SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.52 issue1A new name for the illegitimate later homonym Leonotis capensis (Benth.) J.C. Manning & Goldblatt (Lamiaceae: Lamioideae)New identifications of Lamiaceae (Lamioideae and Scutellarioideae) from D.R. Congo, Rwanda and Burundi author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand

Article

Indicators

Related links

  • On index processCited by Google
  • On index processSimilars in Google

Share


Bothalia - African Biodiversity & Conservation

On-line version ISSN 2311-9284
Print version ISSN 0006-8241

Bothalia (Online) vol.52 n.1 Pretoria  2022

http://dx.doi.org/10.38201/btha.abc.v52.i1.8 

NOMENCLATURAL NOTE

 

New combinations in Crystallopollen Steetz (Asteraceae: Vernonieae), the correct name for the illegitimate Polydora Fenzl ex H.Rob.

 

 

John C. ManningI, II; Rafaël GovaertsIII

ICompton Herbarium, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Private Bag X7, Claremont 7735, South Africa
IIResearch Centre for Plant Growth and Development, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, South Africa
IIIJodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond TW9 3AE, United Kingdom

Correspondence

 

 


ABSTRACT

Polydora Fenzl (1844) is recognised to be a nomen nudum that was only validly published by Robinson (1999). The inclusion by Robinson (1999) of the earlier validly published Crystallopollen Steetz ([in Peters] 1864) as a synonym however, rendered Polydora Fenzl ex H.Rob. (1999) superfluous and so illegitimate. Crys-tallopollen Steetz ([in Peters] 1864) is therefore the correct name for the genus as circumscribed by Robinson (1999) and later authors. Only one of the names currently accepted in Polydora has a combination in Crystallopollen and the necessary additional combinations are provided here for C. bainesii (Oliv. & Hiern) J.C.Manning, C. chloropappum (Baker) J.C.Manning, C. jelfiae (S.Moore) J.C.Man-ning, C. mbalense (G.V.Pope) J.C.Manning, C. rhodesiana (S.Moore) J.C.Manning, C. serratuloides (DC.) J.C.Manning and C. sylvicola (G.V.Pope) J.C.Manning.

Keywords: Africa; classification; illegitimate superfluous name; nomenclature; nomen nudum; taxonomy.


 

 

Introduction

The genus Polydora Fenzl (1844) (Asteraceae: Vernonieae) is one of twelve segregates of Vernonia Schreb. that were recognised by Robinson et al. (2016) in their synopsis of the southern African members of the tribe Vernonieae. It comprises mostly annual herbs with L-shaped or asymmetrically T-shaped hairs on the stems, a 6- or 7-seriate involucre of acute to awned bracts and lophate, pantoporate pollen (Robinson et al. 2016; Swelankomo et al. 2018). The generic circumscriptions adopted by Robinson et al. (2016) followed his earlier conclusion (Robinson 1999) that Vernonia in the narrow sense was restricted to the Western Hemisphere, and that the African and Asian taxa previously included in it had to be removed to other genera in order to render it monophyletic.

The revised classification proposed by Robinson (1999) was adopted for the southern African flora by Herman and Swelankomo (2011), who provided a nomenclator for the flora of the region. This was superseded by the more comprehensive synopsis provided by Robinson et al. (2016). None of these three accounts included critical taxonomic assessments of the species themselves. These have now been provided for some of the genera, viz. Distephanus Cass. (Swelankomo & Manning 2014), Gymnanthemum Cass. (Swelankomo et al. 2016a), Hilliardiella H.Rob. (Swelankomo et al. 2016b) and most recently Polydora Fenzl (Swelankomo et al. 2018).

It has since emerged that the generic name Polydora was not validly published by Fenzl (1844) and that the earliest available name for the genus is Crystallopollen Steetz ([in Peters] 1864). We examine this issue here and summarise the nomenclature, as well as providing several new combinations in Crystallopollen for taxa currently recognised in Polydora.

 

Materials and methods

Nomenclatural decisions follow the latest version of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Shenzhen Code) (Turland et al. 2018). The list of species accepted in Polydora follows that provided by Robinson (1999) and Swelankomo et al. (2018) with additions from Pope (1992).

 

Results and nomenclature

The generic name Polydora was published by Fenzl (1844) in a checklist as the simple binomial P. stoechad-ifolia, and was thus not validly published here, as it lacked an accompanying description or reference to such a description (Turland et al. 2018: ICN, Art. 38.1). The binomial P. stoechadifolia Fenzl (1844) is likewise a nomen nudum. This name is currently regarded as a synonym of P. serratuloides (DC.) H.Rob. (1999).

Robinson (1999) overlooked the fact that Polydora was not validly published, and his description of the genus constitutes its valid publication, and it is thus to be attributed to him. In a further complication, his inclusion of the earlier validly published Crystallopollen Steetz ([in Peters] 1864) as a synonym, which should have been adopted as the earliest available name, renders Polydora Fenzl ex Robinson (1999) an illegitimate superfluous name (Turland et al. 2018: ICN, Art. 52.7).

Crystallopollen Steetz ([in Peters] 1864) was published for the two species C. angustifolium Steetz and C. latifo-lium Steetz, without the designation of a type. The citation by Robinson (1999) of C. angustifolium as the type of Crystallopollen is thus to be regarded as designation of that species as the type (Turland et al. 2018: ICN Art. 70.2). The combination of this name in Polydora was also provided by Robinson (1999). The second species, C. latifolium, is the type of Vernoniastrum H.Rob. (1999).

The generic name Crystallopollen Steetz is thus the earliest available name for the group of species treated as Polydora by Robinson (1999) and later authors. Unfortunately, only one of the several species that are currently included in the genus has a combination in Crystallopollen and we therefore provide the necessary combinations here. Typification of the names is provided in Pope (1986) and Swelankomo et al. (2018).

Crystallopollen Steetz in Peters, Naturw. Reise Mos-sambique 6(Bot., 2): 363 (1864). Type species: C. angustifolium Steetz, designated by Robinson: 232 (1999). Polydora Fenzl ex H.Rob. in Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 112(1): 232 (1999), nom. illeg. superfl. pro Crystallopollen Steetz ([in Peters] 1864); Robinson et al.: 103 (2016); Swelankomo et al.: 336 (2018). Type: P. stoechadifolia Fenzl, nom. nud. = P. serratuloides (DC.) H.Rob. [Polydora Fenzl in Flora 27: 312 (1844), nom. nud., without description]

C. angustifolium Steetz in Peters, Naturw. Reise Mos-sambique 6 (Bot., 2): 366 (1864). Polydora angusti-folia (Steetz) H.Rob. in Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 112(1): 232 (1999); Swelankomo et al.: 336 (2018). Vernonia erinacea H.Wild in Kirkia 11: 2 (1978) as nom. nov., non V. angustifolia Michx. (1803).

Vernonia poskeana Vatke & Hildebrandt in Oesterr. Bot. Zeit. 25: 324 (1875). Polydora poskeana (Vatke & Hildebrandt) H.Rob. in Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 112(1): 233 (1999).

Vernonia steetziana Oliv. & Hiern in Oliv., Fl. Trop. Afr. 3: 273 (1877). Polydora steetziana (Oliv. & Hiern) H.Rob. in Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 112(1): 233 (1999).

C. bainesii (Oliv. & Hiern) J.C.Manning, comb. nov. Vernonia bainesii Oliv. & Hiern in Oliv., Fl. Trop. Afr. 3: 272 (1877). Polydora bainsii (Oliv. & Hiern) H.Rob. in Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 112(1): 232 (1999).

C. chloropappum (Baker) J.C.Manning, comb. nov. Vernonia chloropappa Baker in Bull. Misc. Inf. 1898: 146 (1898). Polydora chloropappa (Baker) H.Rob. in Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 112(1): 233 (1999).

C. jelfiae (S.Moore) J.C.Manning, comb. nov. Vernonia jelfiae S.Moore in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 47: 262 (1925). Polydora jelfiae (S.Moore) H.Rob. in Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 112(1): 233 (1999).

C. mbalense (G.V.Pope) J.C.Manning, comb. nov. Vernonia mbalensis G.V.Pope in Kew Bull. 41: 395 (1986).

C. rhodesiana (S.Moore) J.C.Manning, comb. nov. Ver-nonia rhodesiana S.Moore in J. Bot. 64: 303 (1926).

C. serratuloides (DC.) J.C.Manning, comb. nov. Webbia serratuloides DC. in Prodr. 5: 72 (1836). Vernonia perrottetii Sch. Bip. ex Walp. in Repert. Bot. Syst. 2: 947 (1843), as nom. nov., non V. serratuloides Kunth (1818). Polydora serratuloides (DC.) H.Rob. in Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 112(1): 233 (1999). [Polydora stoechadifolia Fenzl, nom. nud.]

C. sylvicola (G.V.Pope) J.C.Manning, comb. nov. Vernonia sylvicola G.V.Pope in Kew Bull. 41: 395 (1986).

 

References

Baker, J.G., 1898, 'Diagnoses africanae 11: Vernonia', Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, 1898, 146-148.         [ Links ]

Candolle, A.P de, 1836, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis, vol. 5. Treuttel & Wurtz, Strasbourg and London.         [ Links ]

Fenzl, E., 1844, Aufzählung mehrerer neuen aethiopischen Pflanzen...etc.', Flora oder allgemeine botanische zeitung, 27, 309-312.         [ Links ]

Hermann, PPJ. & Swelankomo, N., 2011, 'Asteraceae: Vernonia (Tribe Vernonieae) and related genera in southern Africa: updates and corrections', Bothalia, 41(1), 176-178.         [ Links ]

Hildebrandt, J.M. & Vatke, W., 1875, 'Planto in itinere africana', Oesterreichische Botanische Zeitschrift, 25, 323-330.         [ Links ]

Kunth, C.S., 1818 ['1820'], Nova Genera et Species Plantarum, vol. 4. Maze, Paris.         [ Links ]

Michaux, A., 1803, Flora boreali-americana. Levrault, Paris and Strasbourg.         [ Links ]

Moore, S., 1925, 'A third contribution to the Compositae Flora of Africa', Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany, 47, 257-284.         [ Links ]

Moore, S., 1926, 'Notes on Dr F. Rand's Rhodesian Plants: Sympetalous Dicotyledons', Journal of Botany, British & Foreign, 64, 303-306.         [ Links ]

Oliver, D., 1877, Flora of tropical Africa, vol. 3. Reeve & Co., London.         [ Links ]

Peters, W.C.H., 1864, Naturwissenschaftliche Reise nach Mossambique 6(2), Botanik, Georg Reimer, Berlin.         [ Links ]

Pope, G.V., 1986, 'Vernonia chloropappa (Compositae) and related species in tropical Africa', Kew Bulletin, 41(2), 393-397.         [ Links ]

Pope, G.V., 1992, 'Compositae (Vernoniae)', Flora Zambesiaca, 6, 56-151.         [ Links ]

Robinson, H., 1999, 'Revisions in paleotropical Vernonieae (Asteraceae)', Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 112, 220-247.         [ Links ]

Robinson, H., Skvarla, J.J. & Funk, V.A., 2016, 'Vernonie-ae (Asteraceae) of southern Africa: A generic disposition of the species and a study of their pollen', PhytoKeys, 60, 49-126. https://doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.60.6734.         [ Links ]

Swelankomo, N. & Manning, J.C., 2014, 'The genus Di-stephanus (Asteraceae: Vernonieae) in southern Africa', South African Journal of Botany, 94, 238-248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2014.07.007.         [ Links ]

Swelankomo, N., Manning, J.C. & Magee, A.R., 2016a, 'The genus Gymnanthemum Cass. (Asteraceae: Vernonieae) in southern Africa', South African Journal of Botany, 102, 81101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2015.07.015.         [ Links ]

Swelankomo, N., Manning, J.C. & Magee, A.R., 2016b, 'The genus Hilliardiella (Asteraceae: Vernonieae) in southern Africa', South African Journal of Botany, 106, 41-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2016.05.010.         [ Links ]

Swelankomo, N., Simango, N. & Manning, J.C., 2018, 'The genus Polydora Fenzl (Asteraceae: Vernonieae) in southern Africa', South African Journal of Botany, 119, 335-339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2018.10.002.         [ Links ]

Turland, N.J., Wiersema, J.H., Barrie, F.R., Greuter, W., Hawk-sworth, D.L., Herendeen, P.S., Knapp, S., Kusber, W.-H., Li, D.-Z., Marhold, K., May, T.W., Mcneill, J., Monro, A.M., Prado, J., Price, M.J. & Smith, G.F. (eds.), 2018, International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Shenzhen Code) adopted by the Nineteenth International Botanical Congress Shenzhen, China, July 2017, Regnum Vegetabile 159, Koeltz Botanical Books, Glashütten. https://doi.org/10.12705/Code.2018.         [ Links ]

Walpers, G.G., 1843, 'Ordo CXIV Compositae', Repertorium Botanices Sytstematicae, 2, 944-993.         [ Links ]

Wild, H., 1977, 'The Compositae of the Flora Zambesiaca area 8-Vernonieae (Vernonia)', Kirkia, 11, 31-127.         [ Links ]

 

 

Correspondence:
John C. Manning
e-mail: J.Manning@sanbi.org.za

Submitted: 17 August 2021
Accepted: 12 May 2022
Published: 27 May 2022

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License