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Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy

On-line version ISSN 2411-9717
Print version ISSN 2225-6253


SOQINASE, S.; STEENKAMP, J.D; DEN HOED, P.  and  WAGNER, N.. The effect of petrographically determined parameters on reductant reactivity in the production of high-carbon ferromanganese. J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. [online]. 2023, vol.123, n.2, pp.71-80. ISSN 2411-9717.

In pyrometallurgical processes, metal oxides are reduced from molten slag through carbothermic reduction. It is of interest to evaluate the reactivity of the carbonaceous materials towards substances such as slag. Characterization techniques such as coal petrography can provide insight into the influence of feed coal properties and how they potentially dictate reductant performance. This study aimed to compare the petrographically determined organic composition of coal to reductant reactivity. Two South African medium-rank C bituminous coals and one anthracite sample were investigated together with high-carbon ferromanganese industrial slag. The reductant reactivity tests were conducted at 1500°C in a muffle furnace to assess the potential of carbonaceous reductant in reacting with the main slag components. SEM-EDS was applied to understand the extent of MnO (and to a lesser extent, SiO2) reduction from the slag. Coal 2, consisting of a greater proportion of vitrinite (59.5 vol% on a mineral matter-free basis and 54.7 vol% including mineral matter) was the most reactive reductant. The anthracite sample, with the highest inert maceral proportions (71.8 vol% including mineral matter and 76.8 vol% on a mineral matter-free basis), was the least reactive reductant.

Keywords : reductant reactivity; MnO reduction; coal petrography; high-carbon ferromanganese slag.

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