SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.76 número1Persistence mechanisms in tick-borne diseasesA century of tick taxonomy in South Africa índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
Home Pagelista alfabética de revistas  

Servicios Personalizados



Links relacionados

  • En proceso de indezaciónCitado por Google
  • En proceso de indezaciónSimilares en Google


Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research

versión On-line ISSN 2219-0635
versión impresa ISSN 0030-2465

Onderstepoort j. vet. res. vol.76 no.1 Pretoria  2009




Canine babesiosis



J.P. Schoeman

Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110 South Africa




Babesiosis is a tick-borne disease affecting humans and many domestic and wild animals. Domestic animals showing appreciable morbidity and mortality include dogs, cats, cattle and horses. Both canine and feline babesiosis are diseases characterised by haemolytic anaemia, icterus and haemoglobinuria. Canine babesiosis can range from chronic or subclinical to peracute and fatal, depending on the virulence of the species and the susceptibility of the host. This paper deals with canine babesiosis with specific reference to pathogenesis, clinical findings, complications, diagnosis and treatment, as well as newly identified prognostic factors in Babesia rossi babesiosis.



“Full text available only in PDF format”




BIRKENHEUER, A.J., LEVY, M.G. & BREITSCHWERDT, E.B. 2004. Efficacy of combined atovaquone and azithromycin for therapy of chronic Babesia gibsoni (Asian genotype) infections in dogs. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 18: 494-498.         [ Links ]

BIRKENHEUER, A.J., NEEL, J., RUSLANDER, D., LEVY, M.G. & BREITSCHWERDT, E.B. 2004. Detection and molecular characterization of a novel large Babesia species in a dog. Veterinary Parasitology, 124:151-160.         [ Links ]

BIRKENHEUER, A.J., CORREA, M.T., LEVY, M.G. & BREIT- SCHWERDT, E.B. 2005. Geographic distribution of babesiosis among dogs in the United States and association with dog bites: 150 cases (2000-2003). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 227:942-947.         [ Links ]

BÖHM, M., LEISEWITZ, A.L., THOMPSON, P.N. & SCHOEMAN, J.P. 2006. Capillary and venous Babesia canis rossi parasitaemias and their association with outcome of infection and circulatory compromise. Veterinary Parasitology, 141:18-29.         [ Links ]

CAMACHO, A.T., PALLAS, E., GESTAL, J.J., GUITIAN, F.J., OLMEDA, A.S., TELFORD, S.R. & SPIELMAN, A. 2003. Ixodes hexagonus is the main candidate as vector of Theileria annae in northwest Spain. Veterinary Parasitology, 112:157-163.         [ Links ]

CONRAD, P., THOMFORD, J., YAMANE, I., WHITING, J., BOS-MA, L., UNO, T., HOLSHUH, H.J. & SHELLY, S. 1991. Hemolytic anemia caused by Babesia gibsoni infection in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 199:601-605.         [ Links ]

DE SCALLY, M.P., LEISEWITZ, A.L., LOBETTI, R.G. & THOMPSON, P.N. 2006. The elevated serum urea:creatinine ratio in canine babesiosis in South Africa is not of renal origin. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 77:175-178.         [ Links ]

EWING, S.A. 1966. Evaluation of methods used to detect Babesia canis infections in dogs. Cornell Veterinarian, 56:211-220.         [ Links ]

FUKUMOTO, S., SUZUKI, H., IGARASHI, I. & XUAN, X. 2005. Fatal experimental transplacental Babesia gibsoni infections in dogs. International Journal for Parasitology, 35:1031-1035.         [ Links ]

FURLANELLO, T., FIORIO, F., CALDIN, M., LUBAS, G. & SOLANO-GALLEGO, L. 2005. Clinicopathological findings in naturally occurring cases of babesiosis caused by large form Babesia from dogs of northeastern Italy. Veterinary Parasitology, 134:77-85.         [ Links ]

IRWIN, P.J. & HUTCHINSON, G.W. 1991. Clinical and pathological findings of Babesia infection in dogs. Australian Veterinary Journal, 68:204-209.         [ Links ]

JACOBSON, L.S., REYERS, F., BERRY, W.L. & VILJOEN, E. 1996. Changes in haematocrit after treatment of uncomplicated canine babesiosis: a comparison between diminazene and trypan blue, and an evaluation of the influence of parasitaemia. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 67:77-82.         [ Links ]

JACOBSON, L.S., LOBETTI, R.G. & VAUGHAN-SCOTT, T. 2000. Blood pressure changes in dogs with babesiosis. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 71:14-20.         [ Links ]

JACOBSON, L.S. 2006. The South African form of severe and complicated canine babesiosis: clinical advances 1994-2004. Veterinary Parasitology, 138:126-139.         [ Links ]

KELLER, N., JACOBSON, L.S., NEL, M., DE CLERQ, M., THOMPSON, P.N. & SCHOEMAN, J.P. 2004. Prevalence and risk factors of hypoglycemia in virulent canine babesiosis. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 18:265-270.         [ Links ]

KETTNER, F., REYERS, F. & MILLER, D. 2003. Thrombocytopaenia in canine babesiosis and its clinical usefulness. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 74:63-68.         [ Links ]

KJEMTRUP, A.M., WAINWRIGHT, K., MILLER, M., PENZHORN, B.L. & CARRENO, R.A. 2006. Babesia conradae, sp. nov., a small canine Babesia identified in California. Veterinary Parasitology, 138:103-111.         [ Links ]

LEISEWITZ, A.L., JACOBSON, L.S., DE MORAIS, H.S. & REYERS, F. 2001. The mixed acid-base disturbances of severe canine babesiosis. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 15:445-452.         [ Links ]

LOBETTI, R.G. & JACOBSON, L.S. 2001. Renal involvement in dogs with babesiosis. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 72:23-28.         [ Links ]

LOBETTI, R.G., DVIR, E. & PEARSON, J. 2002. Cardiac troponins in canine babesiosis. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 16:63-68.         [ Links ]

LOBETTI, R.G. 2006. Babesiosis, in Infectious diseases of the dog and cat, 3rd ed., edited by C.E. Greene. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.         [ Links ]

LORETTI, A.P. & BARROS, S.S. 2005. Hemorrhagic disease in dogs infected with an unclassified intraendothelial piroplasm in southern Brazil. Veterinary Parasitology, 134:193-213.         [ Links ]

MACINTIRE, D.K., BOUDREAUX, M.K., WEST, G.D., BOURNE, C., WRIGHT, J.C. & CONRAD, P.A. 2002. Babesia gibsoni infection among dogs in the southeastern United States. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 220:325-329.         [ Links ]

MATJILA, P.T., PENZHORN, B.L., BEKKER, C.P., NIJHOF, A.M. & JONGEJAN, F. 2004. Confirmation of occurrence of Babesia canis vogeli in domestic dogs in South Africa. Veterinary Parasitology, 122:119-125.         [ Links ]

MATJILA, P.T., LEISEWITZ, A.L., JONGEJAN, F. & PENZHORN, B.L. 2008. Molecular detection of tick-borne protozoal and ehrlichial infections in domestic dogs in South Africa. Veterinary Parasitology, 155:152-157.         [ Links ]

MILLER, D.B., SWAN, G.E., LOBETTI, R.G. & JACOBSON, L.S. 2005. The pharmacokinetics of diminazene aceturate after intramuscular administration in healthy dogs. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 76:146-150.         [ Links ]

MOHR, A.J., LOBETTI, R.G. & VAN DER LUGT, J.J. 2000. Acute pancreatitis: a newly recognised potential complication of canine babesiosis. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 71:232-239.         [ Links ]

MUHLNICKEL, C.J., JEFFERIES, R., MORGAN-RYAN, U.M. & IRWIN, P.J. 2002. Babesia gibsoni infection in three dogs in Victoria. Australian Veterinary Journal, 80:606-610.         [ Links ]

NEL, M., LOBETTI, R.G., KELLER, N. & THOMPSON, P.N. 2004. Prognostic value of blood lactate, blood glucose and hematocrit in canine babesiosis. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 18:471-476.         [ Links ]

SCHOEMAN, J.P., REES, P. & HERRTAGE, M.E. 2007. Endocrine predictors of mortality in canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis rossi. Veterinary Parasitology, 148:75-82.         [ Links ]

SCHOEMAN, J.P. & HERRTAGE, M.E. 2008. Adrenal response to the low dose ACTH stimulation test and the cortisol-to-adrenocorticotrophic hormone ratio in canine babesiosis. Veterinary Parasitology, 154:205-213.         [ Links ]

UILENBERG, G., FRANSSEN, F.F., PERIE, N.M., & SPANJER, A.A. 1989. Three groups of Babesia canis distinguished and a proposal for nomenclature. Veterinary Quarterly, 11:33-40.         [ Links ]

VAN HEERDEN, J., REYERS, F., & STEWART, C.G. 1983. Treatment and thrombocyte levels in experimentally induced canine ehrlichiosis and canine babesiosis. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 50:267-270.         [ Links ]

VERDIDA, R.A., HARA, O.A., XUAN, X., FUKUMOTO, S., IGARASHI, I., ZHANG, S., DONG, J., INOKUMA, H., KABEYA, H., SATO, Y., MORITOMO, T., MARUYAMA, S., CLAVERIA, F. & NAGASAWA, H. 2004. Serodiagnosis of Babesia gibsoni infection in dogs by an improved enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay with recombinant truncated P50. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 66:1517-1521.         [ Links ]

WELZL, C., LEISEWITZ, A.L., JACOBSON, L.S., VAUGHAN-SCOTT, T. & MYBURGH, E. 2001. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple-organ damage/dysfunction in complicated canine babesiosis. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 72:158-162.         [ Links ]

Creative Commons License Todo el contenido de esta revista, excepto dónde está identificado, está bajo una Licencia Creative Commons