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Historia

On-line version ISSN 2309-8392

Historia vol.54 n.1 Durban  2009

 

GANDHI AND INDIAN NATIONALISM IN SOUTH AFRICA

 

Periodisation, cultural construction and representation of ANC masculinities through dress, gesture and Indian nationalist influence

 

Periodisering, kulturele konstruksie en voorstelling van ANC manlikhede deur kleredrag, gebare en die Indiese Nasionalistiese invloed

 

 

Raymond Suttner

Raymond Suttner is Professor and Head, Walter and Albertina Sisulu Knowledge and Heritage Unit, School for Graduate Studies, College of Human Sciences, University of South Africa Email: suttnrs@unisa ac za and rsuttner@worldonline co za Author of The ANC-led Underground up to 1976. A Social and Historical Study (Jacana, Johannesburg; Lynn Rienner, New York and London; Tulika, New Delhi, 2008)

 

 


ABSTRACT

This article attempts to address the development of the ANC nationalist struggle and accompanying gender issues, especially concepts of manhood, through cultural factors, in particular dress. It argues that what is worn by people constitutes a historical archive distinct from the written and spoken word that can enrich our interpretation of historical periods and often adds complexity to the way we read these. In particular, the adoption of suits by early ANC delegations is argued to signify more than conforming to imperialist dictates and "begging", it means wearing the attire of the "ruling class". It revisits Chief Albert Luthuli and in his dress reads ambiguities in his stance towards potential militarisation. Likewise, the article considers the development of specific gestures, the use of the clenched fist in various ways, the development of the toyi-toyi as signifying different periods and meanings of the struggle, often having gender implications. Much that is advanced is not presented as an authoritative reinterpretation, but is intended to indicate the multiplicity of meanings that may be read into the same events or lives of people. This is a challenge to expand the range of sources which are drawn on for our historiography and related studies.

Key words: ANC; cultures of liberation struggle; dress; gender; gestures; Indian; liberation struggle; masculinity; nationalist movements


OPSOMMING

Hierdie artikel spreek die ontwikkeling van die ANC se nasionalistiese stryd en meegaande gender kwessies (veral konsepte van manlikheid) deur kulturele faktore soos spesifiek kleredrag, aan. Dit betoog dat dit wat deur mense gedra word, 'n historiese argief uitmaak wat los staan van die geskrewe en gesproke woord, en wat ons interpretasie van historiese tydperke kan verryk. Dit kan tegelykertyd ook die manier waarop ons dit interpreteer, meer kompleks maak. In die besonder word aangevoer dat die gebruik van pakke klere deur vroeë ANC-afvaardigings meer beteken het as bloot die konformering aan imperiale voorskrifte en "bedelary" - dit het naamlik beteken dat die kleding van die "heersende klas" aangeneem is. Daar word ook weer gekyk na hoofman Albert Luthuli en uit sy kleredrag word dubbelsinnighede in sy houding jeens moontlike militarisasie afgelei. Op soortgelyke wyse skenk die artikel oorweging aan die ontwikkeling van die gebruik van spesifieke gebare, byvoorbeeld die gebalde vuis op verskillende maniere, en die ontwikkeling van toyi-toyi deur verskillende tydperke en betekenisse van die bevrydingstryd, dikwels met gender betekenisse. Baie van wat voorgehou word, word nie as 'n outoritêre herinterpretasie voorgestel nie, maar word gebruik om te illustreer dat 'n wye verskeidenheid van betekenisse uit dieselfde gebeure en lewens van mense afgelei kan word. Die uitdaging waarvoor dit ons stel, is om die omvang van bronne waarop ons vir ons historiografiese en verwante studies staatmaak, uit te brei.

Sleutelwoorde: ANC; bevrydingstryd; bevrydingstrydkulture; gebare; gender; Indies; kleredrag; manlikheid; nasionalistiese bewegings


 

 

Full text available only in PDF format.

 

* Although I do think I am doing some new things in this article, I am aware that there is a huge amount of material that I leave unexplored, for example, the role of clothes and missions, the role of clothes as one of the means of exerting colonial control, the role of clothes in the presentation of various chiefs to colonial authorities in European dress in most but not all cases I therefore see this as an opening of an enquiry in South African resistance historiography into an alternative archive of dress and clothing, as Jean Allman calls it See: J Allman (ed), Fashioning Africa. Power and the Politics of Dress (Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 2004), p 5 While this is work in progress I am aware that there is a great deal of literature, especially on Indian people in South Africa, that has not been encompassed in this article, because it represents the early stages of research But I am already indebted to Greg Cuthbertson, Omar Badsha, and Peter Limb, Enuga Reddy, Sandra Klopper and Eric Itzkin who have engaged me in some of the issues that are canvassed Discussions with Nomboniso Gasa have helped clarify some of the changing cultural influences which I raise I am also indebted to picture researcher Rita Potenza whose collection of photographs opened new lines of enquiry Lulu van Molendorff has improved the text by careful editing Since this article has been written, a new book by Robert Ross, Clothing. A Global History (Polity, Cambridge, 2008) appeared Time has not permitted adequate examination of its relevance to this work
1 E Unterhalter, "The Work of the Nation: Heroic Masculinity in South African Autobiographical Writing of the Anti-Apartheid Struggle", The European Journal of Development Research 12, 2, 2000, pp 157-178;         [ Links ] N Erlank, "Gender and Masculinity in South African Nationalist Discourse, 1912-1950", Feminist Studies, 29, 3, 2003, pp 653-672;         [ Links ] R Suttner, The ANC-led Undergound up to 1976. A Social and Historical Study (Jacana Media, Johannesburg; Lynn Rienner, New York and London; Tulika, Delhi, 2008);         [ Links ] R Suttner's forthcoming "The Jacob Zuma Rape Trial: Power and ANC Masculinities"
2 The term "hegemonic masculinity", referring to a male gender hierarchy, has been popularised by R W Connell, although used by others before him It argues that within any community of men there is a hierarchy, and some men, representing particular modes of behaviour and other characteristics, are hegemonic Those at the bottom of the hierarchy are the marginalised who depart from the norms established by those who are hegemonic See: R W Connell, Masculinities (Polity Press, Cambridge, 2005)         [ Links ]
3 Unterhalter, "The Work of the Nation", p 163ff
4 Suttner, "The Jacob Zuma Rape Trial"
5 I think most South Africans are unaware or there has been little written in the country and elsewhere about the establishment of the Indian National Army by Subhas Chandra Bose See below
6 J Tosh, Manliness and Masculinities in Nineteenth-Century Britain. Essays on Gender, Family and Empire (Pearson and Longman, Edinburgh, 2005), p 5         [ Links ]
7 Personal communication with Greg Cuthbertson
8 S Walby, "Gender Approaches to Nations and Nationalism", in G Delanty and K Kumar (eds), The Sage Handbook of Nations and Nationalism (Sage, London, 2006), p 119         [ Links ]
9 Walby, "Gender Approaches to Nations and Nationalism", p 118
10 Walby, "Gender Approaches to Nations and Nationalism", p 119; but see: J Nagel, "Nation", in M S Kimmel, J Hearn and R W Connell (eds), Handbook of Studies on Men and Masculinities (Sage and Thousand Oaks, London and New York, 2005), pp 397-413,         [ Links ] for a much less qualified perspective, essentialising the gender/nationalist relationship
11 A Odendaal, Vukani Bantu! The Beginnings of Black Protest Politics in South Africa to 1912 (David Philip, Cape Town and Johannesburg, 1984);         [ Links ] P Walshe, The Rise of African Nationalism in South Africa. The African National Congress 1912-1952 (Hurst, London, 1970), Chapter 1         [ Links ]
12 Odendaal, Vukani Bantu!, p 6 See also: D P Kunene, "Deculturation - The African Writer's Response", Africa Today, 15, 4, 1968, pp 23-24 "Hoho" was the mountain-forest stronghold where Chief Sandile was shot and killed Odendaal,         [ Links ] Vukani Bantu!, p 294 (note 20)
13 S Zizek (ed), Revolution at the Gates. A Selection of Writings from February to October 1917 (Verso, London and New York, 2002), p 12         [ Links ]
14 M Motlhabi, The Theory and Practice of Black Resistance to Apartheid. A Social-Ethical Analysis (Skotaville Publishers, Johannesburg, 1984), pp 38, 71         [ Links ]
15 R Ross, A Concise History of South Africa (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999), p 86         [ Links ]
16 S Johns, Protest and Hope. 1882-1934. From Protest to Challenge. A Documentary History of African Politics in South Africa 1882-1964 I (Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University, Stanford, California, 1972), pp 71-73         [ Links ]
17 See various works of Peter Limb: "Early ANC Leaders and the British World: Ambiguities and Identities", Historia, 47, 1, 2002, pp 56-82; "Sol Plaatje Reconsidered", African Studies, 62, 1, 2003, pp 33-52; "'No People Can Be Expected To Be Loyal under Such Difficulties': Ambiguities and Identities among Early ANC Leaders", Social Dynamics, 29, 10, 2003, pp 1-26
18 Z P Jordan, "The South African Liberation Movement and the Making of a New Nation", in M van Diepen (ed), The National Question in South Africa (Zed Books, London and New Jersey, 1988), pp 113-114         [ Links ]
19 Odendaal, Vukani Bantu!; Walshe, The Rise of African Nationalism in South Africa, Chapter 1; J T Campbell, Songs of Zion. The African Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States and South Africa (The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill and London, 1998)         [ Links ]
20 J C Wells, We Now Demand! The History of Women's Resistance to Pass Laws in South Africa (Witwatersrand University Press, Johannesburg, 1993)         [ Links ]
21 N Gasa, "Let Them Build More Gaols", in N Gasa (ed), Women in South African History (HSRC Press, Cape Town, 2007), pp 129-152         [ Links ]
22 E Itzkin, Gandhi's Johannesburg: Birthplace of Satyagraha (Witwatersrand University Press and Museum Africa, Johannesburg, 2000), pp 33-37, 82-85;         [ Links ] MK Gandhi, The Oxford India Gandhi. Essential Writings (Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2008), p 161         [ Links ]
23 Gandhi, The Oxford India Gandhi, p 103
24 See Gasa, "Let Them Build More Gaols", pp 137-138 on the class character of the 1913 movement, contesting Wells' suggestion that they were mainly middle-class women
25 Gasa, "Let Them Build More Gaols", p 139
26 See Allman, Fashioning Africa, pp 5-6
27 Allman, Fashioning Africa, pp 6-7; E Tarlo, Clothing Matters: Dress and Identity in India (London and Chicago, 1996); Tarlo, "Khadi" (unpublished), "This is sacred cloth" Accessed on 18 March 2008 at http://unjobs.org/authors/mkgandhi
28 See Limb, "Early ANC Leaders and the British World"; Limb, "No People Can Be Expected To Be Loyal"; C Saunders, "African Attitudes to Britain and the Empire before and after the South African War", in D Lowry (ed), The South African War Reappraised (Manchester University Press, Manchester and New York, 2000)         [ Links ]
29 See the careful discussion in AC Jordan, Towards an African Literature. The Emergence of Literary Forms in Xhosa (University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles and London, 1973), p 114;         [ Links ] a translation of the whole poem appears in R Kavanagh and Z S Qangule, The Making of a Servant and Other Poems (Ophir, Johannesburg, 1974) pp 14-16
30 See H K Bhabha, The Location of Culture (Routledge, London and New York, 2005), Chapter 4         [ Links ]
31 Allman, Fashioning Africa, p 5
32 M K Gandhi, The Essential Writings of Mahatma Gandhi (Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 1991), p 308ff         [ Links ]
33 Odendaal, Vukani Bantu!
34 See also Gasa, "Let Them Build More Gaols"
35 J Berger, About Looking (Vintage, New York, 1991 [1980]), p 38 Italics in original
36 Tarlo, "Khadi"
37 I am grateful to Sanghamitra Misra and Devaki Jain (personal communications in 2007) for first correcting my following of the association, among many historians of South Africa, of such a cap with Nehru and its origins in Gandhi, drawing on his peasant past
38 Tarlo, Clothing Matters, p 70
39 Allman, Fashioning Africa
40 Bhabha, The Location of Culture, p 122
41 Motlhabi, The Theory and Practice of Black Resistance to Apartheid
42 Limb, "Early ANC Leaders and the British World"
43 F Ginwala, "Women and the African National Congress: 1912-1943", Agenda, 8, 1990, pp 77-93         [ Links ]
44 M Kishwar, "Gandhi on Women", in A Raghuramajraju (ed), Debating Gandhi (Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2006), pp 269-323         [ Links ]
45 S Thapar-Bjorkert, Women in the Indian National Movement. Unseen Faces and Unheard Voices, 1930-42 (Sage, New Delhi and Thousand Hills, London, 2006)         [ Links ]
46 Campbell, Songs of Zion
47 Walshe, The Rise of African Nationalism in South Africa, p 257
48 Walshe, The Rise of African Nationalism in South Africa, p 259
49 Walshe, The Rise of African Nationalism in South Africa, p 257
50 Walshe, The Rise of African Nationalism in South Africa, pp 256-258
51 R First, Speech paying tribute to Walter Sisulu on his 70th birthday, 1982 CD in author's personal possession, held with permission of the Slovo family, but to be made publicly available in the near future
52 E Khuzwayo, Call Me Woman (Ravan Press, Johannesburg, 1985), p 139         [ Links ]
53 See, for example, C Glaser, Bo-Tsotsi. The Youth Gangs of Soweto, 1935-1976 (Heinemann, Portsmouth, NH; James Currey, Oxford; David Philip, Cape Town, 2000), pp 4, 50ff, 68-70
54 D Pinnock, Writing Left: the Radical Journalism of Ruth First (Unisa Press, Pretoria, 2007);         [ Links ] interview with Joe Matthews, Cape Town, 2002
55 Unterhalter, "The Work of the Nation", pp 167-169; J Slovo, The Unfinished Autobiography (Ravan Press and Hodder & Stoughton, Randburg and London, 1995)         [ Links ]
56 T Karis and G M Gerhart, Challenge and Violence 1953-1964 III (Stanford University, Stanford, California, 1977), pp 582-592;         [ Links ] A Luthuli, Luthuli. Speeches of Chief Albert John Luthuli (Madiba Publishers, Durban; UWC Historical and Cultural Centre, Bellville, 1991), p 57ff         [ Links ]
57 Personal communication
58 M Chatterjee, Gandhi's Diagnostic Approach Rethought. Exploring a Perspective on His Life and Work (Promilla Publishers and Bibliophile South Asia, New Delhi and Chicago, 2007), p 76;         [ Links ] see Gandhi, The Essential Writings of Mahatma Gandhi, pp 177-208
59 R Som, Gandhi, Bose, Nehru and the Making of the Modern Indian Mind (Penguin and Viking, New Delhi and New York, 2004), p 45 Emphasis inserted         [ Links ]
60 Som, Gandhi, Bose, Nehru and the Making of the Modern Indian Mind, Chapter 2
61 Som, Gandhi, Bose, Nehru and the Making of the Modern Indian Mind, p 45
62 DC Ellinwood, "Two Masculine Worlds Compared: the Army Cantonment and Jaipur Rajput Male Society in Late Colonial India", in K Roy (ed), War and Society in Colonial India, 1807-1945 (Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2006), pp 246-274         [ Links ]
63 S Das, Subhas. A Political Biography (Rupa, New Delhi, 2001), p 180         [ Links ]
64 Tarlo, Clothing Matters, p 70 and generally
65 Chatterjee, Gandhi's Diagnostic Approach Rethought, pp 80-81; S Bhana, Gandhi's Legacy: the Natal Indian Congress, 1894-1994 (University of Natal Press, Pietermaritzburg, 1997)
66 Chatterjee, Gandhi's Diagnostic Approach Rethought, p 83
67 RM Gatheru, Kenya: From Colonization to Independence, 1888-1970 (McFarland, Jefferson, NC, 2005), Chapter 18         [ Links ]
68 Gandhi, The Oxford India Gandhi, p 104
69 B Chandra, M Mukherjee, A Mukherjee, K N Panikkar and S Mahajan, India's Struggle for Independence (Penguin, New Delhi, 1988), p 129         [ Links ]
70 Vahed and Bhana warn against the neglect of influences from India on Gandhi's work in South Africa and treating his influence in India as being derived purely from South African experiences See S Bhana and G Vahed, The Making of a Political Reformer. Gandhi in South Africa, 1893-1914 (Manohar, New Delhi, 2005)         [ Links ]
71 Campbell, Songs of Zion, p 149
72 N Mandela, Long Walk to Freedom. The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela (Macdonald Purnell, Randburg, South Africa, 1994);         [ Links ] W Sisulu, I will go Singing. Walter Sisulu Speaks of His Life and the Struggle for Freedom in South Africa (Robben Island Museum in association with the Africa Fund, New York, 2001)         [ Links ]
73 Gandhi, The Essential Writings of Mahatma Gandhi, p 308
74 See above and Chatterjee, Gandhi's Diagnostic Approach Rethought, Chapter 6
75 Sisulu, I will go Singing, p 79
76 See Gandhi, The Oxford India Gandhi, p 101 and P Ruhe, Gandhi (Phaidon, London, 2001)
77 Mandela, Long Walk to Freedom, p 129
78 Gasa, "Let Them Build More Gaols", pp 140-141
79 R Suttner and J Cronin, 50 Years of the Freedom Charter (Ravan Press, Johannesburg, 2006)         [ Links ]
80 Wells, We Now Demand!
81 C Walker, Women and Resistance in South Africa, second edition (David Philip, Cape Town and Johannesburg; Monthly Review Press, New York, 1991)         [ Links ]
82 Walby, "Gender Approaches to Nations and Nationalism"
83 N Gasa (ed), Basus'iimbokodo, bawe'imilambo/They Remove Boulders and Cross Rivers. Women in South African History (HSRC Press, Cape Town, 2007)         [ Links ]
84 Suttner, The ANC-led Undergound up to 1976, Chapter 3
85 Suttner, The ANC-led Undergound up to 1976, Chapters 2, 3
86 Mandela, Long Walk to Freedom, p 146
87 B Magubane, P Bonner, J Sithole, P Delius, J Cherry, P Gibbs and T April, "The Turn to Armed Struggle", in SADET, The Road to Democracy in South Africa I (1960-1970) (South African Democracy Education Trust and Zebra Press, Cape Town, 2004), pp 53-146
88 P Delius, A Lion Amongst the Cattle. Reconstruction and Resistance in the Northern Transvaal (Heinemann, Portsmouth, NH; Ravan Press, Johannesburg; James Currey, Oxford, 1996); R Mhlaba, Raymond Mhlaba's Personal Memoirs: Reminiscing from Rwanda and Uganda (HSCR, Pretoria; Robben Island Museum, Robben Island, 2001), p 116; Magubane et al , "The Turn to Armed Struggle", p 53ff
89 Mandela, Long Walk to Freedom, pp 258-260
90 R Gandhi, "Foreword", in T Weber, Gandhi, Gandhism and the Gandhians (Roli Books, ew Delhi, 2006), p vii
91 Ghandhi, Mohandas; Ruhe, Gandhi
92 Magubane et al , "The Turn to Armed Struggle", p 62ff
93 Mandela, Long Walk to Freedom, p 260
94 See Magubane et al , "The Turn to Armed Struggle", pp 89-90 for opposing views
95 Mandela, Long Walk to Freedom, pp 258-260
96 For example, A Luthuli, Let my People Go. An Autobiography (Collins and Fontana Books, Glasgow, 1962), p 186         [ Links ]
97 Mandela, Long Walk to Freedom, p 273
98 G J Pillay, Voices of Liberation. Albert Luthuli (HSRC, Pretoria, 1993), p 47         [ Links ]
99 N Mandela, The Struggle is My Life. His Speeches and Writings Brought Together with Historical Documents and Accounts of Mandela in Prison by Fellow-Prisoners, third edition (International Defence and Aid Fund for Southern Africa, London, 1990), p 165ff         [ Links ]
100 Karis and Gerhart, Challenge and Violence, pp 798-299 Italics inserted
101 Quoted in Mandela, Long Walk to Freedom, p 261
102 Gandhi, Mohandas; Ruhe, Gandhi
103 Interview with Billy Nair, Cape Town, 2003; Suttner, The ANC-led Undergound up to 1976, Chapter 3
104 Chatterjee, Gandhi's Diagnostic Approach Rethought; Gandhi, The Oxford India Gandhi, editorial notes and introductions
105 Suttner, The ANC-led Undergound up to 1976, Chapter 3
106 Discussion with Nkululeko Luthuli and telephone conversation with Jane Ngobese, MaLuthuli, August 2008
107 Suttner, The ANC-led Undergound up to 1976
108 P Rule, with M Aitken and J van Dyk, Nokhukhanya. Mother of Light (The Grail, Underberg, 1993), p 131ff         [ Links ]
109 H Aptheker, The Nature of Democracy, Freedom and Revolution (International Publishers, New York, 1967);         [ Links ] Mandela, The Struggle is My Life, p 162
110 R Suttner, Inside Apartheid's Prison. Notes and Letters of Struggle (Ocean Press, Melbourne and New York; University of Natal Press, Pietermartizburg, 2001), p 19         [ Links ]
111 Technically a distinction was drawn between MK and ANC, which became of academic significance and was purely to protect those not engaged in armed or illegal activity from prosecution
112 Interview with Letsau Nelson Diale, in South African Democracy Education Trust (SADET), The Road to Democracy: South Africans Telling Their Stories I (Mutloatse Arts Heritage Trust, Johannesburg, 2008), p 92
113 Rounder CD, Radio Freedom. Voice of the African National Congress and the People's Army Umkhonto we Sizwe, 1996
114 African National Congress (ANC), "South Africa's Year of the Women A Call to the Peoples of the World, November 1, 1983" http://www.anc org za/ancdocs/history/or/or83=12 html
115 J Weir, "Chiefly Women and Women's Leadership in Pre-Colonial Southern Africa", in N Gasa (ed), Women in South African History (HSRC Press, Cape Town, 2007), pp 3-20         [ Links ]
116 C Twala and Q Koetaan, "The Toyi-Toyi Protest Culture in the 1980s: an Investigation into its Liberating and Unifying Powers", SA Journal of Cultural History, 20, 1, June 2006
117 Author's recollection of newspaper deadpan report around 1983
118 Suttner, The ANC-led Undergound up to 1976, Chapter 7
119 Erlank, "Gender and Masculinity in South African Nationalist Discourse"
120 See Tosh, Manliness and Masculinities in Nineteenth-Century Britain
121 Connell, Masculinities, p 84; SM Whitehead, Men and Masculinities (Polity, Cambridge, 2002)
122 M Sinhal, Colonial Masculinity. The Manly Englishman' and the Effeminate Bengali' in the Late Nineteenth Century (Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1995);         [ Links ] A Nandy, The Intimate Enemy. Loss and Recovery of Self Under Colonialism (Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2005 [1980]);         [ Links ] I Chowdhury, The Frail Hero and Virile History. Gender and the Politics of Culture in Colonial Bengal (Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1998)         [ Links ]
123 Personal communication with Harish Naraindas, New Delhi, October 2007
124 Ellinwood, "Two Masculine Worlds Compared"
125 M Morris, Every Step of the Way. The Journey to Freedom in South Africa (HSRC Press, Cape Town, 2004), p 152         [ Links ]
126 S Clingman, Bram Fischer. Afrikaner Revolutionary (David Philip, Cape Town; Mayibuye Books, Bellville; University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, 1998);         [ Links ] M Benson (ed), The Sun Will Rise. Statements from the Dock by Southern African Political Prisoners, revised edition (International Defence and Aid Fund, London, 1981)         [ Links ]
127 Mandela, The Struggle is My Life, pp 149-150, 161
128 Luthuli, Let my People Go, p 19 and generally.
129 PkI Seme, "Native Union", in S Johns, Protest and Hope, 1882-1934 (Hoover Institution, Stanford University, Stanford, California, 1972), p 72         [ Links ]
130 Email message from John Wright, 4 August 2008
131 Personal communication with Nkululeko Luthuli, June 2008
132 See J Guy, The Maphumulo Uprising: War, Law and Ritual in the Zulu Rebellion (University of KwaZulu-Natal Press, Pietermaritzburg, 2005)         [ Links ]
133 Mandela, Long Walk to Freedom, p 360
134 A Sampson, Mandela. The Authorised Biography (Harper Collins, London, 1999), p 196         [ Links ]
135 Unterhalter, "The Work of the Nation", p 163ff
136 Whitehead, Men and Masculinities, pp 114-115, Chapter 5 generally; Unterhalter, "The Work of the Nation"; Suttner, The ANC-led Undergound up to 1976, Chapter 6
137 B Turok, Nothing But the Truth. Behind the ANC's Struggle Politics (Jonathan Ball, Johannesburg and Cape Town, 2003), pp 130, 139         [ Links ]
138 Mandela, The Struggle is My Life, p 157
139 Thapar-Bjorkert, Women in the Indian National Movement, p 22 and generally
140 Sampson, Mandela, p 510
141 J Iliffe, Honour in African Society (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, 2005), p 3         [ Links ]
142 For example, episodes recounted in South African Democracy Education Trust (SADET), The Road to Democracy in South Africa II (1970-1980) (Unisa Press, Pretoria, 2007)
143 Suttner, "The Jacob Zuma Rape Trial"
144 See Suttner, "The Jacob Zuma Rape Trial"; Suttner, The ANC-led Undergound up to 1976, Chapter 6
145 N Gasa, "Dear Jacob, I Feel Pain", Mail and Guardian, 2006 Accessed on 8 January 2007 at http:www mg co za/printPage aspx?area=insight/insight commen and analysis/; Suttner, "The Jacob Zuma Rape Trial"
146 A A Mazrui, "Manhood, Warriorhood and Sex in Eastern Africa", in A A Mazrui (ed), The Warrior Tradition in Modern Africa (E J Brill, Leiden, 1977), pp 69-81         [ Links ]
147 E Sisulu, Walter and Albertina Sisulu. In Our Lifetime (David Philip, Claremont, 2002);         [ Links ] Suttner, The ANC-led Undergound up to 1976, Chapter 7; First, Speech paying tribute to Walter Sisulu
148 For example, G Houston, "The Post-Rivonia ANC/SACP Underground", in South African Democracy Education Trust, The Road to Democracy in South Africa I (1960-1970) (Zebra Press, Cape Town, 2004), p 644ff; Sisulu, Walter and Albertina Sisulu
149 Partly based on personal experience, after first being released from prison in 1983, when various delegations were sent to Winnie to ask her not to do this or that, activities running counter to approaches of the emerging mass movement which was supported by the ANC
150 E Gilbey, The Lady. The Life and Times of Winnie Mandela (Jonathan Cape, London, 1993);         [ Links ] M Meredith, Nelson Mandela. A Biography (Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1997), pp 290ff, 375ff, 434ff, 458ff         [ Links ]
151 R Alexander Simons, All My Life and All My Strength (STE Publishers, Johannesburg, 2004)         [ Links ]
152 Unterhalter, "The Work of the Nation", p 174
153 V Reddy and C Potgieter, "'Real Men Stand Up for the Truth': Discursive Meanings in the Jacob Zuma Rape Trial", Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies, 24, 4, 2006, pp 511-521
154 Interview with Walter Sisulu, Johannesburg, 1993
155 At the time of writing, early February 2009, much that has been said here relates to a past from which many draw sustenance and inspiration Regrettably the ANC today (and the leadership of its Communist and COSATU allies) is in disarray and in danger of descending into a position where it loses its considerable moral authority How this has arisen and possible, long-term ways of recovery require another article (But see the debates in Business Day, www bday co za, 8, 9, 10 July 2008 where some of the issues have been raised)

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