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SA Journal of Industrial Psychology

On-line version ISSN 2071-0763
Print version ISSN 0258-5200


SCHAAP, Pieter  and  KOEKEMOER, Eileen. Determining the dimensionality and gender invariance of the MACE work-to-family enrichment scale using bifactor and approximate invariance tests. SA j. ind. Psychol. [online]. 2021, vol.47, n.1, pp.1-16. ISSN 2071-0763.

ORIENTATION: Uncertainty about which measurement model of the MACE work-to-family enrichment scale (MACE-W2FE) is best supported by the data called for clarification´. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The main aim of our study was to get clarity on the dimensionality of the MACE-W2FE. The secondary aim was to test for approximate invariance of the measure for gender groups. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Variations in the reported measurement models for the MACE-W2FE between studies are not conducive for theory development and called for clarification. Previous models reported were a multidimensional model and a second-order model. Approximate measurement invariance is a prerequisite for study differences between gender groups. RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: We did seek to resolve the problem by using bifactor model analysis, factor strength indices and local indicator misspecification analyses using a sample of 786 South African employees. Invariance was tested using the alignment optimisation method. MAIN FINDINGS: In this study, we solved a substantive research problem by determining that the data from the study best supported a single breadth factor or first-order factor model that was essentially unidimensional. The invariance tests across gender groups confirmed approximate configural, measurement and scalar invariances for the unidimensional model. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Researchers and practitioners may include the MACE-W2FE in studies as a single-aggregated score without negligible loss in measurement precision. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The extended confirmatory factor analyses we conducted proved valuable in resolving the MACE-W2FE's dimensionality vacillations, thereby enhancing the validity of inferences made from scale scores.

Keywords : bifactor analysis; gender invariance; scale dimensionality; factor strength indices; local indicator misfit analysis; approximate invariance testing; MACE work-to-family enrichment scale; work-family enrichment; method factors.

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