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Historia

versão On-line ISSN 2309-8392
versão impressa ISSN 0018-229X

Historia vol.53 no.2 Durban  2008

 

"Taal op Tuks": A reappraisal of the change in language policy at the University of Pretoria, 1932

 

"Taal op Tuks": 'n herwaardering van die Verandering in Taalbeleid aan die Universiteit van Pretoria, 1932

 

 

D.M. van der Merwe

D.M. van der Merwe is of the Department of Historical and Heritage Studies, University of Pretoria

 

 


ABSTRACT

This article is an attempt to explore the value, as well as possible pitfalls, in the use of official institutional histories in historical research and specifically the way in which a particular school of historical writing can influence the interpretation of certain events in the past. This article focuses on the events surrounding the change of the language policy of the University of Pretoria (UP) from a dual medium to an Afrikaans-only policy. It compares the account of the language question at UP as portrayed in the official commemorative book of the university, Ad Destinatum 1910-1960, with information from other sources, including Afrikaans and English newspaper reports, minutes of meetings of university bodies, oral and written testimonies of former students, as well as articles written on the language question at South African universities. It also examines some of the leading personalities who played a role in the language question.

Key words: Ad Destinatum; Afrikaans language; Afrikaans universities; Afrikaner historiography; Afrikaner nationalism; Afrikaner Rebellion (1914-1915); Anglicisation policy in education; Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902); bilingualism; British Imperialism; "broad South Africanism"; dual medium instruction; First World War (1914-1918); institutional histories; language question; tertiary education; Transvaal University College (TUC); university histories; University of Pretoria (UP); Voortrekker Universiteit


OPSOMMING

Hierdie artikel poog om die waarde, sowel as die moontlike slaggate van die gebruik van amptelike institusionele geskiedenisse in historiese navorsing te ondersoek en in die besonder te kyk hoe 'n spesifieke skool van geskiedskrywing die interpretasie van gebeure in die verlede kan beïnvloed. Hierdie artikel fokus op die gebeure rondom die verandering van die taalbeleid van die Universiteit van Pretoria (UP) van 'n dubbelmedium na 'n enkelmedium Afrikaanse beleid. Die uiteensetting van die taalkwessie soos weergegee in die amptelike gedenkbundel van die universiteit, Ad Destinatum 1910-1960, word met inligting uit ander bronne, insluitend Afrikaanse en Engelse koerantberigte, notules van vergaderings van universiteitsliggame, mondelinge en geskrewe getuienis van voormalige studente en reeds gepubliseerde artikels oor die taalvraagstuk by Suid-Afrikaanse universiteite vergelyk. Die rol van leiersfigure in die taalkwessie word ook ondersoek.

Sleutelwoorde: Ad Destinatum; Afrikaanse taal; Afrikaans; Afrikaanse universiteite; Afrikaner historiografie; Afrikaner Nasionalisme; Afrikaner Rebellie (1914-1915); Anglisasiebeleid in onderwys; Anglo-Boereoorlog (1899-1902); "breë Suid-Afrikanisme"; Britse Imperialisme; dubbelmedium onderrig; Eerste Wêreldoorlog (1914-1918); institusionele geskiedenis; taalvraagstuk; tersiêre onderwys; Transvaal(se) Universiteits-kollege (TUK); tweetaligheid; Universiteit van Pretoria (UP); universiteitsgeskiedenis; Voortrekker Universiteit


 

 

 Full text available only in PDF format.

 

 

1. Although classes at the Pretoria branch of the Transvaal University College already started in 1908, some people consider the actual founding only when the college received its own campus on the then eastern border of Pretoria in 1910.
2. J.C. Steyn, "Die taalstryd aan die Grey Universiteitskollege ten tyde van die rektoraat van D.F. Malherbe", Acta Academica, 25, 4, 1993, pp 87-116;         [ Links ] J.C. Steyn, "Die voertaalvraagstuk aan die Suid-Afrikaanse universiteite tot ongeveer 1930", Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Taalkunde, 18, 1993, pp 225-274;         [ Links ] J.C. Steyn, "'n Rektor skors sy voorganger - 'n onstuimige hoofstuk uit die taalstryd aan die UKOVS", Joernaal vir Eietydse Geskiedenis, 20, 1, Junie 1995.         [ Links ]
3. University of Pretoria Archives, Pretoria (hereafter UPA): A-7-1-1. Some of the latter documentation was only located as recently as 2007.
4. C.T. Mclntire "Hegemony and the Historiography of Universities: The Toronto Case", University of Toronto Quarterly, 72, 3, Summer 2003, pp 748-749.         [ Links ] Examples of histories of South African universities written by professional historians are: B.K. Murray, Wits The Early Years A History of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, and its Precursors 1896-1939 (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 1982);         [ Links ] B.K. Murray, Wits The "Open" Years. A History of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 1939-1959 (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 1997) and H.         [ Links ] Phillips, The University of Cape Town 1918-1948 the formative years (University of Cape Town, Cape Town, 1993).         [ Links ] In the foreword to Wits The "Open" Years, R.W. Charlton points out that extensive archival material as well as oral histories from former students and staff were used in the compilation of the history of the University of the Witwatersrand where the warts were "once again in plain sight".
5. J.W.N. Tempelhoff, Verhuidiglikte verlede. Die hermeneutiese verstaans-metode in Geskiedenis (Kleio, Vanderbijlpark, 2002), p 92;         [ Links ] R. Winks (ed), History and historiography (Garland Publishing, New York & London, 1984), pp 46-47.         [ Links ]
6. F. van der Watt, RectoresMagnifici (Protea Boekhuis, Pretoria, 2003), p 102.
7. A.N. Pelzer, Die Afrikaner-Broederbond Ferste 50 Jaar (Tafelberg, Kaapstad, 1979), p 10.
8. Van der Watt, Rectores Magnifici, pp 92-107.
9. F.A. Mouton (ed), History, Historians and Afrikaner Nationalism. Essays on the History Department of the University of Pretoria, 1909-1985 (Kleio, Vanderbijlpark, 2007), p 97.         [ Links ]
10. Mouton (ed), History, Historians and Afrikaner Nationalism, pp 14, 28.
11. A. Grundlingh, "Politics, Principles and Problems of a Profession: Afrikaner Historians and their Descipline, c.1920-c.1965", Perspectives in Education, 12, 1, 1990, pp 1-19.         [ Links ]
12. According to General Louis Botha "broad South Africanism" entailed that: "Whoever had chosen South Africa as a home should regard themselves as children from one family and be known as South Africans." H.W. van der Merwe (ed), Looking at the Afrikaner today (Tafelberg, Cape Town, 1975), p 20.         [ Links ]
13. Grundlingh, "Politics, Principles and Problems", pp 1-19.
14. Mouton (ed), History, Historians and Afrikaner Nationalism, p 28; F.A. van Jaarsveld, Afrikanergeskiedskrywing verlede, hede en toekoms (Lex Patria, Johannesburg, 1992), p 61.         [ Links ]
15. Mouton (ed), History, Historians and Afrikaner Nationalism, p 96.
16. Mouton (ed), History, Historians and Afrikaner Nationalism, pp 89-96, 107; Van Jaarsveld, Afrikanergeskiedskrywing, pp 57-58.
17. Van der Merwe (ed), Looking at the Afrikaner today, pp 22-24.
18. Mouton (ed), History, Historians and Afrikaner Nationalism, p 119.
19. Grundlingh, "Politics, Principles and Problems", pp 1-19; Mouton (ed), History, Historians and Afrikaner Nationalism, pp 119-120; Van Jaarsveld, Afrikanergeskiedskrywing, p 61.
20. C.H. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960 (Voortrekkerpers Beperk, Johannesburg, 1960), pp 8-82.         [ Links ]
21. Rautenbach (red.), AdDestinatum 1908-1960, p 48.
22. J. Fisher, The Afrikaners (Cassell, London, 1969), pp 198, 200;         [ Links ] H. Giliomee, The Afrikaners (Tafelberg, Cape Town, 2003), pp 268-272;         [ Links ] W.K. Hancock, Smuts. The Sanguine Years 1970-1919 (University Press, Cambridge, 1969), p 360;         [ Links ] Mouton (ed), History, Historians and Afrikaner Nationalism, pp 21-22; J.D. Omer-Cooper, History of Southern Africa (James Currey Ltd, London, 1987), pp 148-149;         [ Links ] F.A. van Jaarsveld, Van Van Riebeeck tot Verwoerd 1652-1966 (Voortrekkerpers Beperk, Johannesburg, 1971), p 211;         [ Links ] F. Welsh, South Africa. A narrative history (Kodansha America, New York, 1999), p 344.         [ Links ]
23. Fisher, The Afrikaners, pp 198, 200.
24. Fisher, The Afrikaners, p 266.
25. Hancock, Smuts, p 360; Mouton (ed), History, Historians and Afrikaner Nationalism, pp 21-22; Pretoria News, 12 September 1922 (Fouling our own nest. Facts about the TUC).
26. Professor Brookes was a stauch republican who supported South Africa's independence from the British Empire and felt that the annexation of the two Boer republics by Britain in 1900 was an international outrage.
27. Rand Daily Mail, 1 July 1932 (To the Editor).
28. UPA: B-5-1-1: Minutes of the 135th Ordinary Monthly Meeting of Senate held on Wednesday, the 13th of June 1923; UPA: B-5-1-1: Minutes of an Adjourned Meeting of Senate held on Wednesday the 20th of June 1923.
29. UPA: B-5-1-1: Minutes of an Adjourned Meeting of Senate held on Wednesday the 20th of June 1923.
30. Rand Daily Mail, 1 July 1932 (To the Editor).
31. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, pp 48-73; Rand Daily Mail, 27 June 1932 (A poor look-out for learning); Rand Daily Mail, 1 July 1932 (To the Editor); Hancock, Smuts, pp 176-179; Mouton (ed), History, Historians and Afrikaner Nationalism, pp 21-22.
32. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, p 48.
33. Steyn, "Die voertaalvraagstuk aan die Suid-Afrikaanse universiteite", pp 238-239.
34. UPA: B-5-1-1: Copy of circular from Under Secretary for Education - The Medium of Instruction at University Colleges, 1918.
35. Rand Daily Mail, 10 April 1920 (South African University. Remarkable development of the colleges).
36. Steyn, "Die voertaalvraagstuk aan die Suid-Afrikaanse universiteite", pp 238-239.
37. Giliomee, The Afrikaners, pp 379-381.
38. Minutes of the 91st Monthly Meeting of the Transvaal University College Council, held in Sir John Wessels' Chambers on Tuesday, the 7th of May 1918, at 4.30 pm, aangehaal in Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, p 51.
39. J.D. Omer-Cooper, History of Southern Africa (James Currey Ltd, London, 1987), pp 165-166;         [ Links ] Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, pp 52-53.
40. Prof. Malherbe also published a booklet entitled "Skeikundige Terminologie" in April 1918 to help students who came from English medium schools, a chemistry textbook in Afrikaans and in 1932 an Afrikaans-English dictionary for Natural Sciences and Mathematics - Skakelblad, 2, 3, Oktober 1955, p 29.
41. Skrywer onbekend, "Besware teen die gees van onse eeu", TUK Studenteblad/TUC Students' Magazine, 2, 3, Junie/June 1918, p 20; Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, p 50.
42. UPA: D-6-5-1-6-22: UP Argief Alumniversameling: Brief van W.J. du P. Erlank, 21 September 1974.
43. Due to the animosity towards them from Afrikaner Nationalist quarters, both Professor Brooks and Professor Fouché resigned from the University of Pretoria, respectively in 1933 and 1934.
44. Mouton (ed), History, Historians and Afrikaner Nationalism, p 12.
45. Skrywer onbekend, "Besware teen die gees van onse eeu", TUK Studenteblad/TUC Students' Magazine, 2, 3, Junie/June 1918, p 19.
46. UPA: B-5-1-1: Minutes of an Special Meeting of Senate held on 25th of October 1918.
47. Pretoria News, 8 August 1919 (Peace Celebrations. Pretoria's successful effort).
48. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, p 52.
49. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, p 52; UPA: B-5-1-1: Minutes of a Special Meeting of the Senate held in the Board Room at 2.30 pm on Wednesday the 27th of August 1919; UPA: B-4-1-1: Minutes of the 106th Monthly Meeting of the Transvaal University College Council, held in the Mayor's Parlour on Thursday the 22nd of August 1919, at 4.30 pm; Pretoria News, 12 August 1919 (Mutilating the Union Jack); Pretoria News, 14 August 1919 (Mutilating the Union Jack); Pretoria News, 15 August 1919 (The Union Jack).
50. UPA: D-6-5-1-6-22: UP Argief Alumniversameling: Brief van W.J. du P. Erlank, 21 September 1974.
51. An advertisement in the Cape Times of February 1932 read: "The only FULLY BILINGUAL university institution in South Africa" and an article in the Pretoria News of 16 February 1932, with the heading "An Experiment in Conciliation", stated that: "Within its [University of Pretoria] walls young Briton and young Afrikaner can meet and, without sacrificing one iota of aught of worth in either."
52. At the 1928 Initiation Social the Mayor, Councillor C.M. de Vries, gave his speech in English. His reason was that at a recent function at Sonop he had spoken in Afrikaans and he wished to meet the criticisms of all objectors. "Some detractors said that the TUC was purely English ... while others described it as anti-British. In reality it was neither; the professors were endeavouring to instil the principles of the League of Nations into these young men, to make of this University a meeting ground for Dutch and English, and to teach them to respect each other. The lads who came there were sportsmen or if they were not so when they joined, they soon became sportsmen and they learned to pick their teams on non-racial lines. This University will, in my opinion, become one of the greatest factors in South Africa in settling the racial question." - Pretoria News, 12 March 1928 (TUC Initiation. Rector deprecates criticism from outside).
53. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, p 68.
54. Pretoria News, 19 September 1922 ("Language and the TUC. Students' scheme. Bilingualism: the ideal).
55. UPA: D-11-3-2-2: Buitemuurse notule 13 April 1932; Pretoria News, 10 September 1932 (Students' Views. "Disservice to Afrikaans youth"); Pretoria News, 13 September 1932 (The Students' View).
56. Interview with Mrs J. Claassens (neé Wessels), Pretoria, 2 April 2006; Interview with Mrs L.T. Groenewald, Pretoria, 12 April 2006.
57. Pretoria News, 26 May 1932; Pretoria News, 10 September 1932 (Students' Views. "Disservice to Afrikaans youth"); Interview with Mrs J. Claassens (neé Wessels), Pretoria, 2 April 2006.
58. Pretoria News, 16 February 1932 (The University of Pretoria. An Experiment in Conciliation); S.J.C. Wessels & S.F.G. Wessels, Die nageslag van Jan Wessels (S.F.G. Wessels, Stellenbosch, 1999).
59. Rand Daily Mail, 13 September 1932 (Afrikaans only. Pretoria Students' Bit Protest).
60. J.C. Steyn, Taalstryd aan die Grey Universiteitskollege, p 99; Interview with Mrs J. Claassens (neé Wessels), Pretoria, 2 April 2006.
61. UPA: D-11-3-2-2: Buitemuurse Studenteraad Notules/Extra Mural Students' Representative Council Minutes of Meetings 1932; Rand Daily Mail, 13 September 1932 (Afrikaans only. Pretoria Students' Bit Protest).
62. Author unknown, "South Africa and the Africander", The TUC Students Magazine/Studenteblad van die TUK, 1, 1, November 1912, pp 14-17; Pretoria News, 16 February 1932 (The University of Pretoria. An Experiment in Conciliation).
63. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, pp 8-82.
64. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, p 54.
65. Steyn, "Die voertaalvraagstuk aan die Suid-Afrikaanse universiteite", pp 243-245.
66. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, pp 48-68.
67. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, p 54.
68. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, pp 55-58.
69. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, p 54.
70. UPA: A-7-1-1: Letter of Professor J.E. Holloway to Professor A.N. Pelzer.
71. UPA: A-7-1-1: Letter of Professor J.E. Holloway to Professor A.N. Pelzer.
72. An example is the case of the History Department where up to 1923, Professor L. Fouché was the only lecturer. He also had to lecture in Ethics, Logics, Psycology and Political Science. Because his health suffered seriously under the workload, another lecturer was appointed in 1923 and therefore the duplication of lectures could be justified.
73. Sunday Times, 22 February 1920 (Transvaal University College Munificent Donations); Cape Times, February 1921 (Tranvaal University. Progress in 1920).
74. UPA: D-6-5-1-6-22: UP Argief Alumniversameling: Brief van W.J. du P. Erlank, 21 September 1974.
75. In a visit to the country after his emigration to New Zealand, he was quoted in a newspaper interview as saying that South Africa was still a terrible country for politics - Pretoria News, 4 April 1928 (Professor Paterson on New Zealand).
76. UPA: D-6-5-1-6-22: UP Argief Alumniversameling: Brief van W.J. du P. Erlank, 21 September 1974.
77. Van der Watt, Rectores Magnifici, pp 19-25; Die Volkstem, 22 September 1928 (TUK se nuwe rektor. Verrassing vir professore. Prof. A.C. Paterson benoem).
78. Mouton (ed), History, Historians and Afrikaner Nationalism, p 21; Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, pp 48-58.
79. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, pp 55-56.
80. UPA: B-5-1-1: Minutes of an Special Meeting of Senate held on the 21st of May 1918, to consider Deputation re Language question.
81. UPA: B-5-1-1: Minutes of an Special Meeting of Senate held on the 21st of May 1918, to consider Deputation re Language question.
82. UPA: B-5-1-1: Minutes of an Special Meeting of Senate held on the 21st of May 1918, to consider Deputation re Language question.
83. UPA: B-5-1-1: Minutes of an Special Meeting of Senate held on the 21st of May 1918, to consider Deputation re Language question.
84. Steyn, "Die voertaalvraagstuk aan die Suid-Afrikaanse universiteite", pp 239-241.
85. These measures are indicated in the TUC yearbooks. In 1923, Zoology lectures were still presented in English only, but notes, as well as practical work were available in Afrikaans. In 1925 Botany II and III were presented in Afrikaans only, but "notes will be supplied in English".
86. UPA: B-5-1-1: Minutes of a Meeting of the ad hoc Committee of Senate appointed to redraft the functions of the Rector, held in the Registrar's Office at 2.30 pm on Wednesday the 26th of September 1923.
87. Steyn, "Die taalstryd aan die Grey Universiteitskollege", pp 96-97.
88. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destination 1908-1960, pp 53-54; Steyn, "Die taalstryd aan die Grey Universiteitskollege", p 90.
89. UPA: B-5-1-1: Minutes of an Adjourned Meeting of Senate held on Wednesday the 20th of June 1923. "The policy of the College with regard to the medium of instruction is to subordinated considerations of medium to the maintenance of the highest possible efficiency in the work of the College, but subject to this to do all it can to meet the legitimate claims of both sections of the population. The granting of further facilities for instruction in either medium is entirely dependent on the provision of further funds. The College is prepared to duplicate lectures in any subject, if funds, specially earmarked for the purpose are made available by the public."
90. Pretoria News, 10 September 1932 (Students' Views. "Disservice to Afrikaans youth").
91. Pretoria News, 10 September 1932 (Students' Views. "Disservice to Afrikaans youth"); Rand Daily Mail, 13 September 1932.
92. Pretoria News, 10 September 1932 (Students' Views. "Disservice to Afrikaans youth").
93. Rand Daily Mail, 13 September 1932 (Pretoria faces a crisis).
94. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, pp 56-71.
95. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, p 57.
96. Pretoria News, 27 May 1929 (The TUC and Pretoria).
97. Pretoria News, no specific date 1932 (High cost and large deficits, Unnecessary Duplication of University Facilities) - Statistics showed that the fees at Pretoria were almost 45 per cent higher than at Wits, due to duplication.
98. Van der Watt, Rectores Magnifici, pp 44-59.
99. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, p 58.
100. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, p 57.
101. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, p 57.
102. Pretoria News, 5 June 1929 (TUC Rectorship - Students' unprecedented action); Sunday Times, 16 June 1929 (Students in state of revolt. Bitter feeling towards TUC Senate); Pretoria News, 19 June 1929 (Students reply to Senate. TUC rumpus).
103. For example he opened the mail of lecturers he did not like and even spread false rumours about people - Van der Watt, Rectores Magnifici, p 56; UPA: D-6-5-1-6-22: UP Argief Alumniversameling: Brief van G.W. Schilz, 21 September 1974.
104. UPA: D-11-3-2-2: Buitemuurse Studenteraad Notule 13 April 1932; Pretoria News, 10 September 1932 (Students' Views. "Disservice to Afrikaans youth"); Pretoria News, 13 September 1932 (The Students' View).
105. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, p 57.
106. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, pp 61-62; Pretoria News, 16 November 1931 ("War, Wine and Women" - Striking book by a Pretorian); Volkstem, 1 April 1932 (Boek wat die Afrikaner belaster); Volkstem, 1 April 1932 ('n Walglike boek); Rand Daily Mail, 5 April 1932 ("War, Wine and Women" - A book gives offence).
107. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, pp 61-62; Pretoria News, 27 May 1932 (In a nursing home. Prof H.P. Lamont); Rand Daily Mail, 24 May 1932 (Tar and feather outrage); Die Vaderland, 8 Junie 1932 (Skrywer: War, Wine and Women); Rand Daily Mail, 8 June 1932 (Professor Lamont gives evidence).
108. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, p 60.
109. Rand Daily Mail, 9 June 1932.
110. Pretoria News, 25 May 1932 ("War, Wine and Women" - Ex-Mayor calls for action); Pretoria News, 26 May 1932 (To the Editor of the "News"); Rand Daily Mail, 26 May 1932 (Union Prestige Lowered. The outrage on Professor Lamont); Rand Daily Mail, 26 May 1932 (Back to the Dark Ages. Every code of freedom violated).
111. Pretoria News, 25 June 1932 (No Confidence. Dissension in University Circles).
112. Pretoria News, 10 September 1932 (Students' Views. "Disservice to Afrikaans youth").
113. Pretoria News, 10 September 1932 (Students' Views. "Disservice to Afrikaans youth").
114. In 1922 Professor E.H. Brookes published a volume of poetry, and in 1926 he delivered a lecture in which he described England as the "foe to liberty" and openly professed his republican views. In the press, numerous letters were published in which people voiced their dissatisfaction with this, but from the University's side no action was taken against him and his publication was considered to be separate from the University and in the spirit of individual freedom. Pretoria News, 27 September 1922(Political Propaganda and Poetry. Tendencies at the TUC. Lecturer demands a republic); Pretoria News, 1 October 1922 (Poetry, Republics and sentiment. To Mr. E.H. Brookes. An open letter); Pretoria News, 4 March 1926 (The sad case of Prof. Brookes); Pretoria News, 4 March 1926 (South Africa and the Outer World. The Dissertations of Professor Brookes); Grundlingh, "Politics, Principles and Problems", pp 1-19.
115. Die Vaderland, 25 Junie 1932 (Oproep tot stortings in Pro Patria-fonds); Pretoria News, 25 June 1932 (The University of Pretoria); Rand Daily Mail, 27 June 1932 (Professors to the front. Subscriptions for fines).
116. Pretoria News, no date; Pretoria News, 25 June 1932 (The University of Pretoria); Pretoria News, 2 September 1932 (Stellenbosch of the North. Pretoria University Campaign).
117. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, pp 63-64; Rand Daily Mail, 18 May 1932 (Trouble in Pretoria University. Professors in two camps); Rand Daily Mail, 19 May 1932 (University Trouble. For and against the Rector).
118. Pretoria News, 19 May 1932 (Senate battle ends in a draw).
119. Van der Watt, Rectores Magnifici, pp 44-59.
120. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, pp 66-68; Rand Daily Mail, 2 September 1932 (Pretoria University and Afrikaans); Die Vaderland, 14 September 1932 (Univ. Pretoria slaan nuwe koers in); Rand Daily Mail, 14 September 1932 (An Afrikaans University); Pretoria News, 14 September 1932 (The University Decides); Pretoria News, 14 September 1932 ("For he's a jolly good fellow." Rector carried shoulder high).
121. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, p 49.
122. Hancock, Smuts, pp 238-240.
123. Technology and mining would be situated in Johannesburg, Agriculture at Frankenwald and Arts and Science in Pretoria.
124. The Star, 28 November 1907.
125. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, p 8.
126. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, p 8.
127. Hancock, Smuts, pp 233-238; Van der Merwe (ed), Looking at the Afrikaner today, p 19.
128. Hancock, Smuts, pp 178, 361.
129. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, pp 8-9.
130. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, pp 11-13.
131. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, p 48.
132. D.M. Joubert, "Generaal Smuts by UP vereer", Tukkie-werf, 4, 1988, p 14.         [ Links ]
133. Smuts drafted and presented the draft bill on 7 April 1910 at the last sitting of the Transvaal Parliament, which would lead to the establishment of two separate institutions in Johannesburg and Pretoria and a national Agricultural College, later the Faculty of Agriculture at UP.
134. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, p 26.
135. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, p 26.
136. The growth of Afrikaner nationalism from 1938 onwards, also at UP, and the Second World War (1939-1945), caused a deep rift between Afrikaners of differing political viewpoints, which strained the university authorities' relationship with Smuts - Joubert, "Generaal Smuts by UP vereer", p 15.
137. Pretoria News, 11 October 1937 (Laying of foundation stone of university library. General Smuts refers to importance of language study).
138. Hancock, Smuts, pp 238-240.
139. B. Friedman, Smuts. A reappraisal (Hugh Keartland Publishers, Johannesburg, 1975), p 82; Giliomee, The Afrikaners, pp 261-264. In Ad Destinatum (pp 8-9) he is critised for playing on the emotions of the Afrikaner when in a speech held in Boksburg in 1907, he stated that he deplored the fact that the children in the Transvaal had to attend schools in the Orange Free State or Cape Provice to receive proper secondary and tertiary education, but less than a month later he was quite willing to yield to the will of the English-speaking population by agreeing that the TUC Council would become trustees of the Beit inheritance of £200 000 and the farm Frankenwald.
140. Friedman, Smuts, p 15.
141. Friedman, Smuts, pp 15-17; Hancock, Smuts, p 240.
142. Fisher, The Afrikaners, pp 199-204.
143. Van der Merwe (ed), Looking at the Afrikaner today, p 21.
144. The Afrikaans cartoonist T.O. Honniball portrayed this feeling, which was shared by a large section of the Afrikaans-speaking population, in a cartoon entitled Die Jingo-Orkes. Smuts is portrayed as a conductor who waves away a young Afrikaner woman in Voortrekker dress who wants to honour Afrikaner heroes with her song, because his orchestra, made up of a strange mix of not very pleasant-looking musicians, only plays overseas music -Fisher, The Afrikaners, next to p 222.
145. Friedman, Smuts, pp 97-98.
146. Joubert, "Generaal Smuts by UP vereer", pp 14-16.
147. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, pp 8-9.
148. This excluded students registered for Veterinary Science. Due to the fact that this was the only Faculty for Veterinary Science in the country, accommodation had to be made for English-speaking students.
149. UPA: D-1-13: University of South Africa, Transvaal University College Pretoria, Register of Internal Students, 1924-1936.
150. Steyn, "Die taalstryd aan die Grey Universiteitskollege", p 115.
151. Steyn, "Die taalstryd aan die Grey Universiteitskollege", p 114; Interview with Mrs J. Claassens (neé Wessels), Pretoria, 2 April 2006.
152. Pretoria News, 2 September 1932 (Stellenbosch of the North. Pretoria University campaign).
153. Die Vaderland, 15 Junie 1932 (Waarom dit gaan).
154. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, pp 70-71.
155. Pretoria News, 26 October 1932 (University Policy. Dissatistaction of Donors); Star, 1 December 1933 (Grant to Pretoria University. The City Council's Attitude); Pretoria News, 8 December 1933 (City Council and University. Grant not to be paid).
156. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, pp 70-71; Rand Daily Mail, 14 December 1933 (The Pretoria Grant. Reconciliation possible).
157. Rand Daily Mail, 24 October 1932 ("Don't give offence" Mr. O. Pirow at Pretoria); Pretoria News, 24 October 1932 (University of Pretoria. "Not Anti-English").
158. Mouton (ed), History, Historians and Afrikaner Nationalism, pp 27, 29; Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, p 87.
159. Mouton (ed), History, Historians and Afrikaner Nationalism, pp 27, 29; Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, p 87.
160. Mouton (ed), History, Historians and Afrikaner Nationalism, pp 27, 29.
161. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, p 87.
162. Rautenbach (red.), Ad Destinatum 1908-1960, p 87.
163. Pretoria News, 16 February 1932 (The University of Pretoria. An Experiment in Conciliation).

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