SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.75 issue2In vitro isolation of Ehrlichia ruminantium from ovine blood into Ixodes scapularis (IDE8) cell culturesPrevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi infections in horses belonging to resource-poor farmers in the north-eastern Free State Province, South Africa author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research

On-line version ISSN 2219-0635
Print version ISSN 0030-2465

Onderstepoort j. vet. res. vol.75 n.2 Cape Town  2008




Acute and long-term effects of exposure to sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) in sheep



S.R. GooneratneI, II; C.T. EasonII, III; L. MilneII; D.G. ArthurIV; C. CookV; M. WickstromII, VI

ICell Biology Group, Agriculture and Life Sciences Division, P.O. Box 84, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, Canterbury, New Zealand
IICENTOX (Centre for Environmental Toxicology), Landcare Research, P.O. Box 69, Lincoln 7647, New Zealand
IIIBio-Protection and Ecology Division, Lincoln University/Te Whare Wanaka o Aoraki, P.O. Box 84, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7608, Canterbury, New Zealand
IVLabWorks Animal Health Ltd, P.O. Box 113, Lincoln University, New Zealand
VHort+Research, Ruakura Research Centre, Hamilton, New Zealand
VIWestern College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada




Acute and long-term effects of a single, relatively high oral dose (0.25 and 0.30 mg/kg) of sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) on the survival and productivity of sheep were evaluated to establish a better understanding of 1080 poisoning and identify more specific changes diagnostic of toxicosis.
In survivors, clinical signs of acute 1080 toxicosis such as salivation and lethargy were generally very mild. Fasted animals were more prone to 1080 toxicity. In animals that died, more severe signs, including tachypnoea, dyspnoea, and tremors occurred for 15-20 min prior to death. 1080 concentrations were highest in the blood > heart > skeletal muscle > liver. 1080 could not be detected in any of these organs of the animals that survived. Serum citrate concentrations were elevated for 4 days after dosing. No clinical or biochemical abnormalities were found in any animal after 4 days. Histopathological lesions were most marked in the heart and lung with inflammation, necrosis, and scattered foci of fibrous tissue in the myocardium, pulmonary oedema and inflammation of the lung. No adverse long-term effects on general health or reproductive performance were observed in any sheep that survived the first 4 days following exposure to 1080.
The most reliable diagnostic indicators of 1080 exposure in sheep were measurement of its residues in blood, skeletal muscle and ruminal contents, increased serum citrate concentration, elevated heart rate, and characteristic electrocardiograph changes (up to 4 days after exposure). Death from 1080 is most likely to occur within 96 h, and animals that survived this period appeared normal.

Keywords: Cardiotoxicity, sheep, sodium monofluoroacetate, vertebrate pest control



“Full text available only in PDF format”




AKIRA, T., HENRY, D., BALDWIN, R.A. & WASTERLAIN, C.G. 1994. Nitric oxide participates in excitotoxin mechanisms induced by chemical hypoxia. Brain Research, 645:285-290.         [ Links ]

ANNISON, E.F., HILL, K.J., LINDSAY, D.B. & PETERS, R.A. 1960. Fluoroacetate poisoning in sheep. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 70:145-155.         [ Links ]

BOARD, P.G. & PETER, D.W. 1976. A simple test for glutathione peroxidase and selenium deficiency. Veterinary Record, 99: 144.         [ Links ]

BONOFOCO, E., KRANIC, D., ANKARCRONA, M., NICOTERA, P. & LIPTON, S. 1995. Apoptosis and necrosis: two distinct events induced, respectively, by mild and intense insults with NMDA or nitric oxide/superoxides in cortical cell cultures. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 92: 7162-7166.         [ Links ]

BOWSAKOWSKI, T. & LEVIN, A.A. 1986. Serum citrate as a peripheral indicator of fluorocitrate toxicity in rats and dogs. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 85:428-436.         [ Links ]

BUFFA, P., GUARRIERO-BOBYLEVA, V. & COSTA-TLOZZO, R. 1973. Metabolic effect of fluoroacetate poisoning in animals. Fluoride, 6:224-227.         [ Links ]

CHI, C.H., CHEN, K.W., CHAN, S.H., WU, M.H. & HUANG, J.J. 1996. Clinical presentation and prognostic factors in sodium monofluoroacetate intoxication. Journal of Toxicology and Clinical Toxicology, 34:707-712.         [ Links ]

CHOI, D.W. 1988. Glutamate neurotoxicity and diseases of the nervous system. Neuron, 1:623-634.         [ Links ]

COHEN, M.I. 1981. Central determinants of respiratory rhythm. Annual Review of Physiology, 43:91-123.         [ Links ]

COOK, C., EASON, C.T., WICKSTROM, M. & DEVINE, C.D. 2000. Development of antidotes for sodium monofluoroacetate (1080). Biomarkers, 6:1-4.         [ Links ]

EASON, C.T. 1997. Sodium monofluoroacetate toxicology in relation to its use in New Zealand. Australasian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 3:57-64.         [ Links ]

EASON, C.T., GOONERATNE, R., FITZGERALD, H., WRIGHT, G. & FRAMPTON, C. 1994. Persistence of sodium monofluoroacetate in livestock animals and risks to humans. Human and Experimental Toxicology, 13:119-122.         [ Links ]

EASON, C.T., WICKSTROM, M., TURCK, P. & WRIGHT, G.R.G. 1999. A review of recent regulatory and environmental toxicology studies on 1080: results and implications. New Zealand Journal of Ecology, 23:129-137.         [ Links ]

EASON, C.T. & TURCK, P.A. 2002. A 90-day toxicology evaluation of compound 1080 (sodium monofluoroacetate) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicological Sciences, 69:439-447.         [ Links ]

EGEKEZE, J.O. & OEHME, F.W. 1979. Sodium monofluoroacetate (SMFA, Compound 1080): A literature review. Veterinary and Human Toxicology, 21:411-416.         [ Links ]

GAI, W.P. & BLESSING, W.W. 1996. Human brainstem pre-ganglionic parasympathetic neurons localised by markers for nitric oxide synthesis. Brain Research, 119:1145-1152.         [ Links ]

GARDNER, P.R., NGUYEN, D. & WHITE, C.W. 1994. Aconitase is a sensitive and critical target of oxygen poisoning in cultured mammalian cells and in rat lungs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 91:12248-12252.         [ Links ]

GOONERATNE, R., EASON, C.T., DICKSON, C., FITZGERALD, H., WRIGHT, G. & WALLACE, O. 1994. Persistence of 1080 in rabbits after lethal and sublethal doses. Proceedings of the Science Workshop on 1080. Royal Society of New Zealand Miscellaneous Series, 28:67-74.         [ Links ]

HASSEL, B., BACHELARD, H., JONES, P., FONNUM, F. & SONNEWALD, U. 1997. Trafficking of amino acids between neurons and glia in vivo. Effects of inhibition of glial metabolism in vivo by fluorocitrate. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, 17:1230-1238.         [ Links ]

JONES, T.C., HUNT, R.D. & KING, N.W. 1997. Diseases due to protozoa, in Veterinary Pathology, 6th ed. Baltimore, USA: Williams and Wilkins.         [ Links ]

KOENIG, H. 1969. Acute axonal dystophy caused by fluoroci-trate. The role of mitochondrial swelling. Science, 164:310-312.         [ Links ]

LEMAIRE, L., ARELLANO, M., MALET-MARTINO, M.C., MAR-TINO, R., DE FORNI, M. 1994. Cardiotoxicity of 5-fluorouracil: a question of formulations. Bulletin Cancer, 81:1057- 1059.         [ Links ]

MATSUBARA, I., KAMIYA, J. & IMAI, S. 1980. Cardiotoxic effects of 5-fluorouracil in the guinea pig. Japanese Journal of Pharmacology, 30:871-879.         [ Links ]

MCDOWELL, E.M. 1972a. Light- and electron-microscopic studies of the rat kidney after administration of inhibitors of the citric acid cycle in vivo. Changes in the proximal convoluted tubule during fluorocitrate poisoning. Journal of Pathology, 108:303-318.         [ Links ]

MCDOWELL, E.M. 1972b. Light- and electron-microscopic studies of the rat kidney after administration of inhibitors of the citric acid cycle in vivo. I. Effects of sodium monofluoroacetate on the proximal convoluted tubule. American Journal of Pathology, 66:513-530.         [ Links ]

MEAD, R.J., MOULDEN, D.L. & TWIGG, L.F. 1985. Significance of sulfhydryl compounds in the manifestation of fluoroacetate toxicity to the rat, brush-tail possum, woylie and western grey kangaroo. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences, 38:139-149.         [ Links ]

NICOLETTI, F., BRUNO, V., COPANI, A., CASABONA, G. & KNOPFEL, T. 1996. Metabotropic glutamate receptors: a new target for the therapy of neurodegenerative disorders? Trends in Neuroscience, 19:267-271.         [ Links ]

OLNEY, J. 1990. Excitotoxin mediated neuron death in young and old age. Progress in Brain Research, 86:37-49.         [ Links ]

PETERS, R.A. 1963. Biochemical lesion and lethal synthesis. New York: Pergman Press.         [ Links ]

RAMMELL, D. 1993. Persistence of compound 1080 in sheep muscle and liver. Surveillance, 20:20-21.         [ Links ]

ROY, A., TAITELMAN, V. & BURSTEIN, S. 1980. Evaluation of the role of ionized calcium in sodium fluoroacetate (1080) poisoning. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 56:216-220.         [ Links ]

SCHULTZ, R., COETZER, J.A., KELLERMAN, T.S. & NAUDE, T.W. 1982. Observations on the clinical, cardiac, and histopathological effects of fluoroacetate in sheep. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 49:237-245.         [ Links ]

SCHUMED, L.C., ALBERTSON, C. & SLIKKER, W. 1997. Fluoro-Jade: a novel fluorochrome for the sensitive and reliable histochemical localisation of neuronal degeneration. Brain Research, 751:37-46.         [ Links ]

SMITH, F.A., GARDNER, D.E., YUILE, C.L., DE LOPEZ, O.H. & HALL, L.L. 1977. Defluorination of fluoroacetate in the rat. Life Science, 20:1131-1138.         [ Links ]

SULLIVAN, J.L., SMITH, F.A. & GARMAN, R.H. 1979. Effects of fluoroacetate on the testis of the rat. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 56:201-207.         [ Links ]

TWIGG, L.E., KING, D.R. & BRADLEY, A.J. 1988. The effect of sodium monofluoroacetate on plasma testosterone concentration in Tiliqua rugosa (Gray). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 91:343-347.         [ Links ]

WHITTEM, J.H. & MURRAY, L.R. 1963. The chemistry and pathology of Georgina river poison. Australian Veterinary Journal, 39:168-173.         [ Links ]

YAMAMOTO, H. 1992. Protective effects of N-nitro-L-arginine against cyanide induced convulsions in mice. Toxicology, 71: 277-283.         [ Links ]



Accepted for publication 14 April 2008-Editor

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License