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South African Journal of Child Health

versão On-line ISSN 1999-7671
versão impressa ISSN 1994-3032

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GARBA, B I; MUHAMMAD, A S; OBASI, A B  e  ADENIJI, A O. Presentation and pattern of childhood renal diseases in Gusau, North-Western Nigeria. S. Afr. j. child health [online]. 2017, vol.11, n.2, pp.96-98. ISSN 1999-7671.  http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJCH.2017.v11i2.1222.

BACKGROUND. Studies from different parts of Nigeria and the world have reported variable patterns of renal diseases in childhood. There is a paucity of data to guide resource allocation in Zamfara, Nigeria, despite the rising incidence of kidney diseases in children in Nigeria, and globally. OBJECTIVES. To determine the prevalence, presentation, pattern, and outcomes of renal diseases among hospitalised children in Gusau, Zamfara State, Nigeria. METHODS. A retrospective study was conducted of children aged 1 month to 14 years, who were admitted to the paediatric wards of our hospital over a period of 30 months (October 2013 to March 2016). Relevant information was retrieved from the patients' medical records and data were analysed accordingly. RESULTS. A total of 2 658 children were admitted, of which 3.2% (n=84) had renal diseases; however, only 70 folders were utilised for the study. The male:female ratio was 1.19:1. Fever (63%), reduction in urine volume/frequency (46%), body swelling (43%) and abdominal pain (40%) were the most common symptoms. Hypertension (33%) and heart failure (17%) were common findings. Urinary tract infection (UTI) (34%), acute glomerulonephritis (AGN) (24%) and acute kidney injury (AKI) (20%) were the the most common diagnoses. Most of the children were discharged with good renal function and mortality was low (10%). CONCLUSIONS. The prevalence of renal disease in our setting was low, with males predominating. UTI was the most common cause of renal disease, requiring hospitalisation in Gusau, while congenital anomalies and malignancies were rare. These data could be utilised by researchers and stakeholders in resource-poor settings like ours to plan for preventive nephrology as UTI, AGN and AKI are largely preventable.

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