SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.46 issue2Shaped by place: Environmental influences on the participation of young cyclists from disadvantaged communities in professional cyclingExploring educator's perceptions of the challenges affecting grade one learners' academic performance in two low socio-economic schools author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand



Related links

  • On index processCited by Google
  • On index processSimilars in Google


South African Journal of Occupational Therapy

On-line version ISSN 2310-3833
Print version ISSN 0038-2337


VISSER, Marieta et al. In-hand manipulation (IHM) in children 6 and 7 years of age: A follow-up study. S. Afr. j. occup. ther. [online]. 2016, vol.46, n.2, pp.52-58. ISSN 2310-3833.

BACKGROUND AND AIM: No comprehensive, standardised measureing instruments with age-related norms, to evaluate all IHM components, are currently available, causing difficulty with regard to accurate assessment and intervention planning. This lack of a context-specific, valid and reliable measure in the field ofpaediatrics remains a challenge for South African occupational therapy clinicians The aim of this study was therefor to investigate the IHM skills in six- and seven-year-old children in Bloemfontein, South Africa. METHODS: A quantitative descriptive study was conducted by using video footage of each child in the study performing the activities on the Free State University In Hand Manipulation (FSU IHM) Checklist, and scoring their performance. RESULTS: One-hundred and fifty-eight children in the age group 6-7 years participated in the study. Results indicated that most children in both these age groups could perform translation, simple and complex rotation, and shift with stabilisation. However, complex rotation with stabilisation was more difficult for both age groups. Compensatory methods were mostly used in combination by both age groups. CONCLUSION: The results from this study could be combined with those obtained for four and five year children in a previous study, to develop base-line IHM standards for children aged four - seven years, to inform clinical decision making and practice. The Free State University In Hand Manipulation (FSU IHM) Checklist provides occupational therapists with a comprehensive, inexpensive instrument for the assessment of all IHM components, which is easily reproducible and quick to administer. The checklist is not yet generalisable to the South African population but can serve as an interim measure. Further development of the checklist is recommended.

Keywords : In-hand manipulation; assessment; translation; rotation; shift.

        · text in English     · English ( pdf )


Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License