SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.46 issue1Habenaria kilimanjari newly recorded for NamibiaAnthophysa vegetans (O.F. Müller) Stein (Chrysophyceae), a new record from South Africa author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand



Related links

  • On index processCited by Google
  • On index processSimilars in Google


Bothalia - African Biodiversity & Conservation

On-line version ISSN 2311-9284
Print version ISSN 0006-8241

Bothalia (Online) vol.46 n.1 Pretoria  2016 



Nomenclatural adjustments in African plants 2



Peter GoldblattI, III; John C. ManningII, III

IB.A. Krukoff Curator of African Botany, Missouri Botanical Garden, United States
IICompton Herbarium, South African National Biodiversity Institute, South Africa
IIIResearch Centre for Plant Growth and Development, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa





BACKGROUND: Ongoing systematic studies in the African flora necessitate periodic nomenclatural adjustments and corrections.
OBJECTIVES: To effect requisite nomenclatural changes.
METHOD: Relevant literature was surveyed and type material located and examined.
RESULTS: Nomenclatural corrections are published in Mairia Nees (Asteraceae) and Psilosiphon Welw. ex Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, nom illeg. (Iridaceae).
CONCLUSIONS: Cineraria purpurata L. (1771) (Asteraceae) is recognised as the earliest name for Mairia hirsuta DC. (1836) and the new combination M. purpurata (L.) J.C.Manning is provided for the species. Psilosiphon Welw. ex Goldblatt & J.C.Manning (2015) (Iridaceae) is a later homonym for Psilosiphon Entwisle (1989). The replacement name Afrosolen Goldblatt & J.C.Manning is proposed and the necessary new combinations for the 16 taxa currently recognised in the genus are provided.



1. Cineraria purpurata L. is an earlier name for Mairia hirsuta DC. (Asteraceae: Astereae)

Author: John C. Manning
Received: 10 Aug. 2016
Accepted: 09 Sept. 2016



The identity of Cineraria purpurata L. (1771) has remained uncertain until now. It was described by Linnaeus from one of over 200 specimens of Cape plants sent to him by the Governor at the Cape, Rijk Tulbagh (1699-1771), appointed to the post in 1751. Tulbagh had an abiding interest in natural history, and letters in the Cape Archives attest that he regularly sent staff members of the Company's garden into the interior 'ter opsoeking en versameling van Planten, gewassen, kruidjen en Insecten' ['to search for and collect plants, crops, herbs and insects'] (Glenn & Germishuizen 2010). Although relatively detailed for the time, the description provided by Linnaeus (1771) was certainly not enough to identify the species on its own, and the name was subsequently included by De Candolle (1836) amongst the 11 species of Cineraria that were inadequately known to him. The name then disappeared from the botanical literature, and it is not cited by Harvey (1865) in his treatment of the family for the Flora capensis. It reappears as one of the species excluded from Cineraria L. by Cron et al. (2006) in their revision of the genus, where they lectotypify it against Tulbagh 44 in the Linnean Herbarium (LINN) but without further comment as to its identity. Although now linked to a specimen, the application of the name remained uncertain (Jarvis 2007) until we examined the type and recognised it as the species currently known as Mairia hirsuta DC.

The description of C. purpurata L. is relatively complete, including the habit [herbaceous with simple, sulcate stems] and foliage, with details of the leaf shape, margins and vestiture [alternate and basally congested, petiolate and obovate with revolute and subserrate or serrulate margins, the blade pubescent above and tomentose beneath], and comparative size [as large as those of Chrysanthemum leucanthum], the nature and approximate size of the inflorescence [pedunculate with a solitary head as large as that in Amellus] and the involucre [phyllaries free, subequal and pubescent], the colour of the rays [purple], and the observation that the pappus bristles are plumose (Figure 1). The combination of herbaceous habit, moderately large capitula with purple rays, and plumose pappus bristles is diagnostic of the genus Mairia Nees amongst southern African Asteraceae, and this identification is confirmed by examination of the lectotype (Figure 2). This small genus of six species endemic to the Cape Floristic Region of southern Africa is defined by its geophytic, scapose habit with mostly broad, leathery leaves, female-fertile ray florets with white or pink to purple limb, and ribbed cypselas with a biseriate pappus, the outer series of reduced barbellate or plumose bristles and the inner of plumose bristles (Herman & Zinnecker-Wiegand 2016).



The recent publication of a detailed revision of the genus Mairia by Herman and Zinnecker-Wiegand (2016) enables us to identify C. purpurata as conspecific with M. hirsuta. This Langeberg endemic is unique in the genus in having the alternately inserted leaves rather more loosely aggregated towards the base of the stem than in the other species, in which they are strictly rosulate. The margins are revolute and regularly crenate or crenate-serrate, and the blades are elliptic to obovate, and glabrous to loosely lanate above and densely or more sparsely lanate beneath. As the earlier name C. purpurata takes priority over M. hirsuta (McNeil et al. 2012:Art. 11.3), we provide the necessary new combination and synonymy below.

The date and collector of Tulbagh's C. purpurata remain unknown. Tulbagh sent a major expedition from Cape Town to the Eastern Cape in 1752, during which plants were collected by Hendrik Beenke of Celle, overseer of the Company's 'Schuur' [barn], and which would have passed along the foothills of the Langeberg, where the species is endemic. Alternatively, and in our opinion more likely, the species was collected by Johann Auge (1711-1805) on a more strictly botanical expedition. Auge was promoted to superintendent of the Company's Garden by Tulbagh, and given ample opportunity to visit distant parts of the colony in search of plants. His selection by the Swedish botanist Carl Thunberg (1743-1828) as guide on the latter's journey to the Eastern Cape in 1772-1773 presupposes Auge's familiarity with the route, indicating that he had travelled it before then, on which occasion/s he too would have had opportunity of collecting C. purpurata on the Langeberg. By this time Auge had accumulated a significant herbarium, part of which was purchased in 1764 and formed the basis of Bergius's Descriptiones plantarum ex Capite Bonae Spei (1767). At least some of these species were also described by Linnaeus in his Mantissa plantarum (1767).


Taxonomic treatment

Mairia purpurata (L.) J.C.Manning, comb. nov. Cineraria purpurata L., Mant. Pl. altera: 285 (1771). Type: South Africa, 'Cap. B. spei.', Tulbagh 44, Herb. Linn. No. 1000.26 [LINN, lecto.-image!, designated by Cron et al. (2006:529)].

Mairia hirsuta DC., Prodr. 5: 217 (1836), syn. nov. Zyrphelis hirsuta (DC.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. pl. 1: 374 (1891). Type: South Africa, Western Cape, 'Zwellendam, am Berge bei Puspasvlei, Voormansbosch, Duivelsbosch und am Fuss Keureboomrivier, Oct., Ecklon & Zeyher 3071 (G-DC, holo.-image!; K-image!, M, P-image!, NBG!, PRE!, S, SAM!, iso.).



Paul Herman confirmed the identification of Cineraria purpurata and suggested valuable corrections to the manuscript.

Competing interests

The author declares that he has no financial or personal relationships which may have inappropriately influenced him in writing this article.


2. Afrosolen Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, a new name for Psilosiphon Welw. ex Goldblatt & J.C.Manning (Iridaceae), with new combinations

Authors: Peter Goldblatt and John C. Manning
Received: 19 Oct. 2015
Accepted: 29 Jan. 2016



The name Psilosiphon Entwisle (1989), published for a genus of algae in the family Lemaneaceae (now Batrachospermaceae) predates Psilosiphon Welw. ex Goldblatt & J.C.Manning (2015), established for 15 species of tropical and southern Africa Iridaceae that were segregated from Lapeirousia Pourr (Goldblatt & Manning 2015). Although Psilosiphon Welw. was cited in synonymy under Lapeirousia by J.G. Baker (1878), it was validated only by Goldblatt & Manning (2015) and is thus an illegitimate homonym. We propose the new name Afrosolen for this genus of Iridaceae subfamily Crocoideae. The generic name reflects the tubular perianth of this widespread African genus (Greek solen = pipe).

New combinations are provided for the species recognized by Goldblatt & Manning (2015).


Taxonomic treatment

Note: Heterotypic synonyms are not included below but are presented in full by Goldblatt (1990) and Goldblatt & Manning (2015).

Afrosolen Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, nom. nov. pro Psilosiphon Welw. ex Goldblatt & J.C.Manning in Strelitzia 35: 108 (2015), nom. illeg. [non Psilosiphon Entwisle (1989)]. Type: P. sandersonii (Baker) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning.

A. abyssinicus (R.Br. ex A.Rich.) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, comb. nov. Geissorhiza abyssinica R.Br. ex A.Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 308 (1850). Lapeirousia abyssinica (R.Br. ex A.Rich.) Baker in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 16: 155 (1877). Psilosiphon abyssinicus (R.Br. ex A.Rich.) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning in Strelitzia 35: 137 (2015). Type. Ethiopia, 'Maigoigoi ad Dobre Sina', Quartin Dillon & Petit s.n. (P, lecto.! designated by Goldblatt: 459 (1990); P!; BR!, isolecto.).

A. avasmontanus (Dinter) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, comb. nov. Lapeirousia avasmontana Dinter in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni. Veg. 29: 256 (1931). Psilosiphon avasmontanus (Dinter) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning in Strelitzia 35: 114 (2015). Type: Namibia, Lichtenstein, Auas Mts., 20 Feb. 1923, Dinter 4454 (B, holo.!; GH!, S!, Z! (3 sheets), iso., K!, photo of specimen at B]).

A. bainesii (Baker) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, comb. nov. Lapeirousia bainesii Baker in J. Bot. 14: 338 (1876). Psilosiphon bainesii (Baker) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning in Strelitzia 35: 130 (2015). Type: Botswana, Kobe Pan [as 'inter Koobie et N Shaw valley'], Baines s.n. (K, lecto.!, effectively designated by N.E.Brown on specimen).

A. coeruleus (Schinz) Goldblatt & Manning, comb. nov. Lapeirousia coerulea Schinz in Verh. Bot. Vereins Prov. Brandenburg 31: 212-213 (1890). Psilosiphon coeruleus (Schinz) Goldblatt & Manning in Strelitzia 35: 121 (2015). Type: Namibia, (Upingtonia), Ombale, südost Ondonga, Mar. 1886, Schinz 13 (K, lecto.!, designated by Goldblatt: 445 (1990); COI!, isolecto.).

A. erongoensis (Goldblatt & J.C.Manning) Goldblatt & Manning, comb nov. Psilosiphon erongoensis Goldblatt & J.C.Manning in Strelitzia 35: 119 (2015). Type: Namibia, 2115 (Karibib): Erongo Mtns, western edge of the Erongo Mtns above Farm Ameib, (-DA), 27 Mar. 1976, Craven & Craven 115 (WIND, holo.!; PRE!, iso.).

A. erythranthus (Klotzsch ex Klatt) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, comb. nov. Ovieda erythrantha Klotzsch ex Klatt in Peters, Naturw. Reise Mossambique 6 (Bot., 2): 516, t. 58 (1864). Lapeirousia erythrantha (Klotzsch ex Klatt) Baker in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 16: 155 (1877). Psilosiphon erythranthus (Klotzsch ex Klatt) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning in Strelitzia 35: 123 (2015). Type: Mozambique, Boror, Caboceira, Peters s.n. (B, holo.!).

A. gracilis (Vaupel) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, comb. nov. Lapeirousia gracilis Vaupel in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 48: 548 (1912). Psilosiphon gracilis (Vaupel) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning in Strelitzia 35: 117 (2015). Type: Namibia, 'Great Namaqualand, Doorns', dolomite, 1 450 m, Mar. 1907, Range 292 (B, holo.-(K, photo!; M (fragment)!, iso.)

A. masukuensis (Vaupel & Schltr.) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, comb. nov. Lapeirousia masukuensis Vaupel & Schltr. in Vaupel in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 48: 543 (1912). Psilosiphon masukuensis (Vaupel & Schltr.) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning in Strelitzia 35: 126 (2015). Type: Mozambique, Inhambane: Masuku forest [Insilva Maseku], 10 Feb. 1898, Schlechter 12109 (B!, holo.; BR!, COI!, G, K!, P!, PRE!, SAM!, iso.).

A. otaviensis (R.C.Foster) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, comb. nov. Lapeirousia otaviensis R.C.Foster in Contrib. Gray Herb. 127: 45 (1939). Psilosiphon otaviensis (R.C.Foster) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning in Strelitzia 35: 128 (2015). Type: Namibia, Farm Auros near Otavi, 11 Feb. 1925, Dinter 5577 (GH, holo.; B!, G, PRE!, SAM!, Z(3 sheets)!, iso.).

A. rivularis (Wanntorp) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, comb. nov. Lapeirousia rivularis Wanntorp in Svensk Bot. Tidsk. 65: 53 (1971). Psilosiphon rivularis (Wanntorp) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning in Strelitzia 35: 119 (2015). Type: Namibia, Karibib, Ameib Ranch, ± 25 km NE of Usakos, granite kopje [koppie] south of track, ± 5 km east of farmhouse, 15 Apr. 1968, Wanntorp & Wanntorp 907 (S, holo.!; M!, iso.).

A. sandersonii (Baker) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, comb. nov. Lapeirousia sandersonii Baker, Handb. Irid.: 169 (1892). Psilosiphon sandersonii (Baker) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning in Strelitzia 35: 109 (2015). Type: South Africa, 'Transvaal', Sanderson s.n. [K, lecto.! designated by Goldblatt: 463 (1990)].

A. sandersonii subsp. limpopoensis (Goldblatt & J.C.Manning) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, comb. nov. Psilosiphon sandersonii subsp. limpopoensis Goldblatt & J.C.Manning in Strelitzia 35: 114 (2015). Type. South Africa, Limpopo, Waterberg, between Groothoek and Vaalwater, 1 000 m, 6 Jan. 1959, Werdermann & Oberdieck 1640 (PRE, holo.!; B!, BR!, GH!, K!, MO!, WAG!, iso.).

A. schimperi (Aschers. & Klatt) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, comb. nov. Tritonia schimperi Aschers. & Klatt in Klatt in Linnaea 34: 697 (1866). Acidanthera unicolor Hochst. ex Baker in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 16: 160 (1877), nom. illeg. superfl. pro Tritonia schimperi Aschers. & Klatt. Lapeirousia schimperi (Aschers. & Klatt) Milne-Redh. in Kew Bull. 1934: 307 (1934). Acidanthera schimperi (Aschers. & Klatt) R.C.Foster in Contrib. Gray Herb. 114: 42 (1936). Psilosiphon schimperi (Aschers. & Klatt) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning in Strelitzia 35: 133 (2015). Type: Ethiopia. Tigray: woods and thickets near Goelleb on the river Tacazze, 4000 ft [1 220 m], Schimper 2304 (B lecto.! designated by Goldblatt: 472 [1990] B!, G!, K!, P!, isolecto.).

A. setifolius (Harms) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, comb. nov. Lapeirousia setifolia Harms in Engler, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 30: 278 (1901). Lapeirousia erythrantha var. setifolia (Harms) Geerinck et al. in Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belg. 105: 337 (1972). Psilosiphon setifolius (Harms) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning in Strelitzia 35: 137 (2015). Type: Tanzania, Eastern Livingstone Mts, Ubena, Tsausingewe district, 2 100 m, March 1899, Goetze 812 (B, holo.!; BR!, E!, iso.).

A. teretifolius (Geerinck et al.) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, comb. nov. Lapeirousia erythrantha var. teretifolia Geerinck et al. in Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belg. 105: 342 (1972). Lapeirousia teretifolia (Geerinck et al.) Goldblatt in Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 77: 457 (1990). Psilosiphon teretifolius (Geerinck et al.) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning in Strelitzia 35: 137 (2015). Type: Zaire, Shaba, Plateau de la Manika, env. 2 km W de Katema, 20 Jan. 1969, Lisowski, Malaisse & Symoens 182 (LSHI, holo., BR!, BRVU, K!, POZG, iso.).

A. zambesiacus Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, comb. nov. Lapeirousia zambeziaca Goldblatt in S. Afr. J. Bot. 57: 226 (1991), nom. nov. pro L. angolensis Goldblatt in Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 77: 458 (1990), nom. illeg. [non L. angolensis (Baker) R.C.Foster (1899)]. Type: Angola, Moxico, a few miles west of R. Kaperu [Kapelu], boggy grassland, 10 Jan. 1938, Milne-Redhead 4037 (K, holo.!; BM!, BR!, LISC!, P!, PRE!, iso.).



We thank David Mabberley for his advice and help with selection of a new name for Psilosiphon.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no financial or personal relationships which may have inappropriately influenced them in writing this article.

Authors' contributions

Both authors, P.G. and J.C.M., collaborated on all aspects of the work.



Baker, J.G., 1876, 'New Gladioleae', Journal of Botany 14, 333-339.         [ Links ]

Baker, J.G., 1877 [as 1878], 'Systema Iridearum', Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 16, 61-180.

Baker, J.G., 1878, 'Report on the Liliaceae, Iridaceae, Hypoxidaceae, and Haemodoraceae of Welwitsch's Angolan herbarium', Transactions of the Linnean Society, London, Botany, ser. 2, 1, 245-273.         [ Links ]

Baker, J.G., 1892, Handbook of the Irideae, George Bell & Sons, London.         [ Links ]

Bergius, P.J., 1767, Prodromus plantarum ex Capite Bonae Spei, Salvius, Stockholm.         [ Links ]

Cron, G., Balkwill, K. & Knox, E.B., 2006, 'A revision of the genus Cineraria (Asteraceae, Senecioneae)', Kew Bulletin 61, 449-535.         [ Links ]

De Candolle, A.P., 1836, Compositae, 'Prodromus' 5, Teuttel & Würtz, Paris.         [ Links ]

Dinter, K., 1931, 'Diagnosen neuer südwestafrikanischer Pflanzen', Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 29, 253-256.         [ Links ]

Engler, A., 1901, 'Beiträge zur Flora von Afrika', Botanische Jahrbücher fur Systematik 30, 239-288.         [ Links ]

Entwisle, T.J., 1989, 'Psilosiphon scoparium gen. et sp. nov. (Lemaneaceae), a new red alga from south-eastern Australian streams', Phycologia 28, 469-475.         [ Links ]

Foster, R.C., 1936, 'Notes on nomenclature in Iridaceae', Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University 114, 37-50.         [ Links ]

Foster, R.C., 1939, 'Studies in the Iridaceae-1', Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University 127, 33-48.         [ Links ]

Geerinck, D., Lisowski, S., Malaisse, F. & Symones, J.J., 1972, 'Le genre Lapeirousia Pourr. (Iridaceae) au Zaïre', Bulletin de la Societé Royale de Botanique de Belgique 105, 333-351.         [ Links ]

Glenn, H.F. & Germishuizen, G., 2006, Botanical exploration of southern Africa, 2nd edn, Strelitzia 26, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.         [ Links ]

Goldblatt, P., 1990, 'Systematics of Lapeirousia (Iridaceae-Ixioideae) in tropical Africa', Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 77, 430-484.         [ Links ]

Goldblatt, P., 1991, 'Nomenclatural notes on African Iridaceae', South African Journal of Botany 57, 226.         [ Links ]

Goldblatt, P. & Manning, J.C., 2015, 'Systematics and biology of Lapeirousia, Codonorhiza, Psilosiphon and Schizorhiza', Strelitzia 35, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.         [ Links ]

Harvey, W.H., 1865, 'Compositae', Flora Capensis 3, 44-530.         [ Links ]

Herman, P.P.J. & Zinnecker-Wiegand, U., 2016, 'A taxonomic revision of the genus Mairia (Asteraceae, Astereae) in South Africa', South African Journal of Botany 105, 45-60.        [ Links ]

Jarvis, C., 2007, Order out of chaos: Linnaean plant names and their types, The Linnean Society of London, London.         [ Links ]

Klatt, F.W., 1866, 'Revisio Iridearum (Addenda, Emendata et Corrigenda)', Linnaea 34, 690-739.         [ Links ]

Linnaeus, C., 1771, Mantissa plantarum altera, Salvius, Stockholm.         [ Links ]

McNeil, J., Barrie, F.R., Buck, W.R., Demoulin, V., Greuter, W., Hawksworth, D.L., et al. (eds), 2012, International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (Melbourne Code): Adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011, Regnum Vegetabile 154, Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein.         [ Links ]

Milne-Redhead, E.W.B.H., 1934, 'Tropical African plants. XII', Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 1934, 301-307.         [ Links ]

Peters, W.C.H., 1864, 'Naturwissenschaftlike reise nach Mossambique', Botanik 6 (2).         [ Links ]

Richard, A., 1850, Tentamen Florae Abyssinicae, vol 2, Bertrand, Paris.         [ Links ]

Schinz, H., 1890, 'Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Flora von Deutsch-Südwest-Afrika und der angrenzenden Gebiete. IV', Verhandlungen des botanische Vereins der Provinz Brandenburg 31, 179-230.         [ Links ]

Vaupel, F., 1912, 'Iridaceae Africanae novae', Botanische Jahrbücher fur Systematik 48, 533-549.         [ Links ]

Wanntorp, H.E., 1971, 'Lapeirousia rivularis, a new species of Iridaceae from South West Africa', Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 65, 53-56.         [ Links ]



John Manning

Published: 02 Dec. 2016

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License