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Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research

On-line version ISSN 2219-0635
Print version ISSN 0030-2465

Onderstepoort j. vet. res. vol.76 n.2 Pretoria  2009

 

1984-1985

Small outbreaks of RVF were reported from the Utrecht district of Natal and the Kroonstad and Henneman districts in the Highveld region. A foetus from the Transvaal region tested positive for RVF (Figure 14) (Directorate of Veterinary Services 1985a). The report by the Division of Veterinary Services for 1984 (Directorate of Veterinary Services 1985c) reported no RVF outbreaks during the period July-December 1984.

 

 

1985-1986

In this period, 13 outbreaks of RVF were reported from the Estcourt, Utrecht and Ubombo districts of the Natal region (Director of the Natal region of Veterinary Services 1986b) and seven outbreaks from the Port Elizabeth, Middelburg, Beaufort West, Hofmeyer and Graaff Reinett districts of the Eastern Cape and Karoo region (Figure 15) (Director of the Eastern Cape and Karoo region of Veterinary Services 1986; Directorate of Veterinary Services 1986b). The 1985 annual report to the OIE (Directorate of Veterinary Services 1985b) reports one outbreak during August 1985, without giving a geographic location. However, the monthly report from Natal for August 1985 indicated that an outbreak in the Estcourt district occurred during this month. The 1986 annual report to the OIE (Directorate of Veterinary Services 1986a) reported two outbreaks during February 1986. The monthly reports from Natal (Director of the Natal region of Veterinary Services 1986a) indicated outbreaks in Ubombo during February 1986 and in Hlabisa during March 1986.

 

 

1986-1987

No cases of RVF were reported for this period (Directorate of Veterinary Services 1987). The annual disease report to the OIE for 1987 reported one case in March 1987, but did not give a geographic location (Directorate of Veterinary Services 1989a); the year of last occurrence was given as 1986.

1987-1988

The annual disease report to the OIE for 1987 mentioned one case in October 1987, but did not give a geographic location (Directorate of Veterinary Services 1989b).

1988-1989

Although the climatic conditions were seemingly favourable for the disease and the Veterinary Services had predicted outbreaks, none were reported (Directorate of Animal Health 1989).

1989-1990

The annual report to the OIE (Directorate of Veterinary Services 1989b) indicated one outbreak between January and March 1989, but without any indication of the geographic location of the outbreak.

1990-1991

During February 1991 five outbreaks of RVF were reported from the Estcourt district and two from the Kliprivier district of Natal (Figure 16) (Director of the Natal region of Veterinary Services 1991).

 

 

1991-1998

According to the Directorate of Animal Health/Veterinary Services Disease database (Directorate of Animal Health 2012), no outbreaks of RVF were reported.

1999

During January 1999 RVF was diagnosed in captive African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in a boma (holding pen for wildlife) at Skukuza in the Kruger National Park (Figure 17) (State Veterinarian Skukuza 2000; Directorate of Animal Health 2012). Six buffalo cows aborted and positive virus isolation confirmed RVF. The virus was determined to belong to lineage C (Grobbelaar et al. 2011).

 

 

2000-2007

No outbreaks of RVF were reported during this period (Directorate of Animal Health 2012).

2008

Between January and June 2008 RVF was reported from the Nkomazi, Mbombela and Dr J.S. Moroka Local Municipalities in Mpumalanga, the Bela-Bela and Ba-Phalaborwa Local Municipalities in Limpopo, the Nokeng tsa Taemane, Tshwane and Kungwini Local Municipalities in Gauteng and the Potchefstroom, Moretele and Madibeng Local Municipalities in the North West Province (Figure 18) (Directorate of Animal Health 2012). A total of 15 outbreaks were reported, with 353 animal cases and 103 animal deaths. The species affected were cattle, goats, sheep and African buffalo (Directorate of Animal Health 2012). The National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) (2008) reported 14 human cases during 2008 and lineage C RVF viruses were isolated from humans, cattle and African buffalo (Grobbelaar et al. 2011).

 

 

2009

During February to June 2009 several outbreaks of RVF occurred in the Ingwe, Kwa Sani and uMngeni Local Municipalities in KwaZulu-Natal and the Matatiele Local Municipality in the Eastern Cape province, and one outbreak occurred in the Mbombela Local Municipality in Mpumalanga (Figure 19) (Directorate of Animal Health 2012). A total of 19 outbreaks were reported, with 210 animal cases and 66 animal deaths. The species affected were cattle and sheep (Directorate of Animal Health 2012). A lineage C RVF virus was isolated from several human cases (Grobbelaar et al. 2011).

 

 

During October to November 2009 the Northern Cape province experienced RVF outbreaks associated with irrigated lands along the lower Orange River in the Kakamas region (Directorate of Animal Health 2012). A total of 19 outbreaks were reported, with 53 animal cases and 35 animal deaths. The species affected were cattle, sheep and goats (Directorate of Animal Health 2012). The NICD (2009)

2010

A major epidemic of RVF occurred during the first half of 2010. It was first reported from the Bultfontein and Brandfort areas of the Free State and ultimately spread to all provinces except KwaZulu-Natal. The Free State, Northern Cape and Eastern Cape were the most severely affected (Figure 20). The epidemic started in February 2010 and continued until June 2010. For the first time in the history of RVF in South Africa several outbreaks occurred in the winter rainfall region of the Western Cape (Directorate of Animal Health 2012). The virus responsible for the 2010 outbreaks belonged to lineage H (Grobbelaar et al. 2011).

 

 

During this period a total of 484 outbreaks were reported, with 14 342 animal cases and 8877 animal deaths. The epidemic affected mostly sheep (13 117 cases reported) followed by cattle and goats. Indigenous wildlife that were reported to have shown signs of RVF during 2010 were springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis), blesbok (Damaliscus dorcas dorcas), bontebok (D. dorcas phillipsi), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), African buffalo, sable (Hippotragus niger), kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) and gemsbok (Oryx gazella). Some exotic species that were affected were fallow deer (Cervus dama), llama (Lama glama), alpaca (Lama pacos), Asian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and ibex (Capra ibex). In most of these indigenous and exotic wildlife species these were the first documented cases of RVF (Directorate of Animal Health 2012).

2011

During 2011 a smaller epidemic of RVF occurred, involving mostly the Eastern Cape and some outbreaks in the Western and the Northern Cape provinces (Figure 21). A total of 135 outbeaks were reported, involving 4139 animals. Sheep were most affected (3491 animals), followed by goats (327 animals) and 195 cattle (Directorate of Animal Health 2012).

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