematodes at concentrations as low as 160 μg/ml. Betulinic acid and lupeol were active against the parasitic nematodes only at the high concentrations of 1 000 and 200 μg/ml, respectively. All compounds were effective against C. elegans with active concentrations as low as 8 μg/ml. Betulinic acid was less active than lupeol and ursolic acid against C. elegans. The acetone and dichloromethane extracts were also active against C. elegans with a concentration of 0.31 mg/ml resulting in almost 80 % inhibition of larval motility. The use of free-living nematodes may provide information on the activity of potential anthelmintics against parasitic nematodes. Extracts of various medicinal plant species may provide solutions to ill-health of small ruminants caused by parasitic nematodes in poor communities of southern Africa.

Keywords: Anthelmintic, betulinic acid, Curtisia dentata, lupeol, ursolic acid



“Full text available only in PDF format”




ADEMOLA, I.O., FAGBEMI, B.O. & IDOWU, S.O. 2004. Evaluation of the anthelmintic activity of Khaya senegalensis extract against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep: In vitro and in vivo studies. Veterinary Parasitology, 122:151-164.         [ Links ]

BIZIMENYERA, E.S., GITHIORI, J.B., ELOFF, J.N. & SWAN, G.E. 2006. In vitro activity of Peltophorum africanum Sond. (Fabaceae) extracts on the egg hatching and larval development of the parasitic nematode Trichostrongylus colubri-formis. Veterinary Parasitology, 142:336-343.         [ Links ]

BRENNER, S. 1974. The genetics of Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics, 77:71-94.         [ Links ]

CHIEJINA, S.N. 2001. The epidemiology of helminth infections of domesticated animals in the tropics with emphasis on fascioliasis and parasitic gastroenteritis, in Perspectives on helminthology, edited by N. Chowdhury & I. Tada. Enfield: Science Publishers Inc.         [ Links ]

COLES, G.C., BAUER, C., BORGESTEEDE, F.H.M., GEERTS, S., KLEI, T.R., TAYLOR, M.A. & WALLER, P.J. 1992. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) methods for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of veterinary inmportance. Veterinary Parasitology, 44:35-44.         [ Links ]

DAHANUKAR, S.A., KULKARNI, R.A. & REGE, N.N. 2000. Pharmacology of medicinal plants and natural products. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 32: S81-S118.         [ Links ]

DAN0, A.R. & B0GH, H. 1999. Use of herbal medicines against helminths in livestock-renaissance of an old tradition. World Animal Review, 93:60-67.         [ Links ]

DOLD, A.R. & COCKS, M.L. 2001. Traditional veterinary medicine in the Alice district of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. South African Journal of Science, 97:375-379.         [ Links ]

ELOFF, J.N. & MCGAW, L.J. 2006. Plant extracts used to manage bacterial, fungal and parasitic infections in southern Africa, in Modern phytomedicine: turning medicinal plants into drugs, edited by I. Ahmad. Germany: Wiley-VCH.         [ Links ]

ENWEREM, N.M., OKOGUN, J.I., WAMBEBE, C.O., OKORIE, D.A. & AKAH, P.A. 2001. Anthelmintic activity of the stem bark extracts of Berlina grandiflora and one of its active principles, Betulinic acid. Phytomedicine, 8:112-114.         [ Links ]

EVANS, P.H., BOWERS, W.S. & FUNK, E.J. 1984. Identification of fungicidal and nematocidal components in the leaves of Piper betle (Piperaceae). Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 32:1254-1256.         [ Links ]

GRIERSON, D.S. & AFOLAYAN, A.J. 1999. An ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of wounds in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 67:327-332.         [ Links ]

HAMMOND, J.A., FIELDING, D. & BISHOP, S.C. 1997. Prospects for plant anthelmintics in tropical veterinary medicine. Veterinary Research Communications, 21:213-228.         [ Links ]

HORAK, I.G. 2003. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLII. Helminths of sheep on four farms in the Eastern Cape Province. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 70:175-186.         [ Links ]

HORAK, I.G., EVANS, U. & PURNELL, R.E. 2004. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLV. Helminths of dairy calves on dry-land Kikuyu grass pastures in the Eastern Cape Province. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 71:291-306.         [ Links ]

HÖRDEGEN, P., HERTZBERG, H., HEILMANN, J., LANGHANS, W. & MAURER, V. 2003. The anthelmintic efficacy of five plant products against gastrointestinal trichostrongylids in artificially infected lambs. Veterinary Parasitology, 117:51-60.         [ Links ]

HOUNZANGBE-ADOTE, M.S., PAOLINI, V., FOURASTE, I., MOUTAIROU, K. & HOSTE, H. 2005. In vitro effects of four tropical plants on three life-cycle stages of the parasitic nematode, Haemonchus contortus. Research in Veterinary Science, 78:155-160.         [ Links ]

HUBERT, J. & KERBEUF, D. 1992. A microlarval development assay for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in sheep nematodes. Veterinary Reviews, 130:442-446.         [ Links ]

HUTCHINGS, A., SCOTT, A.H., LEWIS, G. & CUNNINGHAM, A.B. 1996. Zulu medicinal plants: An inventory. Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press.         [ Links ]

IDRIS, A.A., ADAM, S.E.I. & TARTOUR, G. 1982. The anthelmintic efficacy of Artemisia herba-alba against Haemonchus contortus infection in goats. National Institute of Animal Health Quartely, 22:138-143.         [ Links ]

IQBAL, Z., LATEEF, M., ASHRAF, M. & JABBAR, A. 2004. Anthelmintic activity of Artemisia brevifolia in sheep. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 93:265-268.         [ Links ]

JABBAR, A., IQBAL, Z., KERBOEUF, D., MUHAMMAD, G., KHAN, M.N. & AFAQ, M. 2006. Anthelmintic resistance: The state of play revisited. Life Sciences, 79:2413-2431.         [ Links ]

KATIYAR, S.S., GORDON, V.R., MCLAUGHLIN, G.L. & EDLIND, T.D. 1994. Antiprotozoal activities of benzimidazoles and correlations with ß-tubulin sequence. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 38:2086-2090.         [ Links ]

KUMAR, D., MISHRA, S.K., TANDAN, S.K. & TRIPATHI, H.C. 1995. Possible mechanism of anthelmintic action of pala-sonin on Ascarida galli. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 27: 161-168.         [ Links ]

MCGAW, L.J., JÄGER, A.K. & VAN STADEN, J. 2000. Antibacterial, anthelmintic and antiamoebic activity in South African medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 72: 247-263.         [ Links ]

MURRAY, M., HUDSON, A.M. & YASSA, V. 1992. Hepatic microsomal metabolism of the anthelmintic benzimidazole fendabendazole: enhanced inhibition of cytochrome P450 reactions by oxidized metabolites of the drug. Chemical Research and Toxicology, 5:60-66.         [ Links ]

PADMAJA, V., THANKAMANY, V. & HISHAM, A. 1993. Antibacterial, antifungal and anthelmintic activities of root barks of Uvaria bookeri and Uvaria narum. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 40:181-186.         [ Links ]

PERRY, B.D. & RANDOLPH, T.F. 1999. Improving assessment of the economics of parasitic diseases and their control in production animals. Veterinary Parasitology, 84:145-168.         [ Links ]

PRICHARD, R.K. 1990. Anthelmintic resistance. Veterinary Parasitology, 54:259-268.         [ Links ]

PUJOL, J. 2000. NaturAfrica: The herbalist handbook: Africa, medicinal plants. Durban: Healers Foundation.         [ Links ]

RAJ, R.K. 1975. Screening indigenous plants for anthelmintic activity against human Ascaris lumbricoides. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 19:47-49.         [ Links ]

RASOANAIVO, P. & RATSIMAMANGA-URVERG, S. 1993. Biological evaluation of plants with reference to the Malagasy flora. Madagascar: Napreca.         [ Links ]

SALIFOU, S. 1996. Nematodes et nematodoses du tube digestif des petits ruminants de sud Benin: taxonomie, epidemiologie et les facteurs de variation. Ph.D. thesis, University Anta Diop.         [ Links ]

SHAI, L.J. 2007. Characterization of compounds from Curtisia dentata (Cornaceae) active against Candida albicans. Ph.D. thesis, University of Pretoria.         [ Links ]

SHAI, L.J., McGAW, L.J., MASOKO, P. & ELOFF, J.N. 2008. Antifungal and antibacterial activity of seven traditionally used South African plant species active against Candida albicans. South African Journal of Botany. Digita object identifier: 10.1016/j.sajb. 2008.04.003        [ Links ]

SHARMA, L.D. 1993. Anthelmintic efficacy of Jantana capsules in crossbred cattle. Indian Veterinary Journal, 70:459-460.         [ Links ]

SIMPKIN, K.G. & COLES, G.C. 1981. The use of Caenorhabditis elegans for anthelmintic screening. Journal of Chemical Technology Biotechnology, 31:66-69.         [ Links ]

URQUHART, G.M., ARMOUR, J., DUNCAN, J.L., DUNN, A.M. & JENNINGS F.W. 1996. Veterinary Parasitology. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.         [ Links ]

WOLSTENHOLME, A.J., FAIRWEATHER, I., PRICHARD, R.K., VON SAMSON-HIMMELSTJERNA. G. & SANGSTER, N.C. 2004. Drug resistance in veterinary helminths. Trends in Parasitology, 20:515-523.         [ Links ]



Accepted for publication 13 October 2008-Editor



* Author to whom correspondence is to be directed. Email:

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License