SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.44 issue4Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyl along the course of the Buffalo River, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, and possible health risksMonitoring water use efficiency of irrigated sugarcane production in Mpumalanga, South Africa, using SEBAL author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand



Related links

  • On index processCited by Google
  • On index processSimilars in Google


Water SA

On-line version ISSN 1816-7950
Print version ISSN 0378-4738


VAN DER MERWE, ISW  and  BRINK, IC. Development of a deterministic design model for a high-rate algal pond. Water SA [online]. 2018, vol.44, n.4, pp.612-623. ISSN 1816-7950.

Inadequate wastewater treatment is a major problem in South Africa. Existing wastewater treatment facilities often lack sufficient skilled labour, resulting in partially treated effluent. Increasing eutrophication in surface water bodies indicates that this problem needs rectification. The characteristics of the high-rate algal pond (HRAP) technology makes it an attractive option for effluent polishing in South Africa. It has the potential of simultaneous nutrient removal and nutrient recovery from partially treated effluent. A deterministic design model based on the mutualistic relationship between bacteria and algae in an HRAP was developed. The model includes kinetics of algae, ordinary heterotrophic organisms (OHOs), as well as ammonia-oxidising organisms (ANOs) and their interaction with organic compounds, nitrogen and phosphorus. After preliminary verifications, it was found that the deterministic model accurately represented the kinetics involved with the ammonia and nitrate/nitrite concentrations. However, it was also established that the major limitations of the deterministic model are its exclusion of phosphate precipitation and its failure to incorporate the production of particulate and soluble organics due to the respiration, excretion and mortality processes.

Keywords : high rate algal pond; HRAP; deterministic model; modelling; algae; nutrient removal; eutrophication prevention; effluent polishing.

        · text in English     · English ( pdf )


Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License